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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7193, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821611

ABSTRACT

The current Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has exemplified the need for simple and efficient prevention strategies that can be rapidly implemented to mitigate infection risks. Various surfaces have a long history of antimicrobial properties and are well described for the prevention of bacterial infections. However, their effect on many viruses has not been studied in depth. In the context of COVID-19, several surfaces, including copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) coatings have been described as efficient antiviral measures that can easily be implemented to slow viral transmission. In this study, we detected antiviral properties against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) on surfaces, which were coated with Cu by magnetron sputtering as thin Cu films or as Cu/Ag ultrathin bimetallic nanopatches. However, no effect of Ag on viral titers was observed, in clear contrast to its well-known antibacterial properties. Further enhancement of Ag ion release kinetics based on an electrochemical sacrificial anode mechanism did not increase antiviral activity. These results clearly demonstrate that Cu and Ag thin film systems display significant differences in antiviral and antibacterial properties which need to be considered upon implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Silver , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Copper/chemistry , Copper/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver/chemistry , Silver/pharmacology
2.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715755

ABSTRACT

The interaction of phages with abiotic environmental surfaces is usually an understudied field of phage ecology. In this study, we investigated the virucidal potential of different metal salts, metal and ceramic powders doped with Ag and Cu ions, and newly fabricated ceramic and metal surfaces against Phi6 bacteriophage. The new materials were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and/or selective laser melting (SLM) techniques and had different surface free energies and infiltration features. We show that inactivation of Phi6 in solutions with Ag and Cu ions can be as effective as inactivation by pH, temperature, or UV. Adding powder to Ag and Cu ion solutions decreased their virucidal effect. The newly fabricated ceramic and metal surfaces showed very good virucidal activity. In particular, 45%TiO2 + 5%Ag + 45%ZrO2 + 5%Cu, in addition to virus adhesion, showed virucidal and infiltration properties. The results indicate that more than 99.99% of viruses deposited on the new ceramic surface were inactivated or irreversibly attached to it.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophage phi 6/drug effects , Copper/pharmacology , Silver/pharmacology , Bacteriophage phi 6/growth & development , Bacteriophage phi 6/physiology , Ceramics/chemistry , Copper/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Powders/chemistry , Silver/chemistry , Surface Properties , Temperature
3.
ChemistryOpen ; 10(12): 1244-1250, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598867

ABSTRACT

Rice husk, one of the main side products in the rice production, and its sustainable management represent a challenge in many countries. Herein, we describe the use of this abundant agricultural bio-waste as feedstock for the preparation of silver-containing carbon/silica nano composites with antimicrobial properties. The synthesis was performed using a fast and cheap methodology consisting of wet impregnation followed by pyrolysis, yielding C/SiO2 composite materials doped with varying amounts of silver from 28 to 0.001 wt %. The materials were fully characterized and their antimicrobial activity against ESKAPE pathogens, namely E. faecium, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli, and the pathogenic yeast C. albicans was investigated. Sensitivities of these strains against the prepared materials were demonstrated, even with exceptional low amounts of 0.015 m% silver. Hence, we report a straightforward method for the synthesis of antimicrobial agents from abundant sources which addresses urgent questions like bio-waste valorization and affordable alternatives to increasingly fewer effective antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Oryza , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Carbon , Escherichia coli , Silicon Dioxide , Silver/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus
4.
Biomed Mater ; 17(1)2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483337

ABSTRACT

Nanometric materials with biocidal properties effective against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and pathogenic bacteria could be used to modify surfaces, reducing the risk of touching transmission. In this work, we showed that a nanometric layer of bimetallic AgCu can be effectively deposited on polypropylene (PP) fibers. The virucidal properties of the AgCu nanofilm were evaluated by comparing the viral loads remaining on uncoated and coated PP after contact times between 2 and 24 h. Quantification of virion numbers for different initial concentrations indicated a reduction of more than 95% after 2 h of contact. The bactericidal action of the AgCu nanofilm was also confirmed by inoculating uncoated and coated PP with a pool of pathogenic bacteria associated with pneumonia (ESKAPE). Meanwhile, no cytotoxicity was observed for human fibroblasts and keratinocyte cells, indicating that the nanofilm could be in contact with human skin without threat. The deposition of the AgCu nanofilm on the nonwoven component of reusable cloth masks might help to prevent virus and bacterial infection while reducing the pollution burden related to the disposable masks. The possible mechanism of biocide contact action was studied by quantum chemistry calculations that show that the addition of Ag and/or Cu makes the polymeric fiber a better electron acceptor. This can promote the oxidation of the phospholipids present at both the virus and bacterial membranes. The rupture at the membrane exposes and damages the genetic material of the virus. More studies are needed to determine the mechanism of action, but the results reported here indicate that Cu and Ag ions are good allies, which can help protect us from the virus that has caused this disturbing pandemic.


Subject(s)
Biological Mimicry/drug effects , Copper/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Nanostructures , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Silver/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Fibroblasts , Humans , Keratinocytes , Masks , Polypropylenes , Textiles , Toxicity Tests
5.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 368(16)2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377968

ABSTRACT

Limited research exists on the potential for leather to act as a fomite of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or endemic coronaviruses including human coronavirus (HCoV) OC43; this is important for settings such as the shoe manufacturing industry. Antiviral coating of leather hides could limit such risks. This study aimed to investigate the stability and transfer of HCoVOC43 on different leathers, as a surrogate for SARS-CoV-2, and assess the antiviral efficacy of a silver-based leather coating. The stability of HCoV-OC43 (6.6 log10) on patent, full-grain calf, corrected grain finished and nubuck leathers (silver additive-coated and uncoated) was measured by titration on BHK-21 cells. Transfer from leather to cardboard and stainless steel was determined. HCoV-OC43 was detectable for 6 h on patent, 24 h on finished leather and 48 h on calf leather; no infectious virus was recovered from nubuck. HCoV-OC43 transferred from patent, finished and calf leathers onto cardboard and stainless steel up to 2 h post-inoculation (≤3.1-5.5 log10), suggesting that leathers could act as fomites. Silver additive-coated calf and finished leathers were antiviral against HCoV-OC43, with no infectious virus recovered after 2 h and limited transfer to other surfaces. The silver additive could reduce potential indirect transmission of HCoV-OC43 from leather.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Fomites/virology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/transmission , Cell Line , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Cricetinae , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Fomites/classification , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Silver/pharmacology
6.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 120, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365394

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The hospital environment has got more attention as evidence as source for bacterial transmission and subsequent hospital-acquired infection increased. Regular cleaning and disinfection have been proposed to lower the risk of infection, in particular for gram-positive bacteria. Auto-disinfecting surfaces would allow to decrease survival of pathogens, while limiting resource to achieve a safe environment in patient rooms. METHODS: A controlled trial to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of a polyvinyl chloride foil containing an integrated silver-based agent (containing silver ions 2%) on high-touch surfaces in patient rooms. RESULTS: The overall log reduction of the mean values was 1.8 log10 CFU, the median 0.5 log10 CFU comparing bioburden of control vs antimicrobial foil (p < 0.01). Important pathogens were significantly less likely recovered from the foil, in particular enterococci. These effects were present even after 6 months of in-use. CONCLUSIONS: A foil containing an integrated silver-based agent applied to high-touch surfaces effectively results in lower recovery of important pathogens from such surfaces over a 6-month study period.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Patients' Rooms , Silver/pharmacology , Fomites/microbiology , Hospitals , Polyvinyl Chloride , Prospective Studies , Switzerland , Touch
7.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 206: 111935, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305228

ABSTRACT

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) could be employed in the combat against COVID-19, yet are associated with toxicities. In this study, biogenic and biocompatible AgNPs using the agro-waste, non-edible Hibiscus sabdariffa stem were synthesized. Under optimized reaction conditions, synthesized green AgNPs were crystalline, face cubic centered, spherical with a diameter of around 17 nm and a surface charge of -20 mV. Their murine lethal dose 50 (LD50) was 4 folds higher than the chemical AgNPs. Furthermore, they were more murine hepato- and nephro-tolerated than chemical counterparts due to activation of Nrf-2 and HO-1 pathway. They exerted an apoptotic anti-ovarian cancer activity with IC50 value 6 times more than the normal cell line. Being functionalized with polydopamine and conjugated to either moxifloxacin or gatifloxacin, the conjugates exerted an augmented antibiofilm activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii biofilms that was significantly higher than antibiotic alone or functionalized AgNPs suggesting a synergistic activity. In conclusion, this study introduced a facile one-pot synthesis of biogenic and biocompatible AgNPs with preferential anti-cancer activity and could be utilized as antibiotic delivery system for a successful eradication of Gram-negative biofilms.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Metal Nanoparticles , Silver , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Green Chemistry Technology , Hibiscus , Indoles , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymers , Silver/pharmacology
8.
Crit Rev Biotechnol ; 42(3): 431-449, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301274

ABSTRACT

The rapid development of nanomedicine has created a high demand for silver, copper and copper oxide nanoparticles. Due to their high reactivity and potent antimicrobial activity, silver and copper-based nanomaterials have been playing an important role in the search for new alternatives for the treatment of several issues of concern, such as pathologies caused by bacteria and viruses. Viral diseases are a significant and constant threat to public health. The most recent example is the pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this context, the object of the present review is to highlight recent progress in the biomedical uses of these metal nanoparticles for the treatment and prevention of human viral infections. We discuss the antiviral activity of AgNPs and Cu-based NPs, including their actions against SARS-CoV-2. We also discuss the toxicity, biodistribution and excretion of AgNPs and CuNPs, along with their uses in medical devices or on inert surfaces to avoid viral dissemination by fomites. The challenges and limitations of the biomedical use of these nanoparticles are presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19/drug therapy , Copper , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Oxides , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver/pharmacology , Tissue Distribution
9.
J Virol Methods ; 295: 114214, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263336

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped RNA virus responsible for the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that represents a global health threat, causing an ongoing pandemic in many countries and territories. WHO recommendations emphasize the importance of all personal protective equipment (PPE) that can interrupt COVID-19 transmission. The textile industry and scientists are developing hygienic fabrics by the addition of or treatment with various antimicrobial and antiviral compounds. Methods for determining the antiviral activity of fabrics are reported in the International Standards Organization (ISO) 18184 (2019) guidelines. Three different fabric samples treated with silver derivate, copper derivative and a not treated cotton fabric used as control were examined and put in contact with a suspension of feline coronavirus (FCoV). After 2 h of incubation a significant decrease of viral titer, as high as 3.25 log10 Tissue Culture Infectious Dose (TCID)50/50 µl, in feline cells was observed in treated fabrics, with respect to not treated fabrics. In this study, we optimized laboratory methods to evaluate the virucidal activity of silver- and copper treated cotton- based fabrics against coronavirus, using FCoV suitable as a surrogate of SARS-CoV-2 but safe for laboratory technicians.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus, Feline/drug effects , Textiles , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Cats , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Copper/pharmacology , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver/pharmacology , Viral Load/drug effects
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8692, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199310

ABSTRACT

A metal nanoparticle composite, namely TPNT1, which contains Au-NP (1 ppm), Ag-NP (5 ppm), ZnO-NP (60 ppm) and ClO2 (42.5 ppm) in aqueous solution was prepared and characterized by spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering analysis and potentiometric titration. Based on the in vitro cell-based assay, TPNT1 inhibited six major clades of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with effective concentration within the range to be used as food additives. TPNT1 was shown to block viral entry by inhibiting the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and to interfere with the syncytium formation. In addition, TPNT1 also effectively reduced the cytopathic effects induced by human (H1N1) and avian (H5N1) influenza viruses, including the wild-type and oseltamivir-resistant virus isolates. Together with previously demonstrated efficacy as antimicrobials, TPNT1 can block viral entry and inhibit or prevent viral infection to provide prophylactic effects against both SARS-CoV-2 and opportunistic infections.


Subject(s)
Gold/pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Silver/pharmacology , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Food Additives/pharmacology , Gold/chemistry , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Particle Size , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Silver/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2689-2702, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is requesting highly effective protective personnel equipment, mainly for healthcare professionals. However, the current demand has exceeded the supply chain and, consequently, shortage of essential medical materials, such as surgical masks. Due to these alarming limitations, it is crucial to develop effective means of disinfection, reusing, and thereby applying antimicrobial shielding protection to the clinical supplies. PURPOSE: Therefore, in this work, we developed a novel, economical, and straightforward approach to promote antimicrobial activity to surgical masks by impregnating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). METHODS: Our strategy consisted of fabricating a new alcohol disinfectant formulation combining special surfactants and AgNPs, which is demonstrated to be extensively effective against a broad number of microbial surrogates of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The present nano-formula reported a superior microbial reduction of 99.999% against a wide number of microorganisms. Furthermore, the enveloped H5N1 virus was wholly inactivated after 15 min of disinfection. Far more attractive, the current method for reusing surgical masks did not show outcomes of detrimental amendments, suggesting that the protocol does not alter the filtration effectiveness. CONCLUSION: The nano-disinfectant provides a valuable strategy for effective decontamination, reuse, and even antimicrobial promotion to surgical masks for frontline clinical personnel.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Masks , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Silver/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Chick Embryo , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfection/methods , Dynamic Light Scattering , Equipment Reuse , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Masks/virology , Metal Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Silver/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Textiles , X-Ray Diffraction
13.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(3): 324-330, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus mutans are an oral pathogen that causes dental caries, endocarditis, and systemic dysfunctions, an alternative antibacterial solution from silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are investigated. METHODS: AgNPs were synthesized using the ethnobotanical product gum Arabic. It influenced the nanoparticles with medicinal value through their role as capping, stabilizing, or surface-attached components. The biophysical characteristics of the synthesized AgNPs were studied using UV-vis spectrum, XRD, EDAX, SEM, and TEM tools. The AgNPs were spherical with the average size less than 10 nm. By using the well diffusion and microdilution techniques, the impact of synthesized AgNPs was tested against S. mutans isolates. RESULTS: The smaller the size, the greater the antibacterial and antiviral potential the particles exhibit. The biophysical characteristics of AgNPs the presence of phenols, alcohols, amides, sulfoxide, flavanoids, terpenoids and steroids. The AgNPs exhibited a good antibacterial action against the oral pathogen S. mutans. The synthesized NPs at a dose level of 200 µg/mL exhibited an inhibition zone with 18.30 ± 0.5 nm diameter. The synthesised nanoparticles inhibited the genes responsible for biofilm formation of S. mutans over host tooth and gums (gtfB, gtfc, gtfD) and virulent protective factors (comDE, brpA and smu 360) and survival promoter genes (gyrA and spaP, gbpB). CONCLUSION: The potent antibiotic action over S. mutans seen with the synthesized NPs, paves the way for the development of novel dental care products. Also, the small-sized NPs promote its applicability in COVID-19 pandemic containment.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Dental Caries/drug therapy , Endocarditis/drug therapy , Metal Nanoparticles , Silver/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Biofilms , Gum Arabic , Humans
14.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 10425-10434, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999917

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The public fear associated with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has triggered recently a significant proliferation of supplements touted as potential cures against bacteria and viruses. Colloidal silver has particularly benefited from this rush given its empirically and scientifically documented anti-bacterial and anti-viral actions. The lack of standards in the unregulated supplements industry remains a major roadblock in evaluating the quality and consistency of marketed products or assessing the accuracy of the information provided by manufacturers. This study is the first scientifically rigorous attempt to evaluate commercial silver colloidal products offered for sale on the internet. METHODS: Fourteen of the most popular colloidal silver products purchased from Amazon (www.amazon.com) were evaluated using state-of-the-art analytical techniques widely accepted as gold standards for investigating the properties (size, shape) and the dispersion of silver nanoparticles. RESULTS: Commercial samples were analysed using UV-Vis, FE-SEM and AAS techniques. In general, the Ag concentration was very close to those claimed by the manufacturer. The colorless product shows no absorbance in the UV-Vis analysis. The FESEM and STEM images confirmed the conclusions of the UV-Vis analysis. CONCLUSION: The results of this evaluation show clearly that 70% of the commercial products evaluated contain only ionic silver. Despite the evidence showing that silver nanoparticles are not present, eight of these products are promoted by the manufacturers as 'colloidal silver'. Considering the extensive scientific research showing major differences between silver ionic and silver nanoparticles in terms of mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety, it is clear that this misrepresentation impacts the consumers and must be addressed. This study serves as blueprint for a scientific protocol to be followed by manufacturers for characterizing their silver supplements.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Silver/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Safety , Silver/adverse effects , Silver/pharmacology
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 9301-9315, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954605

ABSTRACT

Since the identification of the first human coronavirus in the 1960s, a total of six coronaviruses that are known to affect humans have been identified: 229E, OC43, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), NL63, HKU1, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Presently, the human world is affected by a novel version of the coronavirus family known as SARS-CoV-2, which has an extremely high contagion rate. Although the infection fatality rate (IFR) of this rapidly spreading virus is not high (ranging from 0.00% to 1.54% across 51 different locations), the increasing number of infections and deaths has created a worldwide pandemic situation. To provide therapy to severely infected patients, instant therapeutic support is urgently needed and the repurposing of already approved drugs is presently in progress. In this regard, the development of nanoparticles as effective transporters for therapeutic drugs or as alternative medicines is highly encouraged and currently needed. The size range of the viruses is within 60-140 nm, which is slightly larger than the diameters of nanoparticles, making nanomaterials efficacious tools with antiviral properties. Silver-based nanomaterials (AgNMs) demonstrate antimicrobial and disinfectant effects mostly by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are presently considered as a versatile tool for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Other metal-based nanoparticles have been primarily reported as delivery agents or surface modifying agents, vaccine adjuvant against coronavirus. The present review summarizes and discusses the possible effectiveness of various surface-modified AgNMs against animal coronaviruses and presents a concept for AgNM-based therapeutic treatment of SARS-CoV-2 in the near future.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Silver/chemistry , Silver/pharmacology , Animals , Humans
16.
ChemMedChem ; 15(17): 1619-1623, 2020 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641106

ABSTRACT

The rediscovery of the medical uses of silver provides another noticeable example, this time at the interface of chemistry and medicine, of the real (and nonlinear) progress of scientific research. Several new silver-based antimicrobial products have thus been commercialized in the last two decades. Next-generation antibacterials and antivirals of broad scope, low toxicity and affordable cost, we argue in this study, will be based on microencapsulated Ag nanoparticles.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Silver/pharmacology , Viruses/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Particle Size , Silver/chemistry
17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(39): 5287-5290, 2020 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725851

ABSTRACT

A polyoxometalate hosting Ag+, [AgP5W30O110]14-, has been studied for its sustained and controlled release of Ag+ triggered by Na+ replacement at room temperature for long-lasting bacteriostasis, whose antibacterial activity is not eliminated after repeated exposure tests because of the protection of Ag+ by the polyoxometalate skeleton.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Silver/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Tungsten Compounds/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Delayed-Action Preparations , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Silver/chemistry , Sodium/chemistry , Sodium/pharmacology , Tungsten Compounds/chemistry
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