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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(3): 565-582, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell injury is a common nidus of renal injury in patients and consistent with the high prevalence of AKI reported during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This cell type expresses integrin α5 (ITGA5), which is essential to the Tie2 signaling pathway. The microRNA miR-218-5p is upregulated in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) after hypoxia, but microRNA regulation of Tie2 in the EPC lineage is unclear. METHODS: We isolated human kidney-derived EPCs (hkEPCs) and surveyed microRNA target transcripts. A preclinical model of ischemic kidney injury was used to evaluate the effect of hkEPCs on capillary repair. We used a genetic knockout model to evaluate the effect of deleting endogenous expression of miR-218 specifically in angioblasts. RESULTS: After ischemic in vitro preconditioning, miR-218-5p was elevated in hkEPCs. We found miR-218-5p bound to ITGA5 mRNA transcript and decreased ITGA5 protein expression. Phosphorylation of 42/44 MAPK decreased by 73.6% in hkEPCs treated with miR-218-5p. Cells supplemented with miR-218-5p downregulated ITGA5 synthesis and decreased 42/44 MAPK phosphorylation. In a CD309-Cre/miR-218-2-LoxP mammalian model (a conditional knockout mouse model designed to delete pre-miR-218-2 exclusively in CD309+ cells), homozygotes at e18.5 contained avascular glomeruli, whereas heterozygote adults showed susceptibility to kidney injury. Isolated EPCs from the mouse kidney contained high amounts of ITGA5 and showed decreased migratory capacity in three-dimensional cell culture. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the critical regulatory role of miR-218-5p in kidney EPC migration, a finding that may inform efforts to treat microvascular kidney injury via therapeutic cell delivery.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Endothelial Progenitor Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Progenitor Cells/pathology , Integrin alpha5/metabolism , MicroRNAs/physiology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Receptor, TIE-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686818

ABSTRACT

The annual meeting "Signal Transduction-Receptors, Mediators and Genes" of the Signal Transduction Society (STS) is an interdisciplinary conference which is open to all scientists sharing a common interest in the elucidation of the signaling pathways mediating physiological or pathological processes in the health and disease of humans, animals, plants, fungi, prokaryotes, and protists. The 24th meeting on signal transduction was held from 15 to 17 November 2021 in Weimar, Germany. As usual, keynote presentations by invited scientists introduced the respective workshops, and were followed by speakers chosen from the submitted abstracts. A special workshop focused on "Target Identification and Interaction". Ample time was reserved for the discussion of the presented data during the workshops. Unfortunately, due to restrictions owing to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the poster sessions-and thus intensive scientific discussions at the posters-were not possible. In this report, we provide a concise summary of the various workshops and further aspects of the scientific program.


Subject(s)
Signal Transduction/physiology , Biomedical Research , Germany , Societies, Scientific
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 825358, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662589

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) raises the issue of how hypoxia destroys normal physiological function and host immunity against pathogens. However, there are few or no comprehensive omics studies on this effect. From an evolutionary perspective, animals living in complex and changeable marine environments might develop signaling pathways to address bacterial threats under hypoxia. In this study, the ancient genomic model animal Takifugu obscurus and widespread Vibrio parahaemolyticus were utilized to study the effect. T. obscurus was challenged by V. parahaemolyticus or (and) exposed to hypoxia. The effects of hypoxia and infection were identified, and a theoretical model of the host critical signaling pathway in response to hypoxia and infection was defined by methods of comparative metabolomics and proteomics on the entire liver. The changing trends of some differential metabolites and proteins under hypoxia, infection or double stressors were consistent. The model includes transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling pathways, and the consistent changing trends indicated that the host liver tended toward cell proliferation. Hypoxia and infection caused tissue damage and fibrosis in the portal area of the liver, which may be related to TGF-ß1 signal transduction. We propose that LRG (leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein) is widely involved in the transition of the TGF-ß1/Smad signaling pathway in response to hypoxia and pathogenic infection in vertebrates as a conserved molecule.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Takifugu/metabolism , Takifugu/microbiology , Vibrio Infections/metabolism , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/pathogenicity , Animals , Epidermal Growth Factor/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Metabolomics/methods , Proteomics/methods , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Vibrio Infections/microbiology
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 799558, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662582

ABSTRACT

The poor outcome of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is associated with systemic hyperinflammatory response and immunopathology. Although inflammasome and oxidative stress have independently been implicated in COVID-19, it is poorly understood whether these two pathways cooperatively contribute to disease severity. Herein, we found an enrichment of CD14highCD16- monocytes displaying inflammasome activation evidenced by caspase-1/ASC-speck formation in severe COVID-19 patients when compared to mild ones and healthy controls, respectively. Those cells also showed aberrant levels of mitochondrial superoxide and lipid peroxidation, both hallmarks of the oxidative stress response, which strongly correlated with caspase-1 activity. In addition, we found that NLRP3 inflammasome-derived IL-1ß secretion by SARS-CoV-2-exposed monocytes in vitro was partially dependent on lipid peroxidation. Importantly, altered inflammasome and stress responses persisted after short-term patient recovery. Collectively, our findings suggest oxidative stress/NLRP3 signaling pathway as a potential target for host-directed therapy to mitigate early COVID-19 hyperinflammation and also its long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Caspase 1/metabolism , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitochondria/pathology , Monocytes/pathology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662662

ABSTRACT

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is a transcriptional activator of the cell protection gene that binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE). Therefore, Nrf2 protects cells and tissues from oxidative stress. Normally, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) inhibits the activation of Nrf2 by binding to Nrf2 and contributes to Nrf2 break down by ubiquitin proteasomes. In moderate oxidative stress, Keap1 is inhibited, allowing Nrf2 to be translocated to the nucleus, which acts as an antioxidant. However, under unusually severe oxidative stress, the Keap1-Nrf2 mechanism becomes disrupted and results in cell and tissue damage. Oxide-containing atmospheric environment generally contributes to the development of respiratory diseases, possibly leading to the failure of the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway. Until now, several studies have identified changes in Keap1-Nrf2 signaling in models of respiratory diseases, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)/acute lung injury (ALI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and asthma. These studies have confirmed that several Nrf2 activators can alleviate symptoms of respiratory diseases. Thus, this review describes how the expression of Keap1-Nrf2 functions in different respiratory diseases and explains the protective effects of reversing this expression.


Subject(s)
NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Diseases/metabolism , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Humans , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650418

ABSTRACT

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome is the most common cause of respiratory failure among critically ill patients, and its importance has been heightened during the COVID-19 pandemic. Even with the best supportive care, the mortality rate in the most severe cases is 40-50%, and the only pharmacological agent shown to be of possible benefit has been steroids. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been tested in several pre-clinical models of lung injury and been found to have significant therapeutic benefit related to: (a) potent immunomodulation; (b) secretion of epithelial and endothelial growth factors; and (c) augmentation of host defense to infection. Initial translational efforts have shown signs of promise, but the results have not yielded the anticipated outcomes. One potential reason is the relatively low survival of MSCs in inflammatory conditions as shown in several studies. Therefore, strategies to boost the survival of MSCs are needed to enhance their therapeutic effect. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) may represent one such possibility as they are G-protein coupled receptors expressed by MSCs and control several facets of cell behavior. This review summarizes some of the existing literature about PARs and MSCs and presents possible future areas of investigation in order to develop potential, PAR-modified MSCs with enhanced therapeutic efficiency.


Subject(s)
Graft Survival/genetics , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Receptors, Proteinase-Activated/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Survival/genetics , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Receptors, Proteinase-Activated/genetics , Receptors, Proteinase-Activated/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Transfection , Treatment Outcome
7.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(3): 166322, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is both a consequence and determinant of outcomes in COVID-19. The kidney is one of the major organs infected by the causative virus, SARS-CoV-2. Viral entry into cells requires the viral spike protein, and both the virus and its spike protein appear in the urine of COVID-19 patients with AKI. We examined the effects of transfecting the viral spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 in kidney cell lines. METHODS: HEK293, HEK293-ACE2+ (stably overexpressing ACE2), and Vero E6 cells having endogenous ACE2 were transfected with SARS-CoV-2 spike or control plasmid. Assessment of gene and protein expression, and syncytia formation was performed, and the effects of quercetin on syncytia formation examined. FINDINGS: Spike transfection in HEK293-ACE2+ cells caused syncytia formation, cellular sloughing, and focal denudation of the cell monolayer; transfection in Vero E6 cells also caused syncytia formation. Spike expression upregulated potentially nephrotoxic genes (TNF-α, MCP-1, and ICAM1). Spike upregulated the cytoprotective gene HO-1 and relevant signaling pathways (p-Akt, p-STAT3, and p-p38). Quercetin, an HO-1 inducer, reduced syncytia formation and spike protein expression. INTERPRETATION: The major conclusions of the study are: 1) Spike protein expression in kidney cells provides a relevant model for the study of maladaptive and adaptive responses germane to AKI in COVID-19; 2) such spike protein expression upregulates HO-1; and 3) quercetin, an HO-1 inducer, may provide a clinically relevant/feasible protective strategy in AKI occurring in the setting of COVID-19. FUNDING: R01-DK119167 (KAN), R01-AI100911 (JPG), P30-DK079337; R01-DK059600 (AA).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Binding/physiology , Quercetin/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/physiology , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Up-Regulation/physiology , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects
8.
Cell Signal ; 92: 110253, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634748

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is one of the major regulators of cardiovascular homeostasis and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) mediates the main deleterious effects resulting from the hyperactivation of this hormonal system. Beta-arrestins are multifunctional proteins that regulate the desensitization and internalization of G protein-coupled receptors. After the discovery of beta-arrestins, many efforts have been made towards characterizing and distinguishing this new signaling pathway for drug discovery. Here, we summarize recent advances that address the beta-arrestin signaling in the cardiovascular system, focusing on the activation of the AT1R.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , beta-Arrestins/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Oligopeptides/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction/physiology
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 696, 2022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621270

ABSTRACT

Despite encouraging preclinical data, therapies to reduce ARDS mortality remains a globally unmet need, including during the COVID-19 pandemic. We previously identified extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT) as a novel damage-associated molecular pattern protein (DAMP) via TLR4 ligation which regulates inflammatory cascade activation. eNAMPT is tightly linked to human ARDS by biomarker and genotyping studies in ARDS subjects. We now hypothesize that an eNAMPT-neutralizing mAb will significantly reduce the severity of ARDS lung inflammatory lung injury in diverse preclinical rat and porcine models. Sprague Dawley rats received eNAMPT mAb intravenously following exposure to intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or to a traumatic blast (125 kPa) but prior to initiation of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) (4 h). Yucatan minipigs received intravenous eNAMPT mAb 2 h after initiation of septic shock and VILI (12 h). Each rat/porcine ARDS/VILI model was strongly associated with evidence of severe inflammatory lung injury with NFkB pathway activation and marked dysregulation of the Akt/mTORC2 signaling pathway. eNAMPT neutralization dramatically reduced inflammatory indices and the severity of lung injury in each rat/porcine ARDS/VILI model (~ 50% reduction) including reduction in serum lactate, and plasma levels of eNAMPT, IL-6, TNFα and Ang-2. The eNAMPT mAb further rectified NFkB pathway activation and preserved the Akt/mTORC2 signaling pathway. These results strongly support targeting the eNAMPT/TLR4 inflammatory pathway as a potential ARDS strategy to reduce inflammatory lung injury and ARDS mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Chest Syndrome/metabolism , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Swine
10.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(12): 1156, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585874

ABSTRACT

Lots of cell death initiator and effector molecules, signalling pathways and subcellular sites have been identified as key mediators in both cell death processes in cancer. The XDeathDB visualization platform provides a comprehensive cell death and their crosstalk resource for deciphering the signaling network organization of interactions among different cell death modes associated with 1461 cancer types and COVID-19, with an aim to understand the molecular mechanisms of physiological cell death in disease and facilitate systems-oriented novel drug discovery in inducing cell deaths properly. Apoptosis, autosis, efferocytosis, ferroptosis, immunogenic cell death, intrinsic apoptosis, lysosomal cell death, mitotic cell death, mitochondrial permeability transition, necroptosis, parthanatos, and pyroptosis related to 12 cell deaths and their crosstalk can be observed systematically by the platform. Big data for cell death gene-disease associations, gene-cell death pathway associations, pathway-cell death mode associations, and cell death-cell death associations is collected by literature review articles and public database from iRefIndex, STRING, BioGRID, Reactom, Pathway's commons, DisGeNET, DrugBank, and Therapeutic Target Database (TTD). An interactive webtool, XDeathDB, is built by web applications with R-Shiny, JavaScript (JS) and Shiny Server Iso. With this platform, users can search specific interactions from vast interdependent networks that occur in the realm of cell death. A multilayer spectral graph clustering method that performs convex layer aggregation to identify crosstalk function among cell death modes for a specific cancer. 147 hallmark genes of cell death could be observed in detail in these networks. These potential druggable targets are displayed systematically and tailoring networks to visualize specified relations is available to fulfil user-specific needs. Users can access XDeathDB for free at https://pcm2019.shinyapps.io/XDeathDB/ .


Subject(s)
Cell Death/physiology , Regulated Cell Death/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cluster Analysis , Databases, Factual , Humans , Necroptosis , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/physiopathology , Phagocytosis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Software
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 750969, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551506

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. A large number of clinical studies found high-level expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, which fuels the rapid development of the disease. However, the specific molecular mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we found that SARS-CoV-2 Nsp5 can induce the expression of cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-2 in Calu-3 and THP1 cells. Further research found that Nsp5 enhances cytokine expression through activating the NF-κB signaling pathway. Subsequently, we investigated the upstream effectors of the NF-κB signal pathway on Nsp5 overexpression and discovered that Nsp5 increases the protein level of MAVS. Moreover, Nsp5 can promote the SUMOylation of MAVS to increase its stability and lead to increasing levels of MAVS protein, finally triggering activation of NF-κB signaling. The knockdown of MAVS and the inhibitor of SUMOylation treatment can attenuate Nsp5-mediated NF-κB activation and cytokine induction. We identified a novel role of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp5 to enhance cytokine production by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/immunology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sumoylation/physiology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/biosynthesis , Interleukin-2/biosynthesis , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Signal Transduction/physiology , Sumoylation/drug effects , THP-1 Cells , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis , Vero Cells
12.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(7): 614-625, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550333

ABSTRACT

p97 processes ubiquitinated substrates and plays a central role in cellular protein homeostasis. Here, we report a series of cryo-EM structures of the substrate-engaged human p97 complex with resolutions ranging from 2.9 to 3.8 Å that captured 'power-stroke'-like motions of both the D1 and D2 ATPase rings of p97. A key feature of these structures is the critical conformational changes of the intersubunit signaling (ISS) motifs, which tighten the binding of nucleotides and neighboring subunits and contribute to the spiral staircase conformation of the D1 and D2 rings. In addition, we determined the cryo-EM structure of human p97 in complex with NMS-873, a potent p97 inhibitor, at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The structures showed that NMS-873 binds at a cryptic groove in the D2 domain and interacts with the ISS motif, preventing its conformational change and thus blocking substrate translocation allosterically.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/chemistry , Protein Folding , Proteostasis/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Valosin Containing Protein/metabolism , Acetanilides/pharmacology , Animals , Benzothiazoles/pharmacology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation/physiology , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Ubiquitinated Proteins/metabolism , Valosin Containing Protein/antagonists & inhibitors
13.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(2): 357-374, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Injury to kidney podocytes often results in chronic glomerular disease and consecutive nephron malfunction. For most glomerular diseases, targeted therapies are lacking. Thus, it is important to identify novel signaling pathways contributing to glomerular disease. Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 3 (TrkC) is expressed in podocytes and the protein transmits signals to the podocyte actin cytoskeleton. METHODS: Nephron-specific TrkC knockout (TrkC-KO) and nephron-specific TrkC-overexpressing (TrkC-OE) mice were generated to dissect the role of TrkC in nephron development and maintenance. RESULTS: Both TrkC-KO and TrkC-OE mice exhibited enlarged glomeruli, mesangial proliferation, basement membrane thickening, albuminuria, podocyte loss, and aspects of FSGS during aging. Igf1 receptor (Igf1R)-associated gene expression was dysregulated in TrkC-KO mouse glomeruli. Phosphoproteins associated with insulin, erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase (Erbb), and Toll-like receptor signaling were enriched in lysates of podocytes treated with the TrkC ligand neurotrophin-3 (Nt-3). Activation of TrkC by Nt-3 resulted in phosphorylation of the Igf1R on activating tyrosine residues in podocytes. Igf1R phosphorylation was increased in TrkC-OE mouse kidneys while it was decreased in TrkC-KO kidneys. Furthermore, TrkC expression was elevated in glomerular tissue of patients with diabetic kidney disease compared with control glomerular tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that TrkC is essential for maintaining glomerular integrity. Furthermore, TrkC modulates Igf-related signaling in podocytes.


Subject(s)
Kidney Diseases/metabolism , Nephrons/metabolism , Receptor, IGF Type 1/metabolism , Receptor, trkC/metabolism , Animals , Case-Control Studies , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Podocytes/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology
14.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 10(11): 1482-1490, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490914

ABSTRACT

As our life expectancy increases, specific medical conditions appear, and new challenges are met in terms of global health. Frailty has become a medical and scientific concept to define pathologies where inflammation, depressed immune system, cellular senescence, and molecular aging converge. But more importantly, frailty is the ultimate cause of death that limits our life span and deteriorates health in an increasing proportion of the world population. The difficulty of tackling this problem is the combination of factors that influence frailty appearance, such as stem cells exhaustion, inflammation, loss of regeneration capability, and impaired immunomodulation. To date, multiple research fields have found mechanisms participating in this health condition, but to make progress, science will need to investigate frailty with an interdisciplinary approach. This article summarizes the current efforts to understand frailty from their processes mediated by inflammation, aging, and stem cells to provide a new perspective that unifies the efforts in producing advanced therapies against medical conditions in the context of frailty. We believe this approach against frailty is particularly relevant to COVID-19, since people in a state of frailty die more frequently due to the hyperinflammatory process associated with this infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Inflammation/complications , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Aging/physiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Frailty/etiology , Frailty/therapy , Humans , Immunomodulation/physiology , Inflammation/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/trends , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Regeneration/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/physiology
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009941, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470669

ABSTRACT

The metabolic signaling pathways that drive pathologic tissue inflammation and damage in humans with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are not well understood. Using combined methods in plasma high-resolution metabolomics, lipidomics and cytokine profiling from a multicohort study of humans with pulmonary TB disease, we discovered that IL-1ß-mediated inflammatory signaling was closely associated with TCA cycle remodeling, characterized by accumulation of the proinflammatory metabolite succinate and decreased concentrations of the anti-inflammatory metabolite itaconate. This inflammatory metabolic response was particularly active in persons with multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB that received at least 2 months of ineffective treatment and was only reversed after 1 year of appropriate anti-TB chemotherapy. Both succinate and IL-1ß were significantly associated with proinflammatory lipid signaling, including increases in the products of phospholipase A2, increased arachidonic acid formation, and metabolism of arachidonic acid to proinflammatory eicosanoids. Together, these results indicate that decreased itaconate and accumulation of succinate and other TCA cycle intermediates is associated with IL-1ß-mediated proinflammatory eicosanoid signaling in pulmonary TB disease. These findings support host metabolic remodeling as a key driver of pathologic inflammation in human TB disease.


Subject(s)
Citric Acid Cycle/physiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/metabolism , Humans
16.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 2911578, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455770

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting multiple organ systems, including the respiratory tract and lungs. Several studies have reported that the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway is altered in COVID-19 patients. The tryptophan-kynurenine pathway plays a vital role in regulating inflammation, metabolism, immune responses, and musculoskeletal system biology. In this minireview, we surmise the effects of the kynurenine pathway in COVID-19 patients and how this pathway might impact muscle and bone biology.


Subject(s)
Bone Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Kynurenine/metabolism , Muscular Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tryptophan/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology
17.
Nat Methods ; 18(10): 1181-1191, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447314

ABSTRACT

Cytokines are critical for intercellular communication in human health and disease, but the investigation of cytokine signaling activity has remained challenging due to the short half-lives of cytokines and the complexity/redundancy of cytokine functions. To address these challenges, we developed the Cytokine Signaling Analyzer (CytoSig; https://cytosig.ccr.cancer.gov/ ), providing both a database of target genes modulated by cytokines and a predictive model of cytokine signaling cascades from transcriptomic profiles. We collected 20,591 transcriptome profiles for human cytokine, chemokine and growth factor responses. This atlas of transcriptional patterns induced by cytokines enabled the reliable prediction of signaling activities in distinct cell populations in infectious diseases, chronic inflammation and cancer using bulk and single-cell transcriptomic data. CytoSig revealed previously unidentified roles of many cytokines, such as BMP6 as an anti-inflammatory factor, and identified candidate therapeutic targets in human inflammatory diseases, such as CXCL8 for severe coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Databases, Protein , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation/physiology , Humans , Signal Transduction/physiology
18.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(10): 166186, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446450

ABSTRACT

The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases including primary and recurrent focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), diabetic nephropathy, and acute kidney injuries (AKI). Elevated serum suPAR concentration is a negative prognostic indicator in multiple critical clinical conditions. This study has examined the initial transduction steps used by suPAR in cultured mouse podocytes. We now report that the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) co-immunoprecipitates with αV and ß3 integrin subunits, which have been previously shown to initiate suPAR signal transduction at the podocyte cell surface. siRNA knock-down of RAGE attenuated Src phosphorylation evoked by either suPAR or by glycated albumin (AGE-BSA), a prototypical RAGE agonist. suPAR effects on Src phosphorylation were also blocked by the structurally dissimilar RAGE antagonists FPS-ZM1 and azeliragon, as well as by cilengitide, an inhibitor of outside-in signaling through αV-integrins. FPS-ZM1 also blocked Src phosphorylation evoked by AGE-BSA. FPS-ZM1 blocked increases in cell surface TRPC6 abundance, cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of the small GTPase Rac1 evoked by either suPAR or AGE-BSA. In addition, FPS-ZM1 inhibited Src phosphorylation evoked by serum collected from a patient with recurrent FSGS during a relapse. The magnitude of this inhibition was indistinguishable from the effect produced by a neutralizing antibody against suPAR. These data suggest that orally bioavailable small molecule RAGE antagonists could represent a useful therapeutic strategy for a wide range of clinical conditions associated with elevated serum suPAR, including primary FSGS and AKI.


Subject(s)
Integrin alphaVbeta3/metabolism , Podocytes/metabolism , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/metabolism , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Animals , Cell Line , Humans , Kidney Diseases/metabolism , Mice , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
19.
mBio ; 12(5): e0233521, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430167

ABSTRACT

Newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a global pandemic with astonishing mortality and morbidity. The high replication and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 are remarkably distinct from those of previous closely related coronaviruses, and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The innate immune defense is a physical barrier that restricts viral replication. We report here that the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp5 main protease targets RIG-I and mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein via two distinct mechanisms for inhibition. Specifically, Nsp5 cleaves off the 10 most-N-terminal amino acids from RIG-I and deprives it of the ability to activate MAVS, whereas Nsp5 promotes the ubiquitination and proteosome-mediated degradation of MAVS. As such, Nsp5 potently inhibits interferon (IFN) induction by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in an enzyme-dependent manner. A synthetic small-molecule inhibitor blunts the Nsp5-mediated destruction of cellular RIG-I and MAVS and processing of SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural proteins, thus restoring the innate immune response and impeding SARS-CoV-2 replication. This work offers new insight into the immune evasion strategy of SARS-CoV-2 and provides a potential antiviral agent to treat CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. IMPORTANCE The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2, which is rapidly evolving with better transmissibility. Understanding the molecular basis of the SARS-CoV-2 interaction with host cells is of paramount significance, and development of antiviral agents provides new avenues to prevent and treat COVID-19 diseases. This study describes a molecular characterization of innate immune evasion mediated by the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp5 main protease and subsequent development of a small-molecule inhibitor.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , A549 Cells , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , HCT116 Cells , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Immunoblotting , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Mice , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/physiology , Ubiquitination , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/physiology
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