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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7500, 2022 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830103

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 pandemic came what media has deemed the "port congestion pandemic". Intensified by the pandemic, the commonplace anchoring of high-tonnage ships causes a substantial geomorphologial footprint on the seabed outside marine ports globally, but isn't yet quantified. We present the first characterisation of the footprint and extent of anchoring in a low congestion port in New Zealand-Aotearoa, demonstrating that high-tonnage ship anchors excavate the seabed by up to 80 cm, with the impacts preserved for at least 4 years. The calcuated volume of sediment displaced by one high-tonnage ship (> 9000 Gross Tonnage) on anchor can reach 2800 m3. Scaled-up globally, this provides the first estimates of the footprint of anchoring to the coastal seabed, worldwide. Seafloor damage due to anchoring has far-reaching implications for already stressed marine ecosystems and carbon cycling. As seaborne trade is projected to quadruple by 2050, the poorly constrained impacts of anchoring must be considered to avoid irreversible damage to marine habitats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ships , Ecosystem , Humans , New Zealand , Pandemics
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1956, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788286

ABSTRACT

The emergence of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants has created a need to reassess the risk posed by increasing social contacts as countries resume pre-pandemic activities, particularly in the context of resuming large-scale events over multiple days. To examine how social contacts formed in different activity settings influences interventions required to control Delta variant outbreaks, we collected high-resolution data on contacts among passengers and crew on cruise ships and combined the data with network transmission models. We found passengers had a median of 20 (IQR 10-36) unique close contacts per day, and over 60% of their contact episodes were made in dining or sports areas where mask wearing is typically limited. In simulated outbreaks, we found that vaccination coverage and rapid antigen tests had a larger effect than mask mandates alone, indicating the importance of combined interventions against Delta to reduce event risk in the vaccine era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Ships
3.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265216, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779750

ABSTRACT

A structural vector autoregressive model and spillover index analysis based on generalized prediction error variance decomposition were used to explore the impact of public health emergencies on the dry bulk shipping market and provide suggestions for addressing the impact of public health emergencies. Moreover, the risk fluctuation and spillover of the dry bulk shipping market during public health emergencies were analyzed to understand the ways in which public health emergencies impact the dry bulk shipping market and to quantify the impact intensity. In related studies, the influence of the international crude oil price index and dry bulk ship port berthing volume were also considered. The results show that considering the immediate impact, the increase of newly confirmed cases of COVID-19 has a significant impact on the dry bulk shipping market, which lasts for more than 3 weeks and is always a negative shock. Different types of public health emergencies have different effects on the dry bulk shipping segmented shipping market. Dry bulk shipping companies should fully understand the development of public health emergencies, make full use of risk aversion forecasting tools in financial markets and make deployments for different situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ships , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , Forecasting , Humans , Public Health
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 178: 113589, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763883

ABSTRACT

This work provides an insight into the external costs associated with ships which had been berthed in four Spanish ports before COVID-19 was on the agenda. Firstly, on a port-by-port level and by individual vessel types, as this can also provide valuable insights. The economic valuation is based on the combination of the significant bottom-up European studies which follow the impact pathway approach (IPA) to calculating costs from transport air emissions. Our results showed higher total external costs for Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (€74.4 m), followed by Tenerife (€20 m), Palma de Mallorca (€19.5 m) and Pasaia (€1.5 m). The external costs by shipping subsectors give more insights into the relationships between ship types and external costs. This has been done to correctly assign the responsibilities among the different shipping sectors inside a port and to better understand the potential benefits of implementing abatement technologies, such as cold ironing. Potential benefits from cold ironing were found to differ hugely among the different ports analysed.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Ships
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 10-20, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To improve understanding of SARS-CoV-2-transmission and prevention measures on cruise ships, we investigated a Norwegian cruise ship outbreak from July to August 2020 using a multidisciplinary approach after a rapid outbreak response launched by local and national health authorities. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among crew members using epidemiologic data and results from SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of nasopharynx-oropharynx samples, antibody analyses of blood samples, and whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS: We included 114 multinational crew members (71% participation), median age 36 years, and 69% male. The attack rate was 33%; 32 of 37 outbreak cases were seropositive 5-10 days after PCR. One PCR-negative participant was seropositive, suggesting a previous infection. Network-analysis showed clusters based on common exposures, including embarkation date, nationality, sharing a cabin with an infected cabin-mate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-11.07, p = 0.057), and specific workplaces (mechanical operations: 9.17 [1.82-45.78], catering: 6.11 [1.83-20.38]). Breaches in testing, quarantine, and isolation practices before/during expeditions were reported. Whole-genome sequencing revealed lineage B.1.36, previously identified in Asia. Despite extensive sequencing, the continued transmission of B.1.36 in Norway was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm the high risk of SARS-CoV-2-transmission on cruise ships related to workplace and cabin type and show that continued community transmission after the outbreak could be stopped by implementing immediate infection control measures at the final destination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunity , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Ships
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 490-497, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cruise travel contributed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission when there were relatively few cases in the United States. By 14 March 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a No Sail Order suspending US cruise operations; the last US passenger ship docked on 16 April. METHODS: We analyzed SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on cruises in US waters or carrying US citizens and used regression models to compare voyage characteristics. We used compartmental models to simulate the potential impact of 4 interventions (screening for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms; viral testing on 2 days and isolation of positive persons; reduction of passengers by 40%, crew by 20%, and reducing port visits to 1) for 7-day and 14-day voyages. RESULTS: During 19 January to 16 April 2020, 89 voyages on 70 ships had known SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks; 16 ships had recurrent outbreaks. There were 1669 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections and 29 confirmed deaths. Longer voyages were associated with more cases (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.17, P < .003). Mathematical models showed that 7-day voyages had about 70% fewer cases than 14-day voyages. On 7-day voyages, the most effective interventions were reducing the number of individuals onboard (43.3% reduction in total infections) and testing passengers and crew (42% reduction in total infections). All four interventions reduced transmission by 80.1%, but no single intervention or combination eliminated transmission. Results were similar for 14-day voyages. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on cruises were common during January-April 2020. Despite all interventions modeled, cruise travel still poses a significant SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Ships , Travel , United States/epidemiology
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 175: 113356, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683416

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the year-to-year variability in the occurrence, abundance and sources of oil spills in the Eastern Arabian Sea (EAS) using sentinel-1 imagery and identified the potential oil spills vulnerable zones. The four consecutive year's data acquired from 2017 to 2020 (March-May) reveal three oil spill hot spot zones. The ship-based oil spills were dominant over zone's-1 (off Gujarat) and 3 (off Karnataka and Kerala), and the oil field based over zone-2 (off Maharashtra). The abundance of oil spills was significantly low in zone-1, only 14.30km2 (1.2%) during lock-down due to the covid-19 pandemic. Whereas, the year-to-year oil spills over zone's 2 and 3 are not significantly varied (170.29 km2 and 195.01 km2), further suggesting the influence of oil exploration and international tanker traffic are in operation during the lock-down. This study further recommends that manual clustering is the best method to study the distribution of unknown oil spills.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Petroleum Pollution , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , India , Pandemics , Petroleum Pollution/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Ships
11.
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650933

ABSTRACT

The ability to retain and engage employees is now, more than ever, a major strategic issue for organizations in the context of a pandemic paired with a persistent labor shortage. To this end, teleworking is among the work organization conditions that merit consideration. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the direct and indirect effects of teleworking on work engagement and intention to quit, as well as the potential moderating effect of organizational and individual characteristics on the relationship between teleworking, work engagement, and intention to quit during the COVID-19 pandemic, based on a sample of 254 Canadian employees from 18 small and medium organizations. To address these objectives, path analyses were conducted. Overall, we found that teleworking, use of emotion, skill utilization, and recognition appear to be key considerations for organizations that wish to increase work engagement and decrease intention to quit, in the context of a pandemic paired with a labor shortage. Our results extend the literature by revealing the pathways through which teleworking, use of emotion, skill utilization, and recognition are linked to work engagement and intention to quit, and by suggesting specific interventions and formation plans that are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Work Engagement , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Ships , Teleworking
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 174: 113301, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620917

ABSTRACT

Motorized vessels are a major source of anthropogenic noise and can have adverse effects on species relying on sound for communication and feeding. Monitoring noise levels received by endangered southern resident killer whales (SRKWs) requires knowing the number, distance, and speed of surrounding vessels, including small boats that do not have Automatic Identification Systems (AIS). A method for estimating their speed is required to predict received noise levels and compliance with vessel regulations. We compared theodolite and photogrammetry methods to estimate the number, distance, and speed of vessels in SRKW Salish Sea summertime critical habitat. By treating AIS as "truth", we found photogrammetry-derived ranges and speeds were more variable than theodolite estimates. Error in photogrammetry-derived speeds increased with range. Overall, we found time saved in the field using photogrammetry was more than offset by long analysis time. Theodolite data were relatively easy to collect, and produced accurate and precise results.


Subject(s)
Whale, Killer , Animals , Ecosystem , Noise , Ships
15.
Euro Surveill ; 27(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613509

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCruise ships provide an ideal setting for transmission of SARS-CoV-2, given the socially dense exposure environment.AimTo provide a comprehensive review of COVID-19 outbreaks on cruise ships.MethodsPubMed was searched for COVID-19 cases associated with cruise ships between January and October 2020. A list of cruise ships with COVID-19 was cross-referenced with the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's list of cruise ships associated with a COVID-19 case within 14 days of disembarkation. News articles were also searched for epidemiological information. Narratives of COVID-19 outbreaks on ships with over 100 cases are presented.ResultsSeventy-nine ships and 104 unique voyages were associated with COVID-19 cases before 1 October 2020. Nineteen ships had more than one voyage with a case of COVID-19. The median number of cases per ship was three (interquartile range (IQR): 1-17.8), with two notable outliers: the Diamond Princess and the Ruby Princess, which had 712 and 907 cases, respectively. The median attack rate for COVID-19 was 0.2% (IQR: 0.03-1.5), although this distribution was right-skewed with a mean attack rate of 3.7%; 25.9% (27/104) of voyages had at least one COVID-19-associated death. Outbreaks involving only crew occurred later than outbreaks involving guests and crew.ConclusionsIn the absence of mitigation measures, COVID-19 can spread easily on cruise ships in a susceptible population because of the confined space and high-density contact networks. This environment can create superspreader events and facilitate international spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ships , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 115: 109-115, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the cruise ship Diamond Princess, passengers and crew were followed-up to determine prognosis. This study examined the epidemiological determinants of COVID-19 natural history using these follow-up data. METHODS: Infection status, diagnosis, clinical symptoms and prognosis were analysed for all passengers and crew members on the Diamond Princess. In addition, the risk of infection associated with exposure within cabin rooms, as well as the risks of various clinical manifestations of disease, along with their epidemiological determinants, were analysed. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of infection for individuals tested by polymerase chain reaction on or after 12 February 2020 compared with individuals tested before this date was 0.53 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.72], reflecting decreased transmission during onboard quarantine. Among infected individuals, older age was associated with elevated odds of symptomatic illness (aOR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02), severe disease (aOR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.12) and death (aOR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05-1.21). CONCLUSIONS: Severe COVID-19 disease, death and symptomatic illness were more frequent among older individuals on the Diamond Princess. Older elderly cases (age ≥80 years) had the highest risks of severe disease and death. Inter-room transmission was prevented successfully by the onboard quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Quarantine , Ships
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6828-6832, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544316

ABSTRACT

A cluster of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections was found in a cargo ship under repair in Zhoushan, China. Twelve of 20 crew members were identified as SARS-CoV-2 positive. We analyzed four sequences and identified them all in the Delta branch emerging from India with 7-8 amino acid mutation sites in the spike protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , China , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , India , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis/methods , Ships/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
19.
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(8): 1360-1364, 2021 Aug 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468523

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the contamination status of SARS-CoV-2 in imported frozen seafood from a Russia cargo ship in Qingdao and to analyze the risk factors for infection in local stevedores. Methods: The method of "two-stage, full coverage and mixed sampling" was used to collect the seafood packaging samples for the nucleic acid detection of SARS-CoV-2 by real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR. A unified questionnaire was designed to investigate 71 stevedores in two shifts through telephone interview. The stevedores were divided into two groups, with 23 in the shit with two infections was group A and 48 in the shift without infection was group B. Software Epi Info7.2 was used to identify the risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infections in the stevedores. Results: In the frozen seafood from a Russia cargo ship, the total positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in the frozen seafood was 11.53% (106/919). The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in the frozen seafood unloaded by group A (14.29%,70/490) was significantly higher than that in the frozen seafood unloaded by group B (8.39%,36/429)(χ2=7.79,P=0.01) and the viral loads detected in the frozen seafood unloaded by group A were higher than those detected in the frozen seafood unloaded by group B. The scores of personal protection and behaviors in the stevedores in group A were significantly lower than those in group B (P<0.05), and toilet use, smoking and improper hand washing before meals were the risk factors for the infection. Conclusions: The imported frozen seafood was contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 and the contamination distribution was uneven. Supervision and management of personal occupational protection and behaviors of workers engaged in imported frozen food transportation should be strengthened. It is suggested that a closed-loop monitoring and management system for the whole process of "fishing-transport- loading/unloading" should be established by marine fishery authority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Risk Factors , Seafood , Ships
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