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1.
Cells ; 11(22)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199805

ABSTRACT

Long Intergenic Non-Protein Coding RNA 665 (LINC00665) is an RNA gene located on the minus strand of chromosome 19. This lncRNA acts as a competing endogenous RNA for miR-4458, miR-379-5p, miR-551b-5p, miR-3619-5p, miR-424-5p, miR-9-5p, miR-214-3p, miR-126-5p, miR-149-3p, miR-379-5p, miR-665, miR-34a-5p, miR-186-5p, miR-138-5p, miR-181c-5p, miR-98, miR-195-5p, miR-224-5p, miR-3619, miR-708, miR-101, miR-1224-5p, miR-34a-5p, and miR-142-5p. Via influencing expression of these miRNAs, it can enhance expression of a number of oncogenes. Moreover, LINC00665 can influence activity of Wnt/ß-Catenin, TGF-ß, MAPK1, NF-κB, ERK, and PI3K/AKT signaling. Function of this lncRNA has been assessed through gain-of-function tests and/or loss-of-function studies. Furthermore, diverse research groups have evaluated its expression levels in tissue samples using microarray and RT-qPCR techniques. In this manuscript, we have summarized the results of these studies and categorized them in three sections, i.e., cell line studies, animal studies, and investigations in clinical samples.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs , Neoplasms , RNA, Long Noncoding , Animals , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Neoplasms/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics
2.
Hum Immunol ; 83(8-9): 613-617, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2179262

ABSTRACT

The NF-κB signaling pathway is a key regulator of inflammation in the response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This pathway has been implicated in the hyperinflammatory state that characterizes the severe forms of COVID-19. The genetic variation of the NF-κB components might thus explain the predisposition to critical outcomes of this viral disease. We aimed to study the role of the common NFKB1 rs28362491, NFKBIA rs696 and NFKBIZ rs3217713 variants in the risk of developing severe COVID-19 with ICU admission. A total of 470 Spanish patients requiring respiratory support in the ICU were studied (99 deceased and 371 survivors). Compared to healthy population controls (N = 300), the NFKBIA rs696 GG genotype was increased in the patients (p = 0.045; OR = 1.37). The NFKBIZ rs3217713 insertion homozygosis was associated with a significant risk of death (p = 0.02; OR = 1.76) and was also related to increased D-dimer values (p = 0.0078, OR = 1.96). This gene has been implicated in sepsis in mice and rats. Moreover, we found a trend toward lower expression of the NFKBIZ transcript in total blood from II patients. In conclusion, variants in the NF-κB genes might be associated with the risk of developing severe COVID-19, with a significant effect of the NFKBIZ gene on mortality. Our results were based on a limited number of patients and require validation in larger cohorts from other populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , NF-kappa B , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/genetics , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1041682, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141716

ABSTRACT

Understanding the targets and interactions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) related to the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) signaling pathway is essential for developing interventions, which would enable directing the host inflammatory response regulation toward protective immunity. In the RIG-I signaling pathway, lncRNAs are involved in the important processes of ubiquitination, phosphorylation, and glycolysis, thus promoting the transport of the interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7 (IRF3 and IRF7) and the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) into the nucleus, and activating recruitment of type I interferons (IFN-I) and inflammatory factors to the antiviral action site. In addition, the RIG-I signaling pathway has recently been reported to contain the targets of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)-related lncRNAs. The molecules in the RIG-I signaling pathway are directly regulated by the lncRNA-microRNAs (miRNAs)-messenger RNA (mRNA) axis. Therefore, targeting this axis has become a novel strategy for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In this paper, the studies on the regulation of the RIG-I signaling pathway by lncRNAs during viral infections and cancer are comprehensively analyzed. The aim is to provide a solid foundation of information for conducting further detailed studies on lncRNAs and RIG-I in the future and also contribute to clinical drug development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Signal Transduction , Ubiquitination , Interferon Type I/genetics
4.
Vet Microbiol ; 275: 109596, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132636

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious and virulent intestinal infectious disease characterized by diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration. Although PEDV-induced apoptosis has been characterized in vitro and vivo, the functional proteins related to this event and the mechanism still need further research. Here, we firstly demonstrated that PEDV epidemic strain JS2013 could trigger apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Then, PEDV 3CLpro was further identified as a crucial inducer of PEDV-triggered apoptosis. In addition, using site-directed mutagenesis to disrupt the protease activity of 3CLpro by His41 and Cys144 mutations, we found that 3CLpro-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial damage significantly reduced, suggesting that the protease activity of 3CLpro was essential for apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. Furthermore, PEDV 3CLpro could synergistically promote MAVS-mediated apoptosis and MAVS was involved in the signaling pathway of 3CLpro-induced apoptosis, but no direct interaction between PEDV 3CLpro and MAVS was detected by immunoprecipitation assays. Our findings provide important insights into the role of 3CLpro in the pathogenicity of PEDV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Swine , Animals , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Apoptosis , Signal Transduction , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Diarrhea/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary
5.
Metabolism ; 133: 155236, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can cause multiple organ damages as well as metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and new onset of diabetes. The insulin/IGF signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating energy metabolism and cell survival, but little is known about the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this work was to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 infection impairs the insulin/IGF signaling pathway in the host cell/tissue, and if so, the potential mechanism and association with COVID-19 pathology. METHODS: To determine the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on insulin/IGF signaling pathway, we utilized transcriptome datasets of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells and tissues from public repositories for a wide range of high-throughput gene expression data: autopsy lungs from COVID-19 patients compared to the control from non-COVID-19 patients; lungs from a human ACE2 transgenic mouse infected with SARS-CoV-2 compared to the control infected with mock; human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived liver organoids infected with SARS-CoV-2; adipose tissues from a mouse model of COVID-19 overexpressing human ACE2 via adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) compared to the control GFP after SARS-CoV-2 infection; iPS-derived human pancreatic cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 compared to the mock control. Gain and loss of IRF1 function models were established in HEK293T and/or Calu3 cells to evaluate the impact on insulin signaling. To understand the mechanistic regulation and relevance with COVID-19 risk factors, such as older age, male sex, obesity, and diabetes, several transcriptomes of human respiratory, metabolic, and endocrine cells and tissue were analyzed. To estimate the association with COVID-19 severity, whole blood transcriptomes of critical patients with COVID-19 compared to those of hospitalized noncritical patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection impaired insulin/IGF signaling pathway genes, such as IRS, PI3K, AKT, mTOR, and MAPK, in the host lung, liver, adipose tissue, and pancreatic cells. The impairments were attributed to interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), and its gene expression was highly relevant to risk factors for severe COVID-19; increased with aging in the lung, specifically in men; augmented by obese and diabetic conditions in liver, adipose tissue, and pancreatic islets. IRF1 activation was significantly associated with the impaired insulin signaling in human cells. IRF1 intron variant rs17622656-A, which was previously reported to be associated with COVID-19 prevalence, increased the IRF1 gene expression in human tissue and was frequently found in American and European population. Critical patients with COVID-19 exhibited higher IRF1 and lower insulin/IGF signaling pathway genes in the whole blood compared to hospitalized noncritical patients. Hormonal interventions, such as dihydrotestosterone and dexamethasone, ameliorated the pathological traits in SARS-CoV-2 infectable cells and tissues. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides the first scientific evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection impairs the insulin/IGF signaling pathway in respiratory, metabolic, and endocrine cells and tissues. This feature likely contributes to COVID-19 severity with cell/tissue damage and metabolic abnormalities, which may be exacerbated in older, male, obese, or diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insulin , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Insulin/metabolism , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
6.
Cells ; 11(22)2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123529

ABSTRACT

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) belongs to a broad class of cytokines involved in the regulation of various homeostatic and pathological processes. These activities range from regulating embryonic development, wound healing and ageing, inflammation, and immunity, including COVID-19. In this review, we summarise the role of IL-6 signalling pathways in cancer biology, with particular emphasis on cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis formation. Targeting principal components of IL-6 signalling (e.g., IL-6Rs, gp130, STAT3, NF-κB) is an intensively studied approach in preclinical cancer research. It is of significant translational potential; numerous studies strongly imply the remarkable potential of IL-6 signalling inhibitors, especially in metastasis suppression.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Signal Transduction , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
7.
J Infect ; 85(4): 365-373, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121901

ABSTRACT

Cyclophilins (Cyps) are a subgroup of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases) that contain a highly conserved domain of PPIases. Sixteen Cyps have been identified in humans, among which the functions of five classical Cyp subtypes (CypA, B, C, D, and 40) have been studied in more detail. Cyps are widely expressed in almost all human tissues and are involved in several intracellular signaling pathways such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, cell migration, and apoptosis. Several studies have also demonstrated that Cyps play an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, cancer, and other diseases. However, as regulators of intercellular communication, Cyps have increasingly attracted attention as a result of their implications in viral infection. The specific motifs of Cyps can be targeted by viral proteins and thus promote either a viral infection or an antiviral response. This review highlights the present understanding of Cyps in viral infection and immune response. These effects will facilitate revealing the molecular mechanisms of several diseases induced by viruses and may provide novel insight into the development of corresponding drug-based treatment methods.


Subject(s)
Cyclophilins , Virus Diseases , Cyclophilins/metabolism , Humans , Immunity , Signal Transduction , Viral Proteins
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19443, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119409

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infect the small intestine and cause swine enteric coronavirus disease. The mucosal innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infection. The modulatory effect of PDCoV and PEDV coinfection on antiviral signaling cascades of the intestinal mucosa has not been reported. Here, we investigate the gene expression levels of pattern recognition receptors, downstream inflammatory signaling pathway molecules, and associated cytokines on the intestinal mucosa of neonatal piglets either infected with a single- or co-infected with PDCoV and PEDV using real-time PCR. The results demonstrate that single-PEDV regulates the noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathway through RIG-I regulation. In contrast, single-PDCoV and PDCoV/PEDV coinfection regulate proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines through TRAF6-mediated canonical NF-κB and IRF7 signaling pathways through TLRs. Although PDCoV/PEDV coinfection demonstrated an earlier modulatory effect in these signaling pathways, the regulation of proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines was observed simultaneously during single viral infection. These results suggested that PDCoV/PEDV coinfection may have synergistic effects that lead to enhanced viral evasion of the mucosal innate immune response.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , NF-kappa B , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6/genetics , Signal Transduction , Cytokines , Diarrhea
10.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 509, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108801

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system and a well-known functional receptor for the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into host cells. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought ACE2 into the spotlight, and ACE2 expression in tumors and its relationship with SARS-COV-2 infection and prognosis of cancer patients have received extensive attention. However, the association between ACE2 expression and tumor therapy and prognosis, especially in breast cancer, remains ambiguous and requires further investigation. We have previously reported that ACE2 is elevated in drug-resistant breast cancer cells, but the exact function of ACE2 in drug resistance and progression of this malignant disease has not been explored. METHODS: The expression of ACE2 and HIF-1α in parental and drug-resistant breast cancer cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions was analyzed by Western blot and qRT-PCR methods. The protein levels of ACE2 in plasma samples from breast cancer patients were examined by ELISA. The relationship between ACE2 expression and breast cancer treatment and prognosis was analyzed using clinical specimens and public databases. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in breast cancer cells were measured by using a fluorescent probe. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or lentivirus-mediated shRNA was used to silence ACE2 and HIF-1α expression in cellular models. The effect of ACE2 knockdown on drug resistance in breast cancer was determined by Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8)-based assay, colony formation assay, apoptosis and EdU assay. RESULTS: ACE2 expression is relatively low in breast cancer cells, but increases rapidly and specifically after exposure to anticancer drugs, and remains high after resistance is acquired. Mechanistically, chemotherapeutic agents increase ACE2 expression in breast cancer cells by inducing intracellular ROS production, and increased ROS levels enhance AKT phosphorylation and subsequently increase HIF-1α expression, which in turn upregulates ACE2 expression. Although ACE2 levels in plasma and cancer tissues are lower in breast cancer patients compared with healthy controls, elevated ACE2 in patients after chemotherapy is a predictor of poor treatment response and an unfavorable prognostic factor for survival in breast cancer patients. CONCLUSION: ACE2 is a gene in breast cancer cells that responds rapidly to chemotherapeutic agents through the ROS-AKT-HIF-1α axis. Elevated ACE2 modulates the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to anticancer drugs by optimizing the balance of intracellular ROS. Moreover, increased ACE2 is not only a predictor of poor response to chemotherapy, but is also associated with a worse prognosis in breast cancer patients. Thus, our findings provide novel insights into the spatiotemporal differences in the function of ACE2 in the initiation and progression of breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Prognosis , Signal Transduction , RNA, Small Interfering , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism
11.
Viral Immunol ; 35(9): 579-585, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107328

ABSTRACT

Tumor necrosis factor superfamily 14 (TNFSF14) (LIGHT) is an interesting costimulatory molecule associated with T lymphocyte activation, and it mainly exerts its biological effects by binding to its receptors herpesvirus invasion mediator (HVEM) and lymphotoxin-ß receptor. Research shows that TNFSF14 plays a critical regulatory role in immune responses to viral infection, but its role is different in different diseases. TNFSF14 can be a cytokine neutralization target during novel coronavirus infection, and anti-TNFSF14 monoclonal antibody treatment can reduce the risk of respiratory failure and mortality. When the host is infected with adenovirus, TNFSF14 can be used as an inflammatory biomarker to indicate whether there was an adenovirus infection in the host and the degree of disease caused by viral infection. When hosts suffer influenza virus infection, the TNFSF14-HVEM signaling pathway can stimulate the maturation and proliferation of memory CD8+ T cells, which helps the host immune system stimulate a second immune response against respiratory virus infection. TNFSF14 can act as an immune adjuvant and enhance the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA vaccine when the host is infected with HPV. During hepatitis virus infection, TNFSF14 acts as a proinflammatory factor, participates in inflammation and causes tissue damage. In conclusion, TNFSF14 plays different and significant roles in diverse viral infections. This article reviews the current research on TNFSF14 in antiviral immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Antiviral Agents , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
12.
Biochem Genet ; 60(6): 2052-2068, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094662

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus that can lead to respiratory symptoms and damage many organs such as heart, kidney, intestine, brain and liver. It has not been clearly documented whether myocardial injury is caused by direct infection of cardiomyocytes, lung injury, or other unknown mechanisms. The gene expression profile of GSE150392 was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The processing of high-throughput sequencing data and the screening of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were implemented by R software. The R software was employed to analyze the Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the DEGs was constructed by the STRING website. The Cytoscape software was applied for the visualization of PPI network and the identification of hub genes. The statistical analysis was performed by the GraphPad Prism software to verify the hub genes. A total of 516 up-regulated genes and 191 down-regulated genes were screened out. The top 1 enrichment items of GO in biological process (BP), Cellular Component (CC), and Molecular Function (MF) were type I interferon signaling pathway, sarcomere, and receptor ligand activity, respectively. The top 10 enrichment pathways, including TNF signaling pathway, were identified by KEGG enrichment analysis. A PPI network was established, consisting of 613 nodes and 3,993 edges. The 12 hub genes were confirmed as statistically significant, which was verified by GSE151879 dataset. In conclusion, the hub genes of human iPSC-cardiomyocytes infected with SARS-CoV-2 were identified through bioinformatics analysis, which may be used as biomarkers for further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Gene Expression Profiling , Myocytes, Cardiac , COVID-19/genetics , Computational Biology , Signal Transduction/genetics
13.
Curr Drug Res Rev ; 14(3): 157-159, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089603
15.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066284

ABSTRACT

Three unique 5,6-seco-hexahydrodibenzopyrans (seco-HHDBP) machaeridiols A-C, reported previously from Machaerium Pers., have displayed potent activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, and E. faecalis (VRE). In order to enrich the pipeline of natural product-derived antimicrobial compounds, a series of novel machaeridiol-based analogs (1-17) were prepared by coupling stemofuran, pinosylvin, and resveratrol legends with monoterpene units R-(-)-α-phellandrene, (-)-p-mentha-2,8-diene-1-ol, and geraniol, and their inhibitory activities were profiled against MRSA ATCC 1708, VRE ATCC 700221, and cancer signaling pathways. Compounds 5 and 11 showed strong in vitro activities with MIC values of 2.5 µg/mL and 1.25 µg/mL against MRSA, respectively, and 2.50 µg/mL against VRE, while geranyl analog 14 was found to be moderately active (MIC 5 µg/mL). The reduction of the double bonds of the monoterpene unit of compound 5 resulted in 17, which had the same antibacterial potency (MIC 1.25 µg/mL and 2.50 µg/mL) as its parent, 5. Furthermore, a combination study between seco-HHDBP 17 and HHDBP machaeriol C displayed a synergistic effect with a fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) value of 0.5 against MRSA, showing a four-fold decrease in the MIC values of both 17 and machaeriol C, while no such effect was observed between vancomycin and 17. Compounds 11 and 17 were further tested in vivo against nosocomial MRSA at a single intranasal dose of 30 mg/kg in a murine model, and both compounds were not efficacious under these conditions. Finally, compounds 1-17 were profiled against a panel of luciferase genes that assessed the activity of complex cancer-related signaling pathways (i.e., transcription factors) using T98G glioblastoma multiforme cells. Among the compounds tested, the geranyl-substituted analog 14 exhibited strong inhibition against several signaling pathways, notably Smad, Myc, and Notch, with IC50 values of 2.17 µM, 1.86 µM, and 2.15 µM, respectively. In contrast, the anti-MRSA actives 5 and 17 were found to be inactive (IC50 > 20 µM) across the panel of these cancer-signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Biological Products , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Neoplasms , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Luciferases , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors , Vancomycin/pharmacology
16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 982246, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065496

ABSTRACT

Results of previous studies provided evidence for the existence of a functional gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) system in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, which exerted an inhibitory action on the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis of this species. Herein, we further elucidated the intracellular signaling pathways mediating in sea bass GnIH actions and the potential interactions with sea bass kisspeptin (Kiss) signaling. Although GnIH1 and GnIH2 had no effect on basal CRE-luc activity, they significantly decreased forskolin-elicited CRE-luc activity in COS-7 cells transfected with their cognate receptor GnIHR. Moreover, an evident increase in SRE-luc activity was noticed when COS-7 cells expressing GnIHR were challenged with both GnIH peptides, and this stimulatory action was significantly reduced by two inhibitors of the PKC pathway. Notably, GnIH2 antagonized Kiss2-evoked CRE-luc activity in COS-7 cells expressing GnIHR and Kiss2 receptor (Kiss2R). However, GnIH peptides did not alter NFAT-RE-luc activity and ERK phosphorylation levels. These data indicate that sea bass GnIHR signals can be transduced through the PKA and PKC pathways, and GnIH can interfere with kisspeptin actions by reducing its signaling. Our results provide additional evidence for the understanding of signaling pathways activated by GnIH peptides in teleosts, and represent a starting point for the study of interactions with multiple neuroendocrine factors on cell signaling.


Subject(s)
Bass , Animals , Bass/physiology , COS Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chorionic Gonadotropin , Kisspeptins/metabolism , Signal Transduction
17.
Cell ; 185(21): 3857-3876, 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060512

ABSTRACT

The discovery of the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway arose from investigations of how cells respond to interferons (IFNs), revealing a paradigm in cell signaling conserved from slime molds to mammals. These discoveries revealed mechanisms underlying rapid gene expression mediated by a wide variety of extracellular polypeptides including cytokines, interleukins, and related factors. This knowledge has provided numerous insights into human disease, from immune deficiencies to cancer, and was rapidly translated to new drugs for autoimmune, allergic, and infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Despite these advances, major challenges and opportunities remain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Janus Kinases , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0232222, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053139

ABSTRACT

Over the last 2 years, several global virus-host interactome studies have been published with SARS-CoV-2 proteins with the purpose of better understanding how specific viral proteins can subvert or utilize different cellular processes to promote viral infection and pathogenesis. However, most of the virus-host protein interactions have not yet been confirmed experimentally, and their biological significance is largely unknown. The goal of this study was to verify the interaction of NSP5, the main protease of SARS-CoV-2, with the host epigenetic factor histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and test if HDAC2 is required for NSP5-mediated inhibition of the type I interferon signaling pathway. Our results show that NSP5 can significantly reduce the expression of a subset of immune response genes such as IL-6, IL-1ß, and IFNß, which requires NSP5's protease activity. We also found that NSP5 can inhibit Sendai virus-, RNA sensor-, and DNA sensor-mediated induction of IFNß promoter, block the IFN response pathway, and reduce the expression of IFN-stimulated genes. We also provide evidence for HDAC2 interacting with IRF3, and NSP5 can abrogate their interaction by binding to both IRF3 and HDAC2. In addition, we found that HDAC2 plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of IFNß and IFN-induced promoters, but our results indicate that HDAC2 is not involved in NSP5-mediated inhibition of IFNß gene expression. Taken together, our data show that NSP5 interacts with HDAC2 but NSP5 inhibits the IFNß gene expression and interferon-signaling pathway in an HDAC2-independent manner. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 has developed multiple strategies to antagonize the host antiviral response, such as blocking the IFN signaling pathway, which favors the replication and spreading of the virus. A recent SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction mapping revealed that the main viral protease NSP5 interacts with the host epigenetic factor HDAC2, but the interaction was not confirmed experimentally and its biological importance remains unclear. Here, we not only verified the interaction of HDAC2 with NSP5, but we also found that HDAC2 also binds to IRF3, and NSP5 can disrupt the IRF3-HDAC2 complex. Furthermore, our results show that NSP5 can efficiently repress the IFN signaling pathway regardless of whether viral infections, RNA, or DNA sensors activated it. However, our data indicate that HDAC2 is not involved in NSP5-mediated inhibition of IFNß promoter induction and IFNß gene expression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Histone Deacetylase 2/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Signal Transduction , Interferon-beta/genetics , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Interferons , Viral Proteins/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , DNA , RNA , Viral Proteases , Interferon Type I/metabolism
19.
Nature ; 609(7928): 815-821, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050415

ABSTRACT

Lysosomal dysfunction has been increasingly linked to disease and normal ageing1,2. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), a hallmark of lysosome-related diseases, can be triggered by diverse cellular stressors3. Given the damaging contents of lysosomes, LMP must be rapidly resolved, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, using an unbiased proteomic approach, we show that LMP stimulates a phosphoinositide-initiated membrane tethering and lipid transport (PITT) pathway for rapid lysosomal repair. Upon LMP, phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase type 2α (PI4K2A) accumulates rapidly on damaged lysosomes, generating high levels of the lipid messenger phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. Lysosomal phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate in turn recruits multiple oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related protein (ORP) family members, including ORP9, ORP10, ORP11 and OSBP, to orchestrate extensive new membrane contact sites between damaged lysosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum. The ORPs subsequently catalyse robust endoplasmic reticulum-to-lysosome transfer of phosphatidylserine and cholesterol to support rapid lysosomal repair. Finally, the lipid transfer protein ATG2 is also recruited to damaged lysosomes where its activity is potently stimulated by phosphatidylserine. Independent of macroautophagy, ATG2 mediates rapid membrane repair through direct lysosomal lipid transfer. Together, our findings identify that the PITT pathway maintains lysosomal membrane integrity, with important implications for numerous age-related diseases characterized by impaired lysosomal function.


Subject(s)
Lysosomes , Phosphatidylinositols , Signal Transduction , Autophagy-Related Proteins/metabolism , Biological Transport , Cholesterol/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Intracellular Space/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Lysosomes/pathology , Oxysterols/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositols/metabolism , Phosphatidylserines/metabolism , Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/metabolism , Proteomics , Receptors, Steroid/metabolism
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