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1.
Br J Nurs ; 31(8): 422-428, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835945

ABSTRACT

The term 'shock' is used to describe a complex, life-threatening clinical condition that arises from acute circulatory failure. Shock is a pathological state that results when the circulation is unable to deliver sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the cells and tissues. The resulting hypoxia, tissue hypoperfusion and cellular dysfunction can lead to multi-organ failure; if this is not treated in a timely and appropriate manner, it can lead to death. This article gives an introduction to shock with an overview of the condition and its physiological impact on patients. Focusing on the aetiology and underlying causes, discussion will highlight the different types, stages and general pathophysiology of shock, as well as providing a guide to treatment options and nursing interventions.


Subject(s)
Shock , Humans , Oxygen , Shock/etiology , Shock/therapy
2.
Cardiol Young ; 32(3): 506-507, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692704

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children is a new entity in association with SARS-CoV2. Clinical features of Kawasaki disease were noted from the first reported cases of MIS-C. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, Kawasaki disease shock syndrome was considered to be a distinct and unique form of KD. We present a representative case that prove the current difficulty in clearly distinguishing MIS-C from pre-COVID-19-KDSS and emphasie the overlap of the diagnostic criteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Shock , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5922-5927, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478933

ABSTRACT

Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is a very rare and lethal disease characterized by hemoconcentration and hypoalbuminemia caused by reversible plasma extravasation. The underlying cause for SCLS remains largely unknown and acute treatment has remained mainly supportive. Prophylaxis with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been shown to successfully prevent further episodes in affected patients. We reported a case of SCLS in a patient who presented to our hospital with COVID-19 and developed profound shock.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Capillary Leak Syndrome/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Capillary Leak Syndrome/complications , Capillary Leak Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/pathology , Shock/etiology , Shock/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408506

ABSTRACT

Most reports of COVID-19 in neonates suggest that they are infected postnatally and present with gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms. We describe a neonate who had community-acquired COVID-19, and presented with late-onset sepsis and developed dyselectrolytemia. The 26-day-old male baby had fever, feed refusal and shock. Rapid antigen test for SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal swab was positive and levels of circulating inflammatory markers were high. The baby was supported with antibiotics, and inotropic and vasopressor drugs. He had seizures and bradycardia due to dyselectrolytemia on day 2 of admission. On day 3, he had respiratory distress, with non-specific chest radiographic findings, and was managed with non-invasive support for 24 hours. The baby was discharged after 8 days. On serial follow-up, he was breastfeeding well and gaining weight appropriately with no morbidity. Our report highlights a unique presentation of COVID-19, with late-onset infection and shock-like features along with dyselectrolytemia and seizures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Shock , Fever , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/etiology
5.
Shock ; 55(1): 1-4, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402755
7.
Cardiol Young ; 32(3): 506-507, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316693

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children is a new entity in association with SARS-CoV2. Clinical features of Kawasaki disease were noted from the first reported cases of MIS-C. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, Kawasaki disease shock syndrome was considered to be a distinct and unique form of KD. We present a representative case that prove the current difficulty in clearly distinguishing MIS-C from pre-COVID-19-KDSS and emphasie the overlap of the diagnostic criteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Shock , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(25): e181, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286918

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory disease in children is a Kawasaki disease like illness occurring after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in children. As the pandemic progresses, similar syndromes were also reported in adult with a decreased incidence. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) can be characterized with shock, heart failure, and gastrointestinal symptoms with elevated inflammatory markers after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Herein, we describe the first case of MIS-A in South Korea. A 38-year-old man presented to our hospital with a 5-day history of abdominal pain and fever. He had been treated with antibiotics for 5 days at the previous hospital, but symptoms had worsened and he had developed orthopnea on the day of presentation. He suffered COVID-19 six weeks ago. Laboratory data revealed elevated white blood cell counts with neutrophil dominance, C-reactive protein, and B-type natriuretic peptide. Chest X-ray showed normal lung parenchyme and echocardiography showed severe biventricular failure with normal chamber size. We diagnosed him as MIS-A and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroid.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Fever/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Republic of Korea , Shock/etiology , Shock/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
9.
N Engl J Med ; 385(1): 23-34, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The assessment of real-world effectiveness of immunomodulatory medications for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may guide therapy. METHODS: We analyzed surveillance data on inpatients younger than 21 years of age who had MIS-C and were admitted to 1 of 58 U.S. hospitals between March 15 and October 31, 2020. The effectiveness of initial immunomodulatory therapy (day 0, indicating the first day any such therapy for MIS-C was given) with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) plus glucocorticoids, as compared with IVIG alone, was evaluated with propensity-score matching and inverse probability weighting, with adjustment for baseline MIS-C severity and demographic characteristics. The primary outcome was cardiovascular dysfunction (a composite of left ventricular dysfunction or shock resulting in the use of vasopressors) on or after day 2. Secondary outcomes included the components of the primary outcome, the receipt of adjunctive treatment (glucocorticoids in patients not already receiving glucocorticoids on day 0, a biologic, or a second dose of IVIG) on or after day 1, and persistent or recurrent fever on or after day 2. RESULTS: A total of 518 patients with MIS-C (median age, 8.7 years) received at least one immunomodulatory therapy; 75% had been previously healthy, and 9 died. In the propensity-score-matched analysis, initial treatment with IVIG plus glucocorticoids (103 patients) was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular dysfunction on or after day 2 than IVIG alone (103 patients) (17% vs. 31%; risk ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.94). The risks of the components of the composite outcome were also lower among those who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids: left ventricular dysfunction occurred in 8% and 17% of the patients, respectively (risk ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.19 to 1.15), and shock resulting in vasopressor use in 13% and 24% (risk ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.00). The use of adjunctive therapy was lower among patients who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids than among those who received IVIG alone (34% vs. 70%; risk ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.65), but the risk of fever was unaffected (31% and 40%, respectively; risk ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.53 to 1.13). The inverse-probability-weighted analysis confirmed the results of the propensity-score-matched analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Among children and adolescents with MIS-C, initial treatment with IVIG plus glucocorticoids was associated with a lower risk of new or persistent cardiovascular dysfunction than IVIG alone. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/prevention & control , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Combined Modality Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunomodulation , Infant , Logistic Models , Male , Propensity Score , Public Health Surveillance , Shock/etiology , Shock/prevention & control , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Young Adult
11.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e926751, 2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly worldwide, and scientists are trying to find a way to overcome the disease. We explored the risk factors that influence patient outcomes, including treatment regimens, which can provide a reference for further treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective cohort study analysis was performed using data from 97 patients with COVID-19 who visited Wuhan Union Hospital from February 2020 to March 2020. We collected data on demographics, comorbidities, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatment methods, outcomes, and complications. Patients were divided into a recovered group and a deceased group. We compared the differences between the 2 groups and analyzed risk factors influencing the treatment effect. RESULTS Seventy-six patients recovered and 21 died. The average age and body mass index (BMI) of the deceased group were significantly higher than those of the recovered group (69.81±6.80 years vs 60.79±11.28 years, P<0.001 and 24.95±3.14 kg/m² vs 23.09±2.97 kg/m², P=0.014, respectively). The combination of antiviral drugs and supportive therapy appears to be associated with the lowest mortality (P<0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that age, BMI, H-CRP, shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were independent risk factors for patients with COVID-19 (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Elderly patients and those with a high BMI, as well as patients who experience shock and ARDS, may have a higher risk of death from COVID-19. The combination of antiviral drugs and supportive therapy appears to be associated with lower mortality, although further research is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Shock/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Shock/etiology , Shock/therapy , Treatment Outcome , gamma-Globulins/therapeutic use
13.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 25, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Because of the absence of a specific diagnostic test and pathognomonic clinical features, physicians must rely on the presence of specific clinical criteria and laboratory data that support the diagnosis of KD. To help clinicians distinguish KD, KDSS, septic shock, and TSS earlier, we suggest differential diagnosis and treatment guideline. METHODS: Medical records of immunocompetent patients who were admitted to the pediatric department with a diagnosis of KDSS, septic shock or TSS (SS group) were retrospectively reviewed. In addition, KD patients were selected by seasonal matching to each case of KDSS patient by date of admission (± 2 weeks). RESULTS: There were 13 patients with KDSS, 35 patients with SS group, and 91 patients with KD. In comparison between KDSS and septic shock group, KDSS group had significantly higher rate of coronary aneurysm incidence, and higher left ventricle dysfunction rate. In comparison between KDSS and TSS, patients with KDSS had a significantly higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and significantly lower creatinine. Receiver operation characteristic curve revealed that the optimal ESR cut off value for determining the KDSS was 56.0 (sensitivity 75.0%, specificity of 100.0%) and the optimal creatinine cut off value for determining the TSS was 0.695 (sensitivity 76.9%, specificity 84.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical symptoms, laboratory finding, echocardiography, and culture studies can be used to differentiate KD, KDSS, septic shock and TSS.


Subject(s)
Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Shock, Septic , Shock , Case-Control Studies , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Shock/diagnosis , Shock/etiology , Shock, Septic/diagnosis , Shock, Septic/etiology
14.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(5): 511-523, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029763

ABSTRACT

Point-of-Care (POC) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is transforming the management of patients with cirrhosis presenting with septic shock, acute kidney injury, hepatorenal syndrome and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) by correctly assessing the hemodynamic and volume status at the bedside using combined echocardiography and POC ultrasound (POCUS). When POC TTE is performed by the hepatologist or intensivist in the intensive care unit (ICU), and interpreted remotely by a cardiologist, it can rule out cardiovascular conditions that may be contributing to undifferentiated shock, such as diastolic dysfunction, myocardial infarction, myocarditis, regional wall motion abnormalities and pulmonary embolism. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a delay in seeking medical treatment, reduced invasive interventions and deferment in referrals leading to "collateral damage" in critically ill patients with liver disease. Thus, the use of telemedicine in the ICU (Tele-ICU) has integrated cardiology, intensive care, and hepatology practices across the spectrum of ICU, operating room, and transplant healthcare. Telecardiology tools have improved bedside diagnosis when introduced as part of COVID-19 care by remote supervision and interpretation of POCUS and echocardiographic data. In this review, we present the contemporary approach of using POC echocardiography and offer a practical guide for primary care hepatologists and gastroenterologists for cardiac assessment in critically ill patients with cirrhosis and ACLF. Evidenced based use of Tele-ICU can prevent delay in cardiac diagnosis, optimize safe use of expert resources and ensure timely care in the setting of critically ill cirrhosis, ACLF and liver transplantation in the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , COVID-19 , Critical Care , Echocardiography/methods , Liver Cirrhosis , Point-of-Care Systems , Remote Consultation , Shock , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/etiology , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/physiopathology , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiology/trends , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/organization & administration , Critical Illness/therapy , Delayed Diagnosis/prevention & control , Hemodynamic Monitoring/instrumentation , Hemodynamic Monitoring/methods , Humans , Infection Control , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/physiopathology , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Organizational Innovation , Remote Consultation/instrumentation , Remote Consultation/methods , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/diagnosis , Shock/etiology , Shock/therapy
15.
Circulation ; 143(1): 21-32, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to document cardiovascular clinical findings, cardiac imaging, and laboratory markers in children presenting with the novel multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS: This real-time internet-based survey has been endorsed by the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiologists Working Groups for Cardiac Imaging and Cardiovascular Intensive Care. Children 0 to 18 years of age admitted to a hospital between February 1 and June 6, 2020, with a diagnosis of an inflammatory syndrome and acute cardiovascular complications were included. RESULTS: A total of 286 children from 55 centers in 17 European countries were included. The median age was 8.4 years (interquartile range, 3.8-12.4 years) and 67% were boys. The most common cardiovascular complications were shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pericardial effusion, and coronary artery dilatation. Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction was present in over half of the patients, and a vast majority of children had raised cardiac troponin when checked. The biochemical markers of inflammation were raised in most patients on admission: elevated C-reactive protein, serum ferritin, procalcitonin, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, interleukin-6 level, and D-dimers. There was a statistically significant correlation between degree of elevation in cardiac and biochemical parameters and the need for intensive care support (P<0.05). Polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was positive in 33.6%, whereas immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies were positive in 15.7% cases and immunoglobulin G in 43.6% cases, respectively, when checked. One child in the study cohort died. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac involvement is common in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with the Covid-19 pandemic. The majority of children have significantly raised levels of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, ferritin, D-dimers, and cardiac troponin in addition to high C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels. In comparison with adults with COVID-19, mortality in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 is uncommon despite multisystem involvement, very elevated inflammatory markers, and the need for intensive care support.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , COVID-19 , Pericardial Effusion , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/blood , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/blood , Pericardial Effusion/blood , Pericardial Effusion/epidemiology , Pericardial Effusion/etiology , Pericardial Effusion/therapy , Shock/blood , Shock/epidemiology , Shock/etiology , Shock/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
16.
Indian Pediatr ; 57(11): 1015-1019, 2020 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We describe the presentation, treatment and outcome of children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome with COVID-19 (MIS-C) in Mumbai metropolitan area in India. METHOD: This is an observational study conducted at four tertiary hospitals in Mumbai. Parameters including demographics, symptomatology, laboratory markers, medications and outcome were obtained from patient hospital records and analyzed in patients treated for MIS-C (as per WHO criteria) from 1 May, 2020 to 15 July, 2020. RESULTS: 23 patients (11 males) with median (range) age of 7.2 (0.8-14) years were included. COVID-19 RT-PCR or antibody was positive in 39.1% and 30.4%, respectively; 34.8% had a positive contact. 65% patients presented in shock; these children had a higher age (P=0.05), and significantly higher incidence of myocarditis with elevated troponin, NT pro BNP and left ventri-cular dysfunction, along with significant neutrophilia and lympho-penia, as compared to those without shock. Coronary artery dilation was seen in 26% patients overall. Steroids were used most commonly for treatment (96%), usually along with intra-venous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (65%). Outcome was good with only one death. CONCLUSION: Initial data on MIS-C from India is presented. Further studies and longer surveillance of patients with MIS-C are required to improve our diagnostic, treatment and surveillance criteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , India/epidemiology , Infant , Lymphopenia/etiology , Male , Myocarditis/etiology , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Neutrophils/metabolism , Peptide Fragments/blood , Shock/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Troponin/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
17.
Chest ; 158(6): e267-e268, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-860852

ABSTRACT

Systemic capillary leak syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by dysfunctional inflammatory response, endothelial dysfunction, and extravasation of fluid from the vascular space to the interstitial space leading to shock, hemoconcentration, hypoalbuminemia, and subsequent organ failure. The condition may be idiopathic or secondary to an underlying cause, which can include viral infections. Here we describe a patient with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection who presented with hemoconcentration, shock, and hypoalbuminemia. The patient subsequently developed rhabdomyolysis and compartment syndrome of all four extremities, requiring fasciotomies. This is the first reported case of systemic capillary leak syndrome associated with COVID-19 infection. This case adds to the evolving spectrum of inflammatory effects associated with this viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Capillary Leak Syndrome/physiopathology , Compartment Syndromes/physiopathology , Hypoalbuminemia/physiopathology , Shock/physiopathology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Acidosis, Lactic/etiology , Acidosis, Lactic/physiopathology , Acidosis, Lactic/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Capillary Leak Syndrome/etiology , Compartment Syndromes/etiology , Compartment Syndromes/surgery , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Crystalloid Solutions/therapeutic use , Edema/etiology , Edema/physiopathology , Fasciotomy , Fatal Outcome , Fluid Therapy , Hematocrit , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia/etiology , Hypoalbuminemia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , Rhabdomyolysis/physiopathology , Shock/etiology , Shock/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
18.
JAMA ; 324(13): 1317-1329, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739603

ABSTRACT

Importance: Evidence regarding corticosteroid use for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. Objective: To determine whether hydrocortisone improves outcome for patients with severe COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: An ongoing adaptive platform trial testing multiple interventions within multiple therapeutic domains, for example, antiviral agents, corticosteroids, or immunoglobulin. Between March 9 and June 17, 2020, 614 adult patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled and randomized within at least 1 domain following admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) for respiratory or cardiovascular organ support at 121 sites in 8 countries. Of these, 403 were randomized to open-label interventions within the corticosteroid domain. The domain was halted after results from another trial were released. Follow-up ended August 12, 2020. Interventions: The corticosteroid domain randomized participants to a fixed 7-day course of intravenous hydrocortisone (50 mg or 100 mg every 6 hours) (n = 143), a shock-dependent course (50 mg every 6 hours when shock was clinically evident) (n = 152), or no hydrocortisone (n = 108). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was organ support-free days (days alive and free of ICU-based respiratory or cardiovascular support) within 21 days, where patients who died were assigned -1 day. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model that included all patients enrolled with severe COVID-19, adjusting for age, sex, site, region, time, assignment to interventions within other domains, and domain and intervention eligibility. Superiority was defined as the posterior probability of an odds ratio greater than 1 (threshold for trial conclusion of superiority >99%). Results: After excluding 19 participants who withdrew consent, there were 384 patients (mean age, 60 years; 29% female) randomized to the fixed-dose (n = 137), shock-dependent (n = 146), and no (n = 101) hydrocortisone groups; 379 (99%) completed the study and were included in the analysis. The mean age for the 3 groups ranged between 59.5 and 60.4 years; most patients were male (range, 70.6%-71.5%); mean body mass index ranged between 29.7 and 30.9; and patients receiving mechanical ventilation ranged between 50.0% and 63.5%. For the fixed-dose, shock-dependent, and no hydrocortisone groups, respectively, the median organ support-free days were 0 (IQR, -1 to 15), 0 (IQR, -1 to 13), and 0 (-1 to 11) days (composed of 30%, 26%, and 33% mortality rates and 11.5, 9.5, and 6 median organ support-free days among survivors). The median adjusted odds ratio and bayesian probability of superiority were 1.43 (95% credible interval, 0.91-2.27) and 93% for fixed-dose hydrocortisone, respectively, and were 1.22 (95% credible interval, 0.76-1.94) and 80% for shock-dependent hydrocortisone compared with no hydrocortisone. Serious adverse events were reported in 4 (3%), 5 (3%), and 1 (1%) patients in the fixed-dose, shock-dependent, and no hydrocortisone groups, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with severe COVID-19, treatment with a 7-day fixed-dose course of hydrocortisone or shock-dependent dosing of hydrocortisone, compared with no hydrocortisone, resulted in 93% and 80% probabilities of superiority with regard to the odds of improvement in organ support-free days within 21 days. However, the trial was stopped early and no treatment strategy met prespecified criteria for statistical superiority, precluding definitive conclusions. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02735707.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydrocortisone/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/drug therapy , Shock/etiology , Treatment Outcome
19.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(10): 1863-1872, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725842

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: An ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan since December 2019 and spread globally. However, information about critically ill patients with COVID-19 is still limited. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19 and figure out the risk factors of mortality. METHODS: We extracted data retrospectively regarding 733 critically ill adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 19 hospitals in China through January 1 to February 29, 2020. Demographic data, symptoms, laboratory values, comorbidities, treatments, and clinical outcomes were collected. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Data were compared between survivors and non-survivors. RESULTS: Of the 733 patients included in the study, the median (IQR) age was 65 (56-73) years and 256 (34.9%) were female. Among these patients, the median (IQR) APACHE II score was 10 (7 to 14) and 28-day mortality was 53.8%. Respiratory failure was the most common organ failure (597 [81.5%]), followed by shock (20%), thrombocytopenia (18.8%), central nervous system (8.6%) and renal dysfunction (8%). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that older age, malignancies, high APACHE II score, high D-dimer level, low PaO2/FiO2 level, high creatinine level, high hscTnI level and low albumin level were independent risk factors of 28-day mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In this case series of critically ill patients with COVID-19 who were admitted into the ICU, more than half patients died at day 28. The higher percentage of organ failure in these patients indicated a significant demand for critical care resources.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/epidemiology , Shock/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
20.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(5): 563-569, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696277

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To survey haemodynamic monitoring and management practices in intensive care patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A questionnaire was shared on social networks or via email by the authors and by Anaesthesia and/or Critical Care societies from France, Switzerland, Belgium, Brazil, and Portugal. Intensivists and anaesthetists involved in COVID-19 ICU care were invited to answer 14 questions about haemodynamic monitoring and management. RESULTS: Globally, 1000 questionnaires were available for analysis. Responses came mainly from Europe (n = 460) and America (n = 434). According to a majority of respondents, COVID-19 ICU patients frequently or very frequently received continuous vasopressor support (56%) and had an echocardiography performed (54%). Echocardiography revealed a normal cardiac function, a hyperdynamic state (43%), hypovolaemia (22%), a left ventricular dysfunction (21%) and a right ventricular dilation (20%). Fluid responsiveness was frequently assessed (84%), mainly using echo (62%), and cardiac output was measured in 69%, mostly with echo as well (53%). Venous oxygen saturation was frequently measured (79%), mostly from a CVC blood sample (94%). Tissue perfusion was assessed biologically (93%) and clinically (63%). Pulmonary oedema was detected and quantified mainly using echo (67%) and chest X-ray (61%). CONCLUSION: Our survey confirms that vasopressor support is not uncommon in COVID-19 ICU patients and suggests that different haemodynamic phenotypes may be observed. Ultrasounds were used by many respondents, to assess cardiac function but also to predict fluid responsiveness and quantify pulmonary oedema. Although we observed regional differences, current international guidelines were followed by most respondents.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Health Care Surveys , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Africa/epidemiology , Americas/epidemiology , Asia/epidemiology , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Management , Echocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Europe/epidemiology , Fluid Therapy , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Humans , Oxygen/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Pulmonary Edema/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/etiology , Shock/physiopathology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
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