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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(12): 1979, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775468
2.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(12): 1979, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775466
3.
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722823

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nurses working during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have reported elevated levels of anxiety, burnout and sleep disruption. Hospital administrators are in a unique position to mitigate or exacerbate stressful working conditions. The goal of this study was to capture the recommendations of nurses providing frontline care during the pandemic. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Semi-structured interviews were conducted during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, with 36 nurses living in Canada and working in Canada or the United States. FINDINGS: The following recommendations were identified from reflexive thematic analysis of interview transcripts: (1) The nurses emphasized the need for a leadership style that embodied visibility, availability and careful planning. (2) Information overload contributed to stress, and participants appealed for clear, consistent and transparent communication. (3) A more resilient healthcare supply chain was required to safeguard the distribution of equipment, supplies and medications. (4) Clear communication of policies related to sick leave, pay equity and workload was necessary. (5) Equity should be considered, particularly with regard to redeployment. (6) Nurses wanted psychological support offered by trusted providers, managers and peers. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Over-reliance on employee assistance programmes and other individualized approaches to virtual care were not well-received. An integrative systems-based approach is needed to address the multifaceted mental health outcomes and reduce the deleterious impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the nursing workforce. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Results of this study capture the recommendations made by nurses during in-depth interviews conducted early in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/nursing , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Occupational Health Services , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Canada , Communication , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Leadership , Male , Needs Assessment , Organizational Policy , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2 , Sick Leave , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , United States , Workload
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sick leave and turnover of nurses exacerbate an already existing nursing shortage during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany and other countries. Frequency and associated factors of sick leave and intention to quit among nurses need to be examined to maintain healthcare. METHODS: An online survey among nursing staff (N = 757) in German hospitals was conducted between May and July 2021. Sick leave days, intention to quit, working conditions, depression, anxiety and sleep disorder symptoms, effort-reward imbalance (ERI), COVID-19-related and sociodemographic variables were measured. Regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: The intention to quit was present in 18.9%. One third (32.5%) reported sick leave of ≥10 and 12.3% more than 25 days in 12 months. Significant predictors for ≥10 sick leave days were infection with SARS-CoV-2, a pre-existing illness, exhaustion, trust in colleagues and fear of becoming infected. Higher ERI reward levels, perception of sufficient staff and contact with infected patients were associated with lower odds for ≥10 sick leave days. Lower reward levels, having changed work departments during the pandemic, working part-time and higher depression levels significantly predicted turnover intention. CONCLUSION: Alarmingly, many nurses intend to quit working in healthcare. Perceived reward seems to buffer both sick leave and turnover intention. Enhancing protection from COVID-19 and reducing workload might also prevent sick leave. Depression prevention, improved change management and support of part-time workers could contribute to reducing turnover intention among nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nursing Staff, Hospital , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Intention , Job Satisfaction , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sick Leave , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686787

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused a major upheaval to the lives of people and placed a strain on societal mental health. The aim of this research is to estimate the impact of the pandemic on the mental condition of the Polish population measured through the consumption of relevant medication and medical leave of absence from the workplace. METHODS: We analyzed national-level data on the consumption of pharmaceuticals used in clinical practice in Poland in the treatment of depression and anxiety alongside medical absence in the workplace using the Interrupted Time Series model to estimate the significance of the pandemic. RESULTS: We found no significant change regarding the consumption of pharmaceuticals with the development of the pandemic. Conversely, medical leaves of absence for psychiatric reasons increased significantly with the onset of COVID-19. The influence was strongest in the diagnosis of anxiety or reaction to severe stress and weakest in recurrent depression. CONCLUSION: The pandemic had a significant influence on the ability to work for psychiatric patients in Poland but did not change pharmaceutical use. Physicians should consider the mental health of patients impacted by the anti-epidemic measures. Further study is needed to fully understand the long-term impact of the pandemic on mental health in Poland.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/drug therapy , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sick Leave
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686739

ABSTRACT

Effective interventions are needed for return-to-work (RTW) for individuals with chronic pain on long-term sick leave. In this study, a behavioral medicine physiotherapy protocol was systematically replicated and added to workplace components. The intervention was evaluated for fidelity and effects on target activities and work ability. A single-case experimental design was used with five participants. Daily and weekly ratings of personalized target activities at work as well as work ability were carried out throughout the study period of 26-28 weeks. Effects of the behavioral medicine physiotherapy intervention were evaluated for each individual using visual analysis of displayed graphs and quantitative non-overlap methods. Goal achievement for target activities was reviewed. Three participants completed the intervention. The results indicated an effect from the behavioral medicine physiotherapy intervention on task-specific self-efficacy for target activities, but no consistent effect on experience of target activities or work ability. All three participants had increased function in target activities in line with pre-defined goals. Fidelity to the intervention manual was good. Behavioral medicine physiotherapy can be successfully adapted to work disability and was here replicated in an RTW context for individuals with chronic pain. The intervention protocol should be further evaluated in large-scale studies.


Subject(s)
Behavioral Medicine , Chronic Pain , Chronic Pain/therapy , Humans , Physical Therapy Modalities , Research Design , Return to Work , Sick Leave
9.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(4): 240-248, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many adolescents have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic either directly by being infected with the virus or indirectly by lockdowns and restrictions influencing normal living. We aimed to investigate health, including symptoms of long COVID, in adolescents (aged 15-18 years) who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with a control group. METHODS: LongCOVIDKidsDK was a national, cross-sectional study carried out in Denmark, which included SARS-CoV-2-positive adolescents and matched controls. All Danish adolescents aged 15-18 years with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test during the period Jan 1, 2020, to July 12, 2021, and a control group matched (1:4) by age and sex were sent a survey from July 20, 2021. Participants had until Sept 15, 2021, to respond. Symptoms associated with COVID-19, school attendance, and health-related quality of life were investigated using ancillary questions and validated questionnaires (Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory [PedsQL] and Children's Somatic Symptoms Inventory-24 [CSSI-24]). Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04786353. FINDINGS: 24 315 adolescents with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (case group) and 97 257 matched controls were invited to participate. 3013 matched controls were excluded because of suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. 6630 (27·3%) responded in the case group and 21 640 (22·3%) responded and were eligible to participate in the control group. Across both groups, median age was 17·6 years (IQR 16·4-18·5), 16 277 (57·6%) of 28 270 responders were female, and 11 993 (42·4%) were male. Participants in the case group had greater odds of having at least one long COVID symptom lasting at least 2 months compared with the control group (3159 [61·9%] vs 12 340 [57·0%], odds ratio 1·22 [95% CI 1·15-1·30]; p<0·0001). Participants in the case group reported significantly lower symptom scores (ie, less somatic distress) on the CSSI-24 than in the control group: mean 10·7 (SD 11·4, median 7·0 [IQR 2·0-15·0]) versus 11·9 (10·6, 9·0 [4·0-17·0]; p<0·0001). Participants in the case group had better quality of life scores on the PedsQL than in the control group: physical functioning mean score 88·7 (SD 13·9, median 93·8 [IQR 84·4-100·0]) versus 86·5 (14·3, 90·6 [81·3-96·9]; p<0·0001); emotional functioning 77·1 (20·3, 80·0 [65·0-95·0]) versus 71·7 (21·4, 75·0 [60·0-90·0]; p<0·0001); social functioning 93·1 (12·5, 100·0 [90·0-100·0]) versus 88·4 (16·2, 95·0 [80·0-100·0]; p<0·0001); and school functioning 66·9 (22·5, 65·0 [60·0-85·0]) versus 62·9 (22·1, 65·0 [50·0-80·0]; p<0·0001). More participants in the case group than in the control group reported 16 or more sick days (1205 [18·2%] vs 2518 [11·6%]; p<0·0001) and 16 or more days of school absence (695 [10·5%] vs 1777 [8·2%]; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Participants with SARS-CoV-2-positive tests had more long-lasting symptoms and sick leave, whereas participants in the control group had more short-lasting symptoms and worse quality of life. Knowledge of long COVID in adolescents is important to guide clinical recognition and management of this condition. FUNDING: AP Møller and Chastine McKinney Møller Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Sick Leave/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Simul Healthc ; 17(1): 42-48, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662158

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Avoiding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) work-related infection in frontline healthcare workers is a major challenge. A massive training program was launched in our university hospital for anesthesia/intensive care unit and operating room staff, aiming at upskilling 2249 healthcare workers for COVID-19 patients' management. We hypothesized that such a massive training was feasible in a 2-week time frame and efficient in avoiding sick leaves. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study. Training focused on personal protective equipment donning/doffing and airway management in a COVID-19 simulated patient. The educational models used were in situ procedural and immersive simulation, peer-teaching, and rapid cycle deliberate practice. Self-learning organization principles were used for trainers' management. Ordinary disease quantity in full-time equivalent in March and April 2020 were compared with the same period in 2017, 2018, and 2019. RESULTS: A total of 1668 healthcare workers were trained (74.2% of the target population) in 99 training sessions over 11 days. The median number of learners per session was 16 (interquartile range = 9-25). In the first 5 days, the median number of people trained per weekday was 311 (interquartile range = 124-385). Sick leaves did not increase in March to April 2020 compared with the same period in the 3 preceding years. CONCLUSIONS: Massive training for COVID-19 patient management in frontline healthcare workers is feasible in a very short time and efficient in limiting the rate of sick leave. This experience could be used in the anticipation of new COVID-19 waves or for rapidly preparing hospital staff for an unexpected major health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , Sick Leave
11.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260453, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623646

ABSTRACT

A majority of SARS-CoV-2 infections are transmitted from a minority of infected subjects, some of which may be symptomatic or pre-symptomatic. We aimed to quantify potential infectiousness among asymptomatic healthcare workers (HCWs) in relation to prior or later symptomatic disease. We previously (at the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic) performed a cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 infections among 27,000 healthcare workers (HCWs) at work in the capital region of Sweden. We performed both SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and serology. Furthermore, the cohort was comprehensively followed for sick leave, both before and after sampling. In the present report, we used the cohort database to quantify potential infectiousness among HCWs at work. Those who had sick leave either before or after sampling were classified as post-symptomatic or pre-symptomatic, whereas the virus-positive subjects with no sick leave were considered asymptomatic. About 0.2% (19/9449) of HCW at work were potentially infectious and pre-symptomatic (later had disease) and 0.17% (16/9449) were potentially infectious and asymptomatic (never had sick leave either before nor after sampling). Thus, 33% and 28% of all the 57 potentially infectious subjects were pre-symptomatic or asymptomatic, respectively. When a questionnaire was administered to HCWs with past infection, only 10,5% of HCWs had had no indication at all of having had SARS-CoV-2 infection ("truly asymptomatic"). Our findings provide a unique quantification of the different groups of asymptomatic, potentially infectious HCWs.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Sick Leave/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sweden/epidemiology
12.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(12): 1979, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598478
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580840

ABSTRACT

Understanding the burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections among healthcare workers is a critical component to inform occupational health policy and strategy. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to map and analayse the available global evidence on the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections among healthcare workers. The random-effects adjusted pooled prevalence of COVID-19 among those studies that conducted the test using the antibody (Ab) method was 7% [95% CI: 3 to 17%]. The random-effects adjusted pooled prevalence of COVID-19 among those studies that conducted the test using the PCR method was 11% [95% CI: 7 to 16%]. We found the burden of COVID-19 among healthcare workers to be quite significant and therefore a cause for global health concern. Furthermore, COVID-19 infections among healthcare workers affect service delivery through workers' sick leave, the isolation of confirmed cases and quarantine of contacts, all of which place significant strain on an already shrunken health workforce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sick Leave
14.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260652, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560976

ABSTRACT

Healthcare and residential care workers represent two occupational groups that have, in particular, been at risk of Covid-19, its long-term consequences, and related sick leave. In this study, we investigated the predictors of prolonged sick leave among healthcare and residential workers due to non-hospitalized Covid-19 in the early period of the pandemic. This study is based on a patient register (n = 3209) and included non-hospitalized healthcare or residential care service workers with a positive RT- PCR for SARS-CoV-2 (n = 433) between March and August 2020. Data such as socio-demographics, clinical characteristics, and the length of sick leave because of Covid-19 and prior to the pandemic were extracted from the patient's electronic health records. Prolonged sick leave was defined as sick leave ≥ 3 weeks, based on the Swedish pandemic policy. A generalized linear model was used with a binary distribution, adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidity in order to predict prolonged sick leave. Of 433 (77% women) healthcare and residential care workers included in this study, 14.8% needed longer sick leave (> 3 weeks) due to Covid-19. Only 1.4% of the subjects were on sick leave because of long Covid. The risk of sick leave was increased two-fold among residential care workers (adjusted RR 2.14 [95% CI 1.31-3.51]). Depression/anxiety (adjusted RR 2.09 [95% CI 1.31-3.34]), obesity (adjusted RR 1.96 [95% CI 1.01-3.81]) and dyspnea at symptom onset (adjusted RR 2.47 [95% CI 1.55-3.92]), sick leave prior to the pandemic (3-12 weeks) (adjusted RR 2.23 [95% CI 1.21-4.10]) were associated with longer sick leave. From a public health perspective, considering occupational category, comorbidity, symptoms at onset, and sick leave prior to the pandemic as potential predictors of sick leave in healthcare may help prevent staff shortage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Sick Leave/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Depression/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sweden/epidemiology
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1914, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sick-leave due to COVID-19 vary in length and might lead to re-current episodes. The aim was to investigate recurrent sick leave due to COVID-19 during the first wave. METHODS: This is a registry-based cohort study. The study comprises all people with sickness benefit due to COVID-19 in Sweden in March 1-August 31, 2020. Data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency, the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, and Statistics Sweden were merged. RESULTS: Within the follow-up period of 4 months, 11,955 people were subject to sickness benefit due to COVID-19, whereof 242 people (2.0%) took recurrent sick leave due to COVID-19, and of those 136 (56.2%) remained on sick leave at the end of follow-up. People with recurrent sick leave were older, more often women, and more likely to have been on sick leave prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: A group of people presented with recurrent sick leave due to COVID-19. For half of them, the second sick leave lasted throughout the follow-up. People with recurrent sick leave differ in several aspects from those with shorter sick leave. To capture long-term sick-leave patterns due to COVID-19, a longer period of follow-up is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Sick Leave , Sweden/epidemiology
16.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(12): e868-e870, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550608

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of COVID-19 and the duration of sick leave among asymptomatic healthcare workers (HCWs) after vaccination with BNT162b2. METHODS: From October 2020 to March 2021, we determined the incidence of COVID-19 in a cohort of 671 asymptomatic HCWs before and after the vaccination. We also analyzed the days required to obtain a negative RT-PCR result after infection. RESULTS: Prior to vaccination 105 (15.6%) HCWs were positive. Positive cases were reduced to 42 (7.5%) after the vaccination period (P < 0.0001). A negative RT-PCR was observed at the first control in 80% of vaccinated HCWs and only in 37% before vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Even in case of asymptomatic infection, vaccinated HCWs have a reduced incidence and a shorter period of sick leave than before vaccination, suggesting vaccination impacts on the sustainability of the health system and labor costs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Asymptomatic Infections , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sick Leave , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534041

ABSTRACT

This study aims to extract and explain the territorially varied relation between socioeconomic factors and absence rate from work due to own illness or disability in European countries in the years 2006-2020. For this purpose, several causes were identified, depending on men and women. To explain the absenteeism and emphasize gender as well as intercountry differences, geographically weighted regression was applied. For men, there were five main variables that influenced sickness absence: body mass index, the average rating of satisfaction by job situation, employment in the manufacturing sector, social benefits by sickness/health care, and performing health-enhancing physical activity. For women, there were five main variables that increased the absence rate: the risk of poverty or social exclusion, long-standing illness or health problems, employment in the manufacturing sector, social protection benefits, and deaths due to pneumonia. Based on the conducted research, it was proven that the sickness absence observed in the analyzed countries was highly gender and spatially diverged. Understanding the multifactorial factors playing an important role in the occurrence of regional and gender-divergent sickness absence may be a good predictor of subsequent morbidity and mortality as well as be very useful to better prevent this outcome.


Subject(s)
Absenteeism , Sick Leave , Causality , Employment , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male
18.
Prev Med ; 154: 106873, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510416

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has stretched the U.S. social safety net and prompted federal legislation designed to ameliorate the pandemic's health and economic impacts. We surveyed a nationally representative cohort of 1222 U.S. adults in April 2020 and November 2020 to evaluate changes in public opinion about 11 social safety net policies and the role of government over the course of the pandemic. A majority of U.S. adults supported six policies at both time points, including policies guaranteeing two weeks of paid sick leave; enacting universal health insurance; increasing the federal minimum wage; and increasing government spending on construction projects, business tax credits, and employment education and training. From April to November 2020, public support was stable for nine of the 11 policies but declined nearly 10 percentage points for policies guaranteeing two weeks paid sick leave (from 76% support in April 2020 to 67% support in November 2020) and extending unemployment insurance benefits (51% to 42%). Declines in support for these two policies were concentrated among those with higher incomes, more education, in better health status, the employed, and those with health insurance. The share of respondents believing in a strong role of government also declined from 33% in April to 26% in November 2020 (p > 0.05). Despite these shifts, we observed consistent majority support for several policies enacted during the pandemic, including guaranteeing paid sick leave and business tax credits, as well as employment-related policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sick Leave
19.
Br J Gen Pract ; 71(712): 525-526, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504765
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e054332, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462975

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We provide an account of real-world effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines among healthcare workers (HCWs) at a tertiary healthcare system and report trends in SARS-CoV-2 infections and subsequent utilisation of COVID-19-specific short-term disability leave (STDL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Summary data on 27 291 employees at a tertiary healthcare system in the Greater Houston metropolitan area between 15 December 2020 and 5 June 2021. The initial 12-week vaccination programme period (15 December 2020 to 6 March 2021) was defined as a rapid roll-out phase. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: At the pandemic onset, HCW testing and surveillance was conducted where SARS-CoV-2-positive HCWs were offered STDL. Deidentified summary data of SARS-CoV-2 infections and STDL utilisation among HCWs were analysed. Prevaccination and postvaccination trends in SARS-CoV-2 positivity and STDL utilisation rates were evaluated. RESULTS: Updated for 5 June 2021, 98.2% (n=26 791) of employees received a full or partial dose of one of the approved mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. The vaccination rate during the rapid roll-out phase was approximately 3700 doses/7 days. The overall mean weekly SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates among HCWs were significantly lower following vaccine roll-out (2.4%), compared with prevaccination period (11.8%, p<0.001). An accompanying 69.8% decline in STDL utilisation was also observed (315 to 95 weekly leaves). During the rapid roll-out phase, SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate among Houston Methodist HCWs declined by 84.3% (8.9% to 1.4% positivity rate), compared with a 54.7% (12.8% to 5.8% positivity rate) decline in the Houston metropolitan area. CONCLUSION: Despite limited generalisability of regional hospital-based studies-where factors such as the emergence of viral variants and population-level vaccine penetrance may differ-accounts of robust HCW vaccination programmes provide important guidance for sustaining a critical resource to provide safe and effective care for patients with and without COVID-19 across healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Sick Leave , Tertiary Healthcare
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