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1.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1023-1028, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196468

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to evaluate the effect of tocilizumab (TCB), a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody against soluble interleukin-6 receptors, in patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We included all patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who had completed hospitalization between March 10, 2020 and April 10, 2020 with follow-up through April 20, 2020. Patients who received TCB in addition to standard of care within 48 h of admission were matched in a 1:2 fashion to a similar cohort who received standard of care alone. Clinical outcomes were compared between matched groups. The primary outcome was de-escalation in oxygen therapy. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital death, septic shock, and acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring hemodialysis. RESULTS: Out of 77 patients who received TCB in addition to standard of care, 34% (n = 26) received TCB within 48 h of admission. One-to-two propensity matching identified 20 versus 40 patients in the TCB and no-TCB treatment arms. In the TCB group, an improvement in oxygenation was observed in 80% (n = 16) of the patients by 7 days post TCB administration. After matching, there was no difference in clinical outcomes between TCB and no-TCB patients. In-hospital death: 10% versus 8%; p = .823, septic shock: 10% versus 11%, p = .912, AKI requiring hemodialysis (10% vs. 13%; p = .734). CONCLUSIONS: Early treatment with TCB in patients admitted for COVID-19 led to an improvement in their oxygen status during hospitalization. This change however did not translate into improved survival when compared to a matched cohort with a similar clinical profile.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/metabolism , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , Shock, Septic/virology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States
2.
Orv Hetil ; 162(16): 602-607, 2021 04 07.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172895

ABSTRACT

Összefoglaló. Újabb megfigyelések szerint a SARS-CoV-2-fertozést követoen gyermekekben a paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) elnevezésu, sokkállapottal szövodött Kawasaki-megbetegedéshez hasonlító, többszervi elégtelenségnek megfelelo tünetegyüttes alakulhat ki. A gyermekek többségében ilyenkor a direkt víruskimutatás már sikertelen, azonban a SARS-CoV-2 ellen képzodött antitest igazolhatja a diagnózist. Dolgozatunk célja az egyik elso hazai eset ismertetése. Egy 15 éves fiú került gyermek intenzív osztályos felvételre több napon át észlelt magas láz, kesztyu-, zokniszeru exanthema, conjunctivitis, többszervi elégtelenség, szeptikus sokk tüneteivel, akut gyulladásra utaló laboratóriumi eltérésekkel és diffúz hasi panaszokkal. Felvételét megelozoen néhány héttel SARS-CoV-2-fertozésen esett át. Felvételekor a direkt víruskimutatás sikertelen volt, ám a SARS-CoV-2 elleni antitest vizsgálata pozitív lett. Komplex intenzív terápia mellett állapota stabilizálódott. Az irodalmi ajánlásoknak megfeleloen immunglobulin-, acetilszalicilsav- és szteroidkezelésben részesítettük, melynek hatására állapota maradványtünetek nélkül rendezodött. A növekvo esetszámú gyermekkori SARS-CoV-2-fertozés mellett egyre gyakrabban várható a SARS-CoV-2-fertozést követo, a Kawasaki-betegség tüneteire emlékezteto PIMS kialakulása. Gyermekekben súlyos szeptikus állapot és többszervi elégtelenség esetén gondolni kell a PIMS lehetoségére, mely esetenként intenzív osztályos ellátást és célzott terápiát igényel. Legjobb tudomásunk szerint a leírásra került beteg a Magyarországon diagnosztizált egyik legkorábbi eset. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(16): 602-607. Summary. Recently following SARS-CoV-2 infection, a new, multisystem disease (paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome, PIMS) with fever was recognized in children with shock and multiorgan failure. On of the first Hungarian cases will be described. A 15-year-old boy was admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit with persistent high fever, diffuse abdominal pain, septic shock, multiple organ failure, gloves- and socks-shaped cutan exanthema, conjunctivitis and laboratory signs of inflammation. Some weeks preceding his admission, symptoms of mild SARS-CoV-2 infection were revealed. At admission, the SARS-CoV-2 PCR and antigen tests were negative, however, the presence of IgG antibody was shown. Following complex supportive intensive care along with internationally recommended immunoglobulin, aspirin and steroid treatment, the patient was completely cured without any sequalae. In children after SARS-CoV-2 infection, PIMS could occur mimicking Kawasaki syndrome. At this time, in children virus PCR or antigen tests are usually negative already, but the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody could prove the preceding disease. Due to the increasing number of SARS-CoV-2 infections, the occurrence of post-SARS-CoV-2 PIMS in childhood is expected to increase. For paediatric patients, in case of severe septic state and multiple organ failure, PIMS should be also considered, which may require intensive care and targeted therapy. As far as we know, the described case is one of the earliest cases of PIMS in Hungary. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(16): 602-607.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/etiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Conjunctivitis/virology , Exanthema/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hungary , Inflammation/virology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Septic/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4263, 2021 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091460

ABSTRACT

Infection by the new corona virus strain SARS-CoV-2 and its related syndrome COVID-19 has been associated with more than two million deaths worldwide. Patients of higher age and with preexisting chronic health conditions are at an increased risk of fatal disease outcome. However, detailed information on causes of death and the contribution of pre-existing health conditions to death yet is missing, which can be reliably established by autopsy only. We performed full body autopsies on 26 patients that had died after SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 at the Charité University Hospital Berlin, Germany, or at associated teaching hospitals. We systematically evaluated causes of death and pre-existing health conditions. Additionally, clinical records and death certificates were evaluated. We report findings on causes of death and comorbidities of 26 decedents that had clinically presented with severe COVID-19. We found that septic shock and multi organ failure was the most common immediate cause of death, often due to suppurative pulmonary infection. Respiratory failure due to diffuse alveolar damage presented as immediate cause of death in fewer cases. Several comorbidities, such as hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and obesity were present in the vast majority of patients. Our findings reveal that causes of death were directly related to COVID-19 in the majority of decedents, while they appear not to be an immediate result of preexisting health conditions and comorbidities. We therefore suggest that the majority of patients had died of COVID-19 with only contributory implications of preexisting health conditions to the mechanism of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Hospital Mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Berlin/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Shock, Septic/mortality , Shock, Septic/virology
4.
Korean J Intern Med ; 35(6): 1261-1269, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can reportedly cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Therefore, we investigated the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with diarrhea. METHODS: We included 118 COVID-19 patients admitted to a single hospital from February 20 to March 31, 2020. Medical records with clinical characteristics, laboratory data, treatment course, and clinical outcomes were compared based on the presence or absence of diarrhea. Prognostic factors for disease severity and mortality in COVID-19 were also assessed. RESULTS: Among patients, 54 (45.8%) had diarrhea, whereas seven (5.9%) had only diarrhea. The median age of patients with diarrhea was 59 years (44 to 64), and 22 (40.7%) were male. Systemic steroid use, intensive care unit admission, septic shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome were less frequent in the diarrhea group than in the non-diarrhea group. No significant differences were observed in total hospital stay and mortality between groups. On multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.12; p = 0.044), diabetes (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.25 to 20.47; p = 0.042), and dyspnea (OR, 41.19; 95% CI, 6.60 to 823.16; p < 0.001) were independent risk factors for septic shock. On Cox regression analysis, diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 4.82; 95% CI, 0.89 to 26.03; p = 0.043) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 16.58; 95% CI, 3.10 to 88.70; p = 0.044) were risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Diarrhea was present in 45.8% of patients and was a common symptom of COVID-19. Although patients with diarrhea showed less severe clinical features, diarrhea was not associated with disease severity or mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diarrhea/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prevalence , Radiography, Thoracic , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Shock, Septic/virology
6.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 17(9): 992-994, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-630398
7.
Arch Med Res ; 51(4): 347-348, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601173

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection which has been known as Coronavirus diseases 2019 COVID-19 has become an endemic emergent situation by the World Health Organization. So far, no successful specific treatment has been found for this disease. As has been reported, most of non-survivor patients with COVID-19 (70%) had septic shock which was significantly higher than survived ones. Although the exact pathophysiology of septic shock in these patients is still unclear, it seems to be possible that part of it would be due to the administration of empiric antibiotics with inflammatory properties especially in the absence of bacterial infection. Herein, we have reviewed possible molecular pathways of septic shock in the patients who have received antibiotics with inflammatory properties which mainly is release of interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF- α) through different routes. Altogether, we highly recommend clinicians to look after those antibiotics with anti-inflammatory activity for both empiric antibiotic therapy and reducing the inflammation to prevent septic shock in patients with diagnosed COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Shock, Septic/virology , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Septic/immunology , Shock, Septic/pathology
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