Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.057
Filter
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237555

ABSTRACT

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare demyelinating disease caused by infection with JC Polyomavirus (JCPyV). Despite the identification of the disease and isolation of the causative pathogen over fifty years ago, no antiviral treatments or prophylactic vaccines exist. Disease onset is usually associated with immunosuppression, and current treatment guidelines are limited to restoring immune function. This review summarizes the drugs and small molecules that have been shown to inhibit JCPyV infection and spread. Paying attention to historical developments in the field, we discuss key steps of the virus lifecycle and antivirals known to inhibit each event. We review current obstacles in PML drug discovery, including the difficulties associated with compound penetrance into the central nervous system. We also summarize recent findings in our laboratory regarding the potent anti-JCPyV activity of a novel compound that antagonizes the virus-induced signaling events necessary to establish a productive infection. Understanding the current panel of antiviral compounds will help center the field for future drug discovery efforts.


Subject(s)
JC Virus , Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal , Polyomavirus Infections , Humans , Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal/drug therapy , JC Virus/physiology , Signal Transduction
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237060

ABSTRACT

The last two decades have boosted research on sphingolipids as bioactive and signaling molecules [...].


Subject(s)
Signal Transduction , Sphingolipids
3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1114870, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236659

ABSTRACT

Background: Although more recent evidence has indicated COVID-19 is prone to azoospermia, the common molecular mechanism of its occurrence remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study is to further investigate the mechanism of this complication. Methods: To discover the common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and pathways of azoospermia and COVID-19, integrated weighted co-expression network (WGCNA), multiple machine learning analyses, and single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) were performed. Results: Therefore, we screened two key network modules in the obstructive azoospermia (OA) and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) samples. The differentially expressed genes were mainly related to the immune system and infectious virus diseases. We then used multiple machine learning methods to detect biomarkers that differentiated OA from NOA. Enrichment analysis showed that azoospermia patients and COVID-19 patients shared a common IL-17 signaling pathway. In addition, GLO1, GPR135, DYNLL2, and EPB41L3 were identified as significant hub genes in these two diseases. Screening of two different molecular subtypes revealed that azoospermia-related genes were associated with clinicopathological characteristics of age, hospital-free-days, ventilator-free-days, charlson score, and d-dimer of patients with COVID-19 (P < 0.05). Finally, we used the Xsum method to predict potential drugs and single-cell sequencing data to further characterize whether azoospermia-related genes could validate the biological patterns of impaired spermatogenesis in cryptozoospermia patients. Conclusion: Our study performs a comprehensive and integrated bioinformatics analysis of azoospermia and COVID-19. These hub genes and common pathways may provide new insights for further mechanism research.


Subject(s)
Azoospermia , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Azoospermia/genetics , Azoospermia/diagnosis , Azoospermia/pathology , Biomarkers , Signal Transduction , Microfilament Proteins
4.
J Virol ; 97(6): e0068923, 2023 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245290

ABSTRACT

Goblet cells and their secreted mucus are important elements of the intestinal mucosal barrier, which allows host cells to resist invasion by intestinal pathogens. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine enteric virus that causes severe diarrhea in pigs and causes large economic losses to pork producers worldwide. To date, the molecular mechanisms by which PDCoV regulates the function and differentiation of goblet cells and disrupts the intestinal mucosal barrier remain to be determined. Here, we report that in newborn piglets, PDCoV infection disrupts the intestinal barrier: specifically, there is intestinal villus atrophy, crypt depth increases, and tight junctions are disrupted. There is also a significant reduction in the number of goblet cells and the expression of MUC-2. In vitro, using intestinal monolayer organoids, we found that PDCoV infection activates the Notch signaling pathway, resulting in upregulated expression of HES-1 and downregulated expression of ATOH-1 and thereby inhibiting the differentiation of intestinal stem cells into goblet cells. Our study shows that PDCoV infection activates the Notch signaling pathway to inhibit the differentiation of goblet cells and their mucus secretion, resulting in disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier. IMPORTANCE The intestinal mucosal barrier, mainly secreted by the intestinal goblet cells, is a crucial first line of defense against pathogenic microorganisms. PDCoV regulates the function and differentiation of goblet cells, thereby disrupting the mucosal barrier; however, the mechanism by which PDCoV disrupts the barrier is not known. Here, we report that in vivo, PDCoV infection decreases villus length, increases crypt depth, and disrupts tight junctions. Moreover, PDCoV activates the Notch signaling pathway, inhibiting goblet cell differentiation and mucus secretion in vivo and in vitro. Thus, our results provide a novel insight into the mechanism underlying intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction caused by coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Goblet Cells , Receptors, Notch , Swine Diseases , Animals , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Goblet Cells/cytology , Signal Transduction , Swine , Swine Diseases/pathology , Swine Diseases/virology , Stem Cells/cytology , Cell Differentiation , Receptors, Notch/metabolism
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245103

ABSTRACT

Inflammation represents the innate immune response of the body tissues against invading microbes and cellular danger signals, and, in this way, it is beneficial [...].


Subject(s)
Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Signal Transduction
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243065

ABSTRACT

Since its inception by the late Geoffrey Burnstock in the early 1970s [...].


Subject(s)
Biological Phenomena , Receptors, Purinergic , Receptors, Purinergic/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Adenosine Triphosphate/physiology
8.
Life Sci Alliance ; 6(8)2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239304

ABSTRACT

Critical COVID-19 is characterized by lack of early type I interferon-mediated host defense and subsequent hyper-inflammation in the lungs. Aberrant activation of macrophages and neutrophils has been reported to lead to excessive activation of innate immunological pathways. It has recently been suggested that the DNA-sensing cGAS-STING pathway drives pathology in the SARS-CoV-2-infected lungs, but mechanistic understanding from in vivo models is needed. Here, we tested whether STING is involved in COVID-19-like disease using the K18-hACE2 mouse model. We report that disease development after SARS-CoV-2 infection is unaltered in STING-deficient K18-hACE2 mice. In agreement with this, STING deficiency did not affect control of viral replication or production of interferons and inflammatory cytokines. This was accompanied by comparable profiles of infiltrating immune cells into the lungs of infected mice. These data do not support a role for STING in COVID-19 pathology and calls for further investigation into the pathogenesis of critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Mice , Animals , Immunity, Innate , Signal Transduction , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism
9.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1085456, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327391

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to clarify the effects of two processed forms of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) on immunosuppression caused by cyclophosphamide (CTX) in mice. In the CTX-induced immunosuppressive model, mice were given either steamed American ginseng (American ginseng red, AGR) or raw American ginseng (American ginseng soft branch, AGS) by intragastric administration. Serum and spleen tissues were collected, and the pathological changes in mice spleens were observed by conventional HE staining. The expression levels of cytokines were detected by ELISA, and the apoptosis of splenic cells was determined by western blotting. The results showed that AGR and AGS could relieve CTX-induced immunosuppression through the enhanced immune organ index, improved cell-mediated immune response, increased serum levels of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2) and immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM), as well as macrophage activities including carbon clearance and phagocytic index. AGR and AGS downregulated the expression of BAX and elevated the expression of Bcl-2, p-P38, p-JNK, and p-ERK in the spleens of CTX-injected animals. Compared to AGS, AGR significantly improved the number of CD4+CD8-T lymphocytes, the spleen index, and serum levels of IgA, IgG, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. The expression of the ERK/MAPK pathway was markedly increased. These findings support the hypothesis that AGR and AGS are effective immunomodulatory agents capable of preventing immune system hypofunction. Future research may investigate the exact mechanism to rule out any unforeseen effects of AGR and AGS.


Subject(s)
Panax , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Mice , Animals , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Immunosuppression Therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Macrophages , Immunoglobulin G/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Immunoglobulin A/pharmacology
10.
Elife ; 122023 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327355

ABSTRACT

Proinflammatory agonists provoke the expression of cell surface adhesion molecules on endothelium in order to facilitate leukocyte infiltration into tissues. Rigorous control over this process is important to prevent unwanted inflammation and organ damage. Protein L-isoaspartyl O-methyltransferase (PIMT) converts isoaspartyl residues to conventional methylated forms in cells undergoing stress-induced protein damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of PIMT in vascular homeostasis. PIMT is abundantly expressed in mouse lung endothelium and PIMT deficiency in mice exacerbated pulmonary inflammation and vascular leakage to LPS(lipopolysaccharide). Furthermore, we found that PIMT inhibited LPS-induced toll-like receptor signaling through its interaction with TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and its ability to methylate asparagine residues in the coiled-coil domain. This interaction was found to inhibit TRAF6 oligomerization and autoubiquitination, which prevented NF-κB transactivation and subsequent expression of endothelial adhesion molecules. Separately, PIMT also suppressed ICAM-1 expression by inhibiting its N-glycosylation, causing effects on protein stability that ultimately translated into reduced EC(endothelial cell)-leukocyte interactions. Our study has identified PIMT as a novel and potent suppressor of endothelial activation. Taken together, these findings suggest that therapeutic targeting of PIMT may be effective in limiting organ injury in inflammatory vascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Lipopolysaccharides , Protein D-Aspartate-L-Isoaspartate Methyltransferase , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6 , Animals , Mice , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Signal Transduction , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6/genetics , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6/metabolism , Protein D-Aspartate-L-Isoaspartate Methyltransferase/genetics , Protein D-Aspartate-L-Isoaspartate Methyltransferase/metabolism
11.
Pol J Microbiol ; 72(2): 143-154, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326672

ABSTRACT

Both pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients with lung injury and altered pulmonary vascular anatomy or function are more susceptible to infections. The purpose of the study is to ascertain whether individuals with COPD or PAH are affected synergistically by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Data sources for the construction of a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and the identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) included three RNA-seq datasets from the GEO database (GSE147507, GSE106986, and GSE15197). Then, relationships between miRNAs, common DEGs, and transcription factor (TF) genes were discovered. Functional analysis using Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and other databases, as well as the forecasting of antiviral medications for COPD and PAH patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, were also performed. Eleven common DEGs were found in the three datasets, and their biological functions were primarily enriched in the control of protein modification processes, particularly phosphorylation. Growth factor receptor binding reflects molecular function. KEGG analysis indicated that co-DEGs mainly activate Ras, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways and act on focal adhesions. NFKB1 interacted with HSA-miR-942 in the TF-miRNA-DEGs synergistic regulatory network. Acetaminophen is considered an effective drug candidate. There are some connections between COPD and PAH and the development of COVID-19. This research could aid in developing COVID-19 vaccines and medication candidates that would work well as COVID-19 therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics
12.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 19(5): 289-304, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324211

ABSTRACT

Current therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) reduce both relapses and relapse-associated worsening of disability, which is assumed to be mainly associated with transient infiltration of peripheral immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS). However, approved therapies are less effective at slowing disability accumulation in patients with MS, in part owing to their lack of relevant effects on CNS-compartmentalized inflammation, which has been proposed to drive disability. Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is an intracellular signalling molecule involved in the regulation of maturation, survival, migration and activation of B cells and microglia. As CNS-compartmentalized B cells and microglia are considered central to the immunopathogenesis of progressive MS, treatment with CNS-penetrant BTK inhibitors might curtail disease progression by targeting immune cells on both sides of the blood-brain barrier. Five BTK inhibitors that differ in selectivity, strength of inhibition, binding mechanisms and ability to modulate immune cells within the CNS are currently under investigation in clinical trials as a treatment for MS. This Review describes the role of BTK in various immune cells implicated in MS, provides an overview of preclinical data on BTK inhibitors and discusses the (largely preliminary) data from clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Tyrosine Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Central Nervous System/pathology , Signal Transduction
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 976512, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320841

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 prognoses suggests that a proportion of patients develop fibrosis, but there is no evidence to indicate whether patients have progression of mesenchymal transition (MT) in the lungs. The role of MT during the COVID-19 pandemic remains poorly understood. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we profiled the transcriptomes of cells from the lungs of healthy individuals (n = 45), COVID-19 patients (n = 58), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients (n = 64) human lungs to map the entire MT change. This analysis enabled us to map all high-resolution matrix-producing cells and identify distinct subpopulations of endothelial cells (ECs) and epithelial cells as the primary cellular sources of MT clusters during COVID-19. For the first time, we have identied early and late subgroups of endothelial mesenchymal transition (EndMT) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) using analysis of public databases for single-cell sequencing. We assessed epithelial subgroups by age, smoking status, and gender, and the data suggest that the proportional changes in EMT in COVID-19 are statistically significant. Further enumeration of early and late EMT suggests a correlation between invasive genes and COVID-19. Finally, EndMT is upregulated in COVID-19 patients and enriched for more inflammatory cytokines. Further, by classifying EndMT as early or late stages, we found that early EndMT was positively correlated with entry factors but this was not true for late EndMT. Exploring the MT state of may help to mitigate the fibrosis impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Cytokines , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/genetics , Fibrosis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
14.
Trials ; 23(1): 433, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) places an extraordinary burden on individuals and their families, as well as on the healthcare system. Despite recent advances in glucose sensors and insulin pump technology, only a minority of patients meet their glucose targets and face the risk of both acute and long-term complications, some of which are life-threatening. The JAK-STAT pathway is critical for the immune-mediated pancreatic beta cell destruction in T1D. Our pre-clinical data show that inhibitors of JAK1/JAK2 prevent diabetes and reverse newly diagnosed diabetes in the T1D non-obese diabetic mouse model. The goal of this study is to determine if the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor baricitinib impairs type 1 diabetes autoimmunity and preserves beta cell function. METHODS: This will be as a multicentre, two-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial in individuals aged 10-30 years with recent-onset T1D. Eighty-three participants will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio within 100 days of diagnosis to receive either baricitinib 4mg/day or placebo for 48 weeks and then monitored for a further 48 weeks after stopping study drug. The primary outcome is the plasma C-peptide 2h area under the curve following ingestion of a mixed meal. Secondary outcomes include HbA1c, insulin dose, continuous glucose profile and adverse events. Mechanistic assessments will characterize general and diabetes-specific immune responses. DISCUSSION: This study will determine if baricitinib slows the progressive, immune-mediated loss of beta cell function that occurs after clinical presentation of T1D. Preservation of beta cell function would be expected to improve glucose control and prevent diabetes complications, and justify additional trials of baricitinib combined with other therapies and of its use in at-risk populations to prevent T1D. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ANZCTR ACTRN12620000239965 . Registered on 26 February 2020. CLINICALTRIALS: gov NCT04774224. Registered on 01 March 2021.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Animals , Azetidines , C-Peptide , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Glucose/therapeutic use , Humans , Janus Kinases/therapeutic use , Mice , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Purines , Pyrazoles , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , STAT Transcription Factors/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction , Sulfonamides , Treatment Outcome
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1012027, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318196

ABSTRACT

Ectonucleotidases modulate inflammatory responses by balancing extracellular ATP and adenosine (ADO) and might be involved in COVID-19 immunopathogenesis. Here, we explored the contribution of extracellular nucleotide metabolism to COVID-19 severity in mild and severe cases of the disease. We verified that the gene expression of ectonucleotidases is reduced in the whole blood of patients with COVID-19 and is negatively correlated to levels of CRP, an inflammatory marker of disease severity. In line with these findings, COVID-19 patients present higher ATP levels in plasma and reduced levels of ADO when compared to healthy controls. Cell type-specific analysis revealed higher frequencies of CD39+ T cells in severely ill patients, while CD4+ and CD8+ expressing CD73 are reduced in this same group. The frequency of B cells CD39+CD73+ is also decreased during acute COVID-19. Interestingly, B cells from COVID-19 patients showed a reduced capacity to hydrolyze ATP into ADP and ADO. Furthermore, impaired expression of ADO receptors and a compromised activation of its signaling pathway is observed in COVID-19 patients. The presence of ADO in vitro, however, suppressed inflammatory responses triggered in patients' cells. In summary, our findings support the idea that alterations in the metabolism of extracellular purines contribute to immune dysregulation during COVID-19, possibly favoring disease severity, and suggest that ADO may be a therapeutic approach for the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine/metabolism , Adenosine Diphosphate , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Humans , Purines , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction
16.
Phytother Res ; 37(4): 1590-1605, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319168

ABSTRACT

Usually, in aerobic metabolism, natural materials including nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids can experience auxiliary injury by oxidative responses. This damage produced by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species has been identified as "oxidative stress." As a natural polyphenol got from red wine and peanuts, resveratrol is one of the most eminent anti-aging mixtures. Based on many studies', resveratrol hinders destructive effects of inflammatory causes and reactive oxygen radicals in several tissues. The nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 is a factor related to transcription with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant possessions which is complicated by enzyme biotransformation and biosynthesis of lipids and carbohydrates. This review provides current understanding and information about the character of resveratrol against oxidative stress and regulation of inflammation via Nrf2 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Oxidative Stress , Humans , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Inflammation/drug therapy , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Reactive Nitrogen Species , Lipids
17.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 174(5): 639-646, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315744

ABSTRACT

We studied the anti-tumor effect of fangchinoline (FAN) against human colorectal cancer cell lines CCL-244 and SW480 and analyzed the mechanism of FAN action. The cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by MTT test and Annexin V-PI staining; caspase-3 activity was measured by Western blotting. The expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins was assessed by real-time PCR, Western blotting, and gene transfection. It was found that FAN inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cell lines CCL-244 and SW480 in a dose-dependent manner. The caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO could reverse the inhibitory effect of FAN. Moreover, FAN significantly increased the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4, and CHOP in CCL-244 and SW480 cells. In addition, endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid or CHOP knockdown could prevent FAN-induced apoptosis. Thus, FAN induced apoptosis of human colorectal cancer through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Signal Transduction , Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Caspase 3 , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Apoptosis
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315346

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may impair immune modulating host microRNAs, causing severe disease. Our objectives were to determine the salivary miRNA profile in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection at presentation and compare the expression in those with and without severe outcomes. Children <18 years with SARS-CoV-2 infection evaluated at two hospitals between March 2021 and February 2022 were prospectively enrolled. Severe outcomes included respiratory failure, shock or death. Saliva microRNAs were quantified with RNA sequencing. Data on 197 infected children (severe = 45) were analyzed. Of the known human miRNAs, 1606 (60%) were measured and compared across saliva samples. There were 43 miRNAs with ≥2-fold difference between severe and non-severe cases (adjusted p-value < 0.05). The majority (31/43) were downregulated in severe cases. The largest between-group differences involved miR-4495, miR-296-5p, miR-548ao-3p and miR-1273c. These microRNAs displayed enrichment for 32 gene ontology pathways including viral processing and transforming growth factor beta and Fc-gamma receptor signaling. In conclusion, salivary miRNA levels are perturbed in children with severe COVID-19, with the majority of miRNAs being down regulated. Further studies are required to validate and determine the utility of salivary miRNAs as biomarkers of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Humans , Child , Saliva/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Signal Transduction
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 159: 146-159, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311847

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an entero-pathogenic coronavirus, which belongs to the genus Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, causing lethal watery diarrhea in piglets. Previous studies have shown that PEDV has developed an antagonistic mechanism by which it evades the antiviral activities of interferon (IFN), such as the sole accessory protein open reading frame 3 (ORF3) being found to inhibit IFN-ß promoter activities, but how this mechanism used by PEDV ORF3 inhibits activation of the type I signaling pathway remains not fully understood. Thus, in this present study, we showed that PEDV ORF3 inhibited both polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C))- and IFNα2b-stimulated transcription of IFN-ß and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) mRNAs. The expression levels of antiviral proteins in the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated pathway was down-regulated in cells with over-expression of PEDV ORF3 protein, but global protein translation remained unchanged and the association of ORF3 with RLRs-related antiviral proteins was not detected, implying that ORF3 only specifically suppressed the expression of these signaling molecules. At the same time, we also found that the PEDV ORF3 protein inhibited interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation and poly(I:C)-induced nuclear translocation of IRF3, which further supported the evidence that type I IFN production was abrogated by PEDV ORF3 through interfering with RLRs signaling. Furthermore, PEDV ORF3 counteracted transcription of IFN-ß and ISGs mRNAs, which were triggered by over-expression of signal proteins in the RLRs-mediated pathway. However, to our surprise, PEDV ORF3 initially induced, but subsequently reduced the transcription of IFN-ß and ISGs mRNAs to normal levels. Additionally, mRNA transcriptional levels of signaling molecules located at IFN-ß upstream were not inhibited, but elevated by PEDV ORF3 protein. Collectively, these results demonstrate that inhibition of type I interferon signaling by PEDV ORF3 can be realized through down-regulating the expression of signal molecules in the RLRs-mediated pathway, but not via inhibiting their mRNAs transcription. This study points to a new mechanism evolved by PEDV through blockage of the RLRs-mediated pathway by ORF3 protein to circumvent the host's antiviral immunity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Interferon Type I , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Open Reading Frames , Signal Transduction , Antiviral Agents , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Interferon Type I/metabolism
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(3): e1011297, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311522

ABSTRACT

Macrophages are a first line of defense against pathogens. However, certain invading microbes modify macrophage responses to promote their own survival and growth. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is a human-adapted intracellular pathogen that exploits macrophages as an intracellular niche. It was previously reported that M.tb rapidly activates cAMP Response Element Binding Protein (CREB), a transcription factor that regulates diverse cellular responses in macrophages. However, the mechanism(s) underlying CREB activation and its downstream roles in human macrophage responses to M.tb are largely unknown. Herein we determined that M.tb-induced CREB activation is dependent on signaling through MAPK p38 in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Using a CREB-specific inhibitor, we determined that M.tb-induced CREB activation leads to expression of immediate early genes including COX2, MCL-1, CCL8 and c-FOS, as well as inhibition of NF-kB p65 nuclear localization. These early CREB-mediated signaling events predicted that CREB inhibition would lead to enhanced macrophage control of M.tb growth, which we observed over days in culture. CREB inhibition also led to phosphorylation of RIPK3 and MLKL, hallmarks of necroptosis. However, this was unaccompanied by cell death at the time points tested. Instead, bacterial control corresponded with increased colocalization of M.tb with the late endosome/lysosome marker LAMP-1. Increased phagolysosomal fusion detected during CREB inhibition was dependent on RIPK3-induced pMLKL, indicating that M.tb-induced CREB signaling limits phagolysosomal fusion through inhibition of the necroptotic signaling pathway. Altogether, our data show that M.tb induces CREB activation in human macrophages early post-infection to create an environment conducive to bacterial growth. Targeting certain aspects of the CREB-induced signaling pathway may represent an innovative approach for development of host-directed therapeutics to combat TB.


Subject(s)
Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Macrophages , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Humans , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Necroptosis , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Phagosomes/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Tuberculosis/metabolism , Tuberculosis/microbiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL