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1.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 528, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The value of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in cardiogenic shock, especially the combination of the ECMELLA approach (Impella combined with ECMO), remains controversial. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 33-year-old female patient was submitted to a local emergency department with a flu-like infection and febrile temperatures up to 39 °C. The patient was tested positive for type-A influenza, however negative for SARS-CoV-2. Despite escalated invasive ventilation, refractory hypercapnia (paCO2: 22 kPa) with severe respiratory acidosis (pH: 6.9) and a rising norepinephrine rate occurred within a few hours. Due to a Horovitz-Index < 100, out-of-centre veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO)-implantation was performed. A CT-scan done because of anisocoria revealed an extended dissection of the right vertebral artery. While the initial left ventricular function was normal, echocardiography revealed severe global hypokinesia. After angiographic exclusion of coronary artery stenoses, we geared up LV unloading by additional implantation of an Impella CP and expanded the vv-ECMO to a veno-venous-arterial ECMO (vva-ECMO). Clinically relevant bleeding from the punctured femoral arteries resulted in massive transfusion and was treated by vascular surgery later on. Under continued MCS, LVEF increased to approximately 40% 2 days after the initiation of ECMELLA. After weaning, the Impella CP was explanted at day 5 and the vva-ECMO was removed on day 9, respectively. The patient was discharged in an unaffected neurological condition to rehabilitation 25 days after the initial admission. CONCLUSIONS: This exceptional case exemplifies the importance of aggressive MCS in severe cardiogenic shock, which may be especially promising in younger patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and potentially reversible causes of cardiogenic shock. This case impressively demonstrates that especially young patients may achieve complete neurological restoration, even though the initial prognosis may appear unfavourable.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heart-Assist Devices , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Deterioration , Critical Care/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy
2.
J Card Surg ; 36(12): 4783-4785, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute decompensated heart failure in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is becoming increasingly common. AIMS: In this case report, we describe the successful use of an Impella 5.5 (Abiomed) to treat cardiogenic shock refractory to inotropic therapy. MATERIALS & METHODS: Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography confirmed severely diminished left ventricular ejection fraction and a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction test revealed that the patient was COVID-19 positive during his hospital admission. RESULTS: Following initiation of inotropic therapy, we placed an Impella 5.5 for further cardiac support. The patient's LVEF and cardiac index improved after 21 days on the Impella 5.5 and was maintained following explant. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: The findings reported here demonstrate successful use of an Impella 5.5 to improve native heart function in refractory cardiogenic shock and further indicate its use as an option for those in acute decompensated heart failure who have tested positive for COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart-Assist Devices , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Stroke Volume , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function, Left
4.
J Card Surg ; 36(11): 4396-4399, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354504

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular system involvement and its negative prognostic impact have been increasingly identified in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Optimal medical treatment allows for safe management of most of these cardiovascular presentations while COVID-19-associated refractory cardiogenic shock could be rescued by veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). We present a case of acute myocardial injury related to COVID-19 complicated by refractory cardiogenic shock and treated by VA-ECMO implantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy
6.
Indian Heart J ; 73(5): 565-571, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and impact of respiratory infections in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI-CS). METHODS: Using the National Inpatient Sample (2000-2017), this study identified adult (≥18 years) admitted with AMI-CS complicated by respiratory infections. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality of AMI-CS admissions with and without respiratory infections, hospitalization costs, hospital length of stay, and discharge disposition. Temporal trends of prevalence, in-hospital mortality and cardiac procedures were evaluated. RESULTS: Among 557,974 AMI-CS admissions, concomitant respiratory infections were identified in 84,684 (15.2%). Temporal trends revealed a relatively stable trend in prevalence of respiratory infections over the 18-year period. Admissions with respiratory infections were on average older, less likely to be female, with greater comorbidity, had significantly higher rates of NSTEMI presentation, and acute non-cardiac organ failure compared to those without respiratory infections (all p < 0.001). These admissions received lower rates of coronary angiography (66.8% vs 69.4%, p < 0.001) and percutaneous coronary interventions (44.8% vs 49.5%, p < 0.001), with higher rates of mechanical circulatory support, pulmonary artery catheterization, and invasive mechanical ventilation compared to AMI-CS admissions without respiratory infections (all p < 0.001). The in-hospital mortality was lower among AMI-CS admissions with respiratory infections (31.6% vs 38.4%, adjusted OR 0.58 [95% CI 0.57-0.59], p < 0.001). Admissions with respiratory infections had longer lengths of hospital stay (127-20 vs 63-11 days, p < 0.001), higher hospitalization costs and less frequent discharges to home (27.1% vs 44.7%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory infections in AMI-CS admissions were associated with higher resource utilization but lower in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/epidemiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy
7.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 104, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: H syndrome (HS) is a rare autoinflammatory disease caused by a mutation in the solute carrier family 29, member 3 (SCL29A3) gene. It has a variable clinical presentation and little phenotype-genotype correlation. The pathognomonic sign of HS is cutaneous hyperpigmentation located mainly in the inner thighs and often accompanied by other systemic manifestations. Improvement after tocilizumab treatment has been reported in a few patients with HS. We report the first patient with HS who presented cardiogenic shock, multiorgan infiltration, and digital ischemia. CASE PRESENTATION: 8-year-old boy born to consanguineous parents of Moroccan origin who was admitted to the intensive care unit during the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with tachypnoea, tachycardia, and oliguria. Echocardiography showed dilated cardiomyopathy and severe systolic dysfunction compatible with cardiogenic shock. Additionally, he presented with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody detection by chromatographic immunoassay were negative. A previously ordered gene panel for pre-existing sensorineural hearing loss showed a pathological mutation in the SCL29A3 gene compatible with H syndrome. Computed tomography scan revealed extensive alveolar infiltrates in the lungs and multiple poor defined hypodense lesions in liver, spleen, and kidneys; adenopathy; and cardiomegaly with left ventricle subendocardial nodules. Invasive mechanical ventilation, broad antibiotic and antifungal coverage showed no significant response. Therefore, Tocilizumab as compassionate use together with pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone was initiated. Improvement was impressive leading to normalization of inflammation markers, liver and kidney function, and stabilising heart function. Two weeks later, he was discharged and has been clinically well since then on two weekly administration of Tocilizumab. CONCLUSIONS: We report the most severe disease course produced by HS described so far in the literature. Our patient's manifestations included uncommon, new complications such as acute heart failure with severe systolic dysfunction, multi-organ cell infiltrate, and digital ischemia. Most of the clinical symptoms of our patient could have been explained by SARS-CoV-2, demonstrating the importance of a detailed differential diagnosis to ensure optimal treatment. Although the mechanism of autoinflammation of HS remains uncertain, the good response of our patient to Tocilizumab makes a case for the important role of IL-6 in this syndrome and for considering Tocilizumab as a first-line treatment, at least in severely affected patients.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/physiopathology , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/physiopathology , Ischemia/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/therapy , Child , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/diagnosis , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/genetics , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/therapy , Humans , Ischemia/therapy , Kidney Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/physiopathology , Lymphadenopathy/therapy , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Nucleoside Transport Proteins/genetics , Pulse Therapy, Drug , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Splenic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Splenic Diseases/physiopathology , Splenic Diseases/therapy , Toes/blood supply , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
8.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 114(5): 426-433, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240132

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been characterized by high transmission rates and high mortality in adults with predisposing factors, including age>70 years, obesity, diabetes, systemic hypertension and other underlying diseases. During the second week of viral pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome can occur and carries high mortality. Unlike most common respiratory viruses, children seem to be less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and generally develop mild disease with low mortality. However, clusters of severe shock associated with high levels of cardiac biomarkers and unusual vasoplegia requiring inotropes, vasopressors and volume loading have recently been described. Both the clinical symptoms (i.e. high and persistent fever, gastrointestinal disorders, skin rash, conjunctival injection and dry cracked lips) and the biological signs (e.g. elevated C-reactive protein/procalcitonin and high levels of ferritinaemia) mimicked Kawasaki disease. In most cases, intravenous immunoglobin therapy improved cardiac function and led to full recovery within a few days. Adjunctive steroid therapy and sometimes biotherapy (e.g. anti-interleukin 1Ra and anti-interleukin 6 monoclonal antibodies) were often necessary. Although almost all children fully recovered within a week, some of them later developed coronary artery dilation or aneurysm. Thus, a new "multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children" related to SARS-CoV-2 has recently been described. Similarities with Kawasaki disease and the physiopathology of this syndrome still need further exploration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Biomarkers , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Shock, Septic/diagnosis , Symptom Assessment , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology
9.
J Card Fail ; 27(3): 327-337, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is increasingly used as a life-saving therapy for patients with cardiovascular collapse, but identifying patients unlikely to benefit remains a challenge. METHODS AND RESULTS: We created the RESCUE registry, a retrospective, observational registry of adult patients treated with VA-ECMO between January 2007 and June 2017 at 3 high-volume centers (Columbia University, Duke University, and Washington University) to describe short-term patient outcomes. In 723 patients treated with VA-ECMO, the most common indications for deployment were postcardiotomy shock (31%), cardiomyopathy (including acute heart failure) (26%), and myocardial infarction (17%). Patients frequently suffered in-hospital complications, including acute renal dysfunction (45%), major bleeding (41%), and infection (33%). Only 40% of patients (n = 290) survived to discharge, with a minority receiving durable cardiac support (left ventricular assist device [n = 48] or heart transplantation [n = 7]). Multivariable regression analysis identified risk factors for mortality on ECMO as older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.42) and female sex (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.02-2.02) and risk factors for mortality after decannulation as higher body mass index (OR 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.35) and major bleeding while on ECMO support (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.23-2.99). CONCLUSIONS: Despite contemporary care at high-volume centers, patients treated with VA-ECMO continue to have significant in-hospital morbidity and mortality. The optimization of outcomes will require refinements in patient selection and improvement of care delivery.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart Failure , Adult , Aged , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Shock, Cardiogenic/epidemiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy
10.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 28S: 50-53, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046543

ABSTRACT

Takotsubo's syndrome (TTS) is a form of stress cardiomyopathy with a relatively benign long-term course, but may lead to arrhythmias and cardiogenic shock in the acute setting. Despite a recent rise in suspected stress-induced cardiomyopathy, the relationship between the novel coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and TTS is not fully understood. Early recognition of TTS in these patients is important to guide management and treatment. We present 2 cases of TTS arising in the setting of COVID-19 with rapid progression to biventricular heart failure and cardiogenic shock.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/therapy
11.
Ann Neurol ; 89(3): 610-616, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044305

ABSTRACT

There is emerging evidence for multifarious neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but little is known regarding whether they reflect structural damage to the nervous system. Serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) is a specific biomarker of neuronal injury. We measured sNfL concentrations of 29 critically ill COVID-19 patients, 10 critically ill non-COVID-19 patients, and 259 healthy controls. After adjusting for neurological comorbidities and age, sNfL concentrations were higher in patients with COVID-19 versus both comparator groups. Higher sNfL levels were associated with unfavorable short-term outcome, indicating that neuronal injury is common and pronounced in critically ill patients. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:610-616.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Neurofilament Proteins/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hyponatremia/blood , Hyponatremia/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pulmonary Edema/blood , Pulmonary Edema/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/blood , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy
12.
Perfusion ; 36(6): 573-574, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015793

ABSTRACT

COVID results in a variety of pathophysiology that causes cardiorespiratory and the need for ECMO. These include hypoxic respiratory failure, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, multisystem inflammatory disease, and vascular thrombosis with pulmonary embolism. A variety of cannulation strategies are required and the "hyperinflammation" and consequent coagulation abnormalities mandate new strategies to provide optimal ECMO support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart Arrest , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy
15.
Cardiol Rev ; 28(6): 308-311, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-867895

ABSTRACT

Cardiac involvement as a complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in children is a relatively new entity. We present our initial experience managing children with coronavirus disease 2019-related acute myocardial injury. The 3 patients presented here represent a spectrum of the cardiac involvement noted in children with coronavirus disease 2019-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome, including myocarditis presenting as cardiogenic shock or heart failure with biventricular dysfunction, valvulitis, coronary artery changes, and pericardial effusion.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Heart Failure , Heart Valve Diseases , Myocarditis , Pandemics , Patient Care Management/methods , Pericardial Effusion , Pneumonia, Viral , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cardiac Imaging Techniques/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart Valve Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Valve Diseases/virology , Humans , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocarditis/virology , Pericardial Effusion/therapy , Pericardial Effusion/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
16.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 28S: 57-60, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841087

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with potentially life threatening cardiovascular complications, including fulminant myocarditis and cardiac tamponade. Optimal management strategies are still unclear, including the role of immunomodulatory therapies and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in the context of cardiogenic shock. We report a case of a middle-aged female with COVID-19 who developed respiratory distress and hemodynamic deterioration with elevated troponin levels on the seventh day of symptoms. Echocardiography demonstrated pericardial effusion with diastolic restriction of the right ventricle. Cardiac arrest developed during pericardiocentesis, resulting in emergency thoracotomy and pericardial drainage. Venoarterial ECMO was subsequently initiated due to refractory cardiogenic shock. Tocilizumab, immunoglobulin, methylprednisolone and convalescent plasma were added to supportive care, with progressive recovery of cardiac function and successful weaning from mechanical ventilation. This case highlights the potential role of ECMO, convalescent plasma and immunomodulatory therapies in the management of cardiogenic shock associated with COVID-19 myopericarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart Arrest , Myocarditis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Heart Arrest/etiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy
17.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(3): e2172, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777664

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 causes the clinical syndrome of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) which has become a global pandemic resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. While the virus primarily affects the respiratory system, it also causes a wide variety of complex cardiac manifestations such as acute myopericarditis, acute coronary syndrome, congested heart failure, cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrhythmias. There are numerous proposed mechanisms of cardiac injury, including direct cellular injury, pro-inflammatory cytokine storm, myocardial oxygen-demand mismatch, and systemic inflammation causing multi-organ failure. Additionally, medications commonly used to treat COVID-19 patients have various cardiovascular side effects. We aim to provide a succinct review about the pathophysiology and cardiac manifestations of COVID-19, as well as treatment considerations and the various adaptations made to the current healthcare structure as a result of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Failure/therapy , Pandemics , Pericarditis/therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/pathology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/pathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Comorbidity , Disease Management , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/pathology , Heart Failure/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/pathology , Pericarditis/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Cardiogenic/epidemiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/pathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/virology , Texas/epidemiology
19.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 389, 2020 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fulminant (life-threatening) COVID-19 can be associated with acute respiratory failure (ARF), multi-system organ failure and cytokine release syndrome (CRS). We present a rare case of fulminant COVID-19 associated with reverse-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy (RTCC) that improved with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). CASE PRESENTATION: A 40 year old previous healthy male presented in the emergency room with 4 days of dry cough, chest pain, myalgias and fatigue. He progressed to ARF requiring high-flow-nasal-cannula (flow: 60 L/minute, fraction of inspired oxygen: 40%). Real-Time-Polymerase-Chain-Reaction (RT-PCR) assay confirmed COVID-19 and chest X-ray showed interstitial infiltrates. Biochemistry suggested CRS: increased C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin and interleukin-6. Renal function was normal but lactate levels were elevated. Electrocardiogram demonstrated non-specific changes and troponin-I levels were slightly elevated. Echocardiography revealed left ventricular (LV) basal and midventricular akinesia with apex sparing (LV ejection fraction: 30%) and depressed cardiac output (2.8 L/min) consistent with a rare variant of stress-related cardiomyopathy: RTCC. His ratio of partial arterial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspired concentration of oxygen was < 120. He was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for mechanical ventilation and vasopressors, plus antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir), and prophylactic anticoagulation. Infusion of milrinone failed to improve his cardiogenic shock (day-1). Thus, rescue TPE was performed using the Spectra Optia™ Apheresis System equipped with the Depuro D2000 Adsorption Cartridge (Terumo BCT Inc., USA) without protective antibodies. Over 5 days he received daily TPE (each lasting 4 hours). His lactate levels, oxygenation, and LV function normalized and he was weaned off vasopressors. His inflammation markers improved, and he was extubated on day-7. RT-PCR was negative on day-17. He was discharged to home isolation in good condition. CONCLUSION: Stress-cardiomyopathy may complicate the course of fulminant COVID-19 with associated CRS. If inotropic therapy fails, TPE without protective antibodies may help rescue the critically ill patient.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Plasma Exchange , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/therapy , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Drug Combinations , Echocardiography , Humans , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnostic imaging , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology
20.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(27): e258, 2020 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641805

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old male patient with coronavirus disease-2019 showed new onset ST-segment elevation in V1-V2 leads on electrocardiogram and cardiac enzyme elevation in intensive care unit. He had a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. He was receiving mechanical ventilation and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment for severe hypoxia. Two-D echocardiogram showed regional wall motion abnormalities. We performed primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction complicating cardiogenic shock under hemodynamic support. He expired on the 16th day of admission because of cardiogenic shock and multi-organ failure. Active surveillance and intensive treatment strategy are important for saving lives of COVID-19 patients with acute myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/mortality , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Electrocardiography , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/complications
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