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1.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1230: 340391, 2022 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031062

ABSTRACT

Protein sialylation participates many biological processes in a linkage-specific manner, and aberrant sialylation has been associated with many malignant diseases. Mass spectrometry-based quantitative N-glycoproteomics has been widely adopted for quantitative analysis of aberrant sialylation, yet multiplexing method at intact N-glycopeptides level is still lacking. Here we report our study of sialic acid linkage-specific quantitative N-glycoproteomics using selective alkylamidation and multiplex tandem mass tags (TMT)-labeling. With lung cancer as a model system, differential sialylation in cancer tissues relative to adjacent non-tumor tissues was characterized at the intact N-glycopeptide level with N-glycosite information. TMT-labeled intact N-glycopeptides with and without sialic acid alkylamidation were subject to reversed-phase liquid chromatography-nano-electron spray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (RPLC-nanoESI-MS/MS) analysis to provide comprehensive characterization of N-glycosylation with and without sialic acid at the intact N-glycopeptide level with structure and N-glycosite. In this study, 6384 intact N-glycopeptides without sialylation were identified and 521 differentially expressed intact N-glycopeptides from 254 intact N-glycoproteins were quantified. Eight intact N-glycoproteins responsible for N-glycan biosynthesis were identified as glycosyltransferases. In total, 307 sialylated intact N-glycopeptides with linkage-specific sialic acid residues were identified together with 29 N-glycans with α2,6-linked sialic acids and 55 N-glycans with α2,3-linked sialic acids. Intact N-glycoproteins with α2,6-sialylation were associated with coronavirus disease-(COVID)-19. Additionally, many types of N-glycosylation including terminal N-galactosylation, core and/or branch fucosylation, α2,6-sialylation and terminal bisecting N-acetylglucosamine were identified and quantified in intact N-glycoproteins from immunoglobulin family.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Acetylglucosamine , Glycopeptides/chemistry , Glycoproteins/chemistry , Glycosyltransferases , Humans , Polysaccharides/analysis , Sialic Acids/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
2.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997717

ABSTRACT

Many disease-causing viruses target sialic acids (Sias), a class of nine-carbon sugars known to coat the surface of many cells, including those in the lungs. Human beta coronaviridae, known for causing respiratory tract diseases, often bind Sias, and some preferentially bind to those with 9-O-Ac-modification. Currently, co-binding of SARS-CoV-2, a beta coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, to human Sias has been reported and its preference towards α2-3-linked Neu5Ac has been shown. Nevertheless, O-acetylated Sias-protein binding studies are difficult to perform, due to the ester lability. We studied the binding free energy differences between Neu5,9Ac2α2-3GalßpNP and its more stable 9-NAc mimic binding to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein using molecular dynamics and alchemical free energy simulations. We identified multiple Sia-binding pockets, including two novel sites, with similar binding affinities to those of MERS-CoV, a known co-binder of sialic acid. In our binding poses, 9-NAc and 9-OAc Sias bind similarly, suggesting an experimentally reasonable mimic to probe viral mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Binding Sites , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sialic Acids/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(18): e202201432, 2022 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729097

ABSTRACT

The interaction of the SARS CoV2 spike glycoprotein with two sialic acid-containing trisaccharides (α2,3 and α2,6 sialyl N-acetyllactosamine) has been demonstrated by NMR. The NMR-based distinction between the signals of those sialic acids in the glycans covalently attached to the spike protein and those belonging to the exogenous α2,3 and α2,6 sialyl N-acetyllactosamine ligands has been achieved by synthesizing uniformly 13 C-labelled trisaccharides at the sialic acid and galactose moieties. STD-1 H,13 C-HSQC NMR experiments elegantly demonstrate the direct interaction of the sialic acid residues of both trisaccharides with additional participation of the galactose moieties, especially for the α2,3-linked analogue. Additional experiments with the spike protein in the presence of a specific antibody for the N-terminal domain and with the isolated receptor binding and N-terminal domains of the spike protein unambiguously show that the sialic acid binding site is located at the N-terminal domain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Binding Sites , Galactose , Humans , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Sialic Acids/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Trisaccharides
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(10)2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116057

ABSTRACT

Blood pH is tightly maintained between 7.35 and 7.45, and acidosis (pH <7.3) indicates poor prognosis in sepsis, wherein lactic acid from anoxic tissues overwhelms the buffering capacity of blood. Poor sepsis prognosis is also associated with low zinc levels and the release of High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from activated and/or necrotic cells. HMGB1 added to whole blood at physiological pH did not bind leukocyte receptors, but lowering pH with lactic acid to mimic sepsis conditions allowed binding, implying the presence of natural inhibitor(s) preventing binding at normal pH. Testing micromolar concentrations of divalent cations showed that zinc supported the robust binding of sialylated glycoproteins with HMGB1. Further characterizing HMGB1 as a sialic acid-binding lectin, we found that optimal binding takes place at normal blood pH and is markedly reduced when pH is adjusted with lactic acid to levels found in sepsis. Glycan array studies confirmed the binding of HMGB1 to sialylated glycan sequences typically found on plasma glycoproteins, with binding again being dependent on zinc and normal blood pH. Thus, HMGB1-mediated hyperactivation of innate immunity in sepsis requires acidosis, and micromolar zinc concentrations are protective. We suggest that the potent inflammatory effects of HMGB1 are kept in check via sequestration by plasma sialoglycoproteins at physiological pH and triggered when pH and zinc levels fall in late stages of sepsis. Current clinical trials independently studying zinc supplementation, HMGB1 inhibition, or pH normalization may be more successful if these approaches are combined and perhaps supplemented by infusions of heavily sialylated molecules.


Subject(s)
Acidosis/blood , HMGB1 Protein/blood , Sepsis/blood , Sialoglycoproteins/blood , Zinc/blood , Acidosis/immunology , Acidosis/metabolism , Acidosis/pathology , Carrier Proteins , HMGB1 Protein/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Immunity, Innate , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Sepsis/immunology , Sepsis/pathology , Sialic Acids/chemistry , Sialoglycoproteins/chemistry , Zinc/metabolism
5.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100017, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910220

ABSTRACT

Through annual epidemics and global pandemics, influenza A viruses (IAVs) remain a significant threat to human health as the leading cause of severe respiratory disease. Within the last century, four global pandemics have resulted from the introduction of novel IAVs into humans, with components of each originating from avian viruses. IAVs infect many avian species wherein they maintain a diverse natural reservoir, posing a risk to humans through the occasional emergence of novel strains with enhanced zoonotic potential. One natural barrier for transmission of avian IAVs into humans is the specificity of the receptor-binding protein, hemagglutinin (HA), which recognizes sialic-acid-containing glycans on host cells. HAs from human IAVs exhibit "human-type" receptor specificity, binding exclusively to glycans on cells lining the human airway where terminal sialic acids are attached in the α2-6 configuration (NeuAcα2-6Gal). In contrast, HAs from avian viruses exhibit specificity for "avian-type" α2-3-linked (NeuAcα2-3Gal) receptors and thus require adaptive mutations to bind human-type receptors. Since all human IAV pandemics can be traced to avian origins, there remains ever-present concern over emerging IAVs with human-adaptive potential that might lead to the next pandemic. This concern has been brought into focus through emergence of SARS-CoV-2, aligning both scientific and public attention to the threat of novel respiratory viruses from animal sources. In this review, we summarize receptor-binding adaptations underlying the emergence of all prior IAV pandemics in humans, maintenance and evolution of human-type receptor specificity in subsequent seasonal IAVs, and potential for future human-type receptor adaptation in novel avian HAs.


Subject(s)
Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/metabolism , Influenza A virus/metabolism , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Adaptation, Physiological , Animals , Binding Sites , Biological Coevolution , Birds/virology , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/chemistry , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Humans , Influenza A virus/chemistry , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza in Birds/transmission , Influenza in Birds/virology , Influenza, Human/transmission , Influenza, Human/virology , Models, Molecular , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Respiratory System/virology , Sialic Acids/chemistry , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Species Specificity
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627906

ABSTRACT

The recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the global health crisis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. No evidence is yet available for CoV infection into hosts upon zoonotic disease outbreak, although the CoV epidemy resembles influenza viruses, which use sialic acid (SA). Currently, information on SARS-CoV-2 and its receptors is limited. O-acetylated SAs interact with the lectin-like spike glycoprotein of SARS CoV-2 for the initial attachment of viruses to enter into the host cells. SARS-CoV-2 hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) acts as the classical glycan-binding lectin and receptor-degrading enzyme. Most ß-CoVs recognize 9-O-acetyl-SAs but switched to recognizing the 4-O-acetyl-SA form during evolution of CoVs. Type I HE is specific for the 9-O-Ac-SAs and type II HE is specific for 4-O-Ac-SAs. The SA-binding shift proceeds through quasi-synchronous adaptations of the SA-recognition sites of the lectin and esterase domains. The molecular switching of HE acquisition of 4-O-acetyl binding from 9-O-acetyl SA binding is caused by protein-carbohydrate interaction (PCI) or lectin-carbohydrate interaction (LCI). The HE gene was transmitted to a ß-CoV lineage A progenitor by horizontal gene transfer from a 9-O-Ac-SA-specific HEF, as in influenza virus C/D. HE acquisition, and expansion takes place by cross-species transmission over HE evolution. This reflects viral evolutionary adaptation to host SA-containing glycans. Therefore, CoV HE receptor switching precedes virus evolution driven by the SA-glycan diversity of the hosts. The PCI or LCI stereochemistry potentiates the SA-ligand switch by a simple conformational shift of the lectin and esterase domains. Therefore, examination of new emerging viruses can lead to better understanding of virus evolution toward transitional host tropism. A clear example of HE gene transfer is found in the BCoV HE, which prefers 7,9-di-O-Ac-SAs, which is also known to be a target of the bovine torovirus HE. A more exciting case of such a switching event occurs in the murine CoVs, with the example of the ß-CoV lineage A type binding with two different subtypes of the typical 9-O-Ac-SA (type I) and the exclusive 4-O-Ac-SA (type II) attachment factors. The protein structure data for type II HE also imply the virus switching to binding 4-O acetyl SA from 9-O acetyl SA. Principles of the protein-glycan interaction and PCI stereochemistry potentiate the SA-ligand switch via simple conformational shifts of the lectin and esterase domains. Thus, our understanding of natural adaptation can be specified to how carbohydrate/glycan-recognizing proteins/molecules contribute to virus evolution toward host tropism. Under the current circumstances where reliable antiviral therapeutics or vaccination tools are lacking, several trials are underway to examine viral agents. As expected, structural and non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 are currently being targeted for viral therapeutic designation and development. However, the modern global society needs SARS-CoV-2 preventive and therapeutic drugs for infected patients. In this review, the structure and sialobiology of SARS-CoV-2 are discussed in order to encourage and activate public research on glycan-specific interaction-based drug creation in the near future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Acetylesterase/metabolism , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus/genetics , Esterases , Gene Transfer, Horizontal , Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism , Hemagglutinins, Viral/genetics , Humans , Lectins/metabolism , Pandemics , Polysaccharides , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Sialic Acids/chemistry , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Torovirus , Viral Fusion Proteins/genetics
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