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1.
Cell ; 184(11): 2955-2972.e25, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237636

ABSTRACT

Natural antibodies (Abs) can target host glycans on the surface of pathogens. We studied the evolution of glycan-reactive B cells of rhesus macaques and humans using glycosylated HIV-1 envelope (Env) as a model antigen. 2G12 is a broadly neutralizing Ab (bnAb) that targets a conserved glycan patch on Env of geographically diverse HIV-1 strains using a unique heavy-chain (VH) domain-swapped architecture that results in fragment antigen-binding (Fab) dimerization. Here, we describe HIV-1 Env Fab-dimerized glycan (FDG)-reactive bnAbs without VH-swapped domains from simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected macaques. FDG Abs also recognized cell-surface glycans on diverse pathogens, including yeast and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike. FDG precursors were expanded by glycan-bearing immunogens in macaques and were abundant in HIV-1-naive humans. Moreover, FDG precursors were predominately mutated IgM+IgD+CD27+, thus suggesting that they originated from a pool of antigen-experienced IgM+ or marginal zone B cells.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Polysaccharides/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Dimerization , Epitopes/immunology , Glycosylation , HIV Antibodies/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry , Macaca mulatta , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/chemistry , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics , Vaccines/immunology , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/chemistry , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
2.
Methods ; 201: 49-64, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213579

ABSTRACT

Sensitive detection of viral nucleic acids is critically important for diagnosis and monitoring of the progression of infectious diseases such as those caused by SARS-CoV2, HIV-1, and other viruses. In HIV-1 infection cases, assessing the efficacy of treatment interventions that are superimposed on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has benefited tremendously from the development of sensitive HIV-1 DNA and RNA quantitation assays. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Rhesus macaques is similar in many key aspects to human HIV-1 infection and consequently this non-human primate (NHP) model has and continues to prove instrumental in evaluating HIV prevention, treatment and eradication approaches. Cell and tissue associated HIV-1 viral nucleic acids have been found to serve as useful predictors of disease outcome and indicators of treatment efficacy, highlighting the value of and the need for sensitive detection of viruses in cells/tissues from infected individuals or animal models. However, viral nucleic acid detection and quantitation in such sample sources can often be complicated by high nucleic acid input (that is required to detect ultralow level viruses in, for example, cure research) or inhibitors, leading to reduced detection sensitivity and under-quantification, and confounded result interpretation. Here, we present a step-by-step procedure to quantitatively recover cell/tissue associated viral DNA and RNA, using SIV-infected Rhesus macaque cells and tissues as model systems, and subsequently quantify the viral DNA and RNA with an ultrasensitive SIV droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay and reverse transcription ddPCR (RT-ddPCR) assay, respectively, on the Raindance ddPCR platform. The procedure can be readily adapted for a broad range of applications where highly sensitive nucleic acid detection and quantitation are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Nucleic Acids , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus , Animals , DNA, Viral/genetics , HIV-1/genetics , Macaca mulatta/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/diagnosis , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics , Viral Load
3.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937552

ABSTRACT

Site-specific evolutionary rate shifts are defined as protein sites, where the rate of substitution has changed dramatically across the phylogeny. With respect to a given clade, sites may either undergo a rate acceleration or a rate deceleration, reflecting a site that was conserved and became variable, or vice-versa, respectively. Sites displaying such a dramatic evolutionary change may point to a loss or gain of function at the protein site, reflecting adaptation, or they may indicate epistatic interactions among sites. Here, we analyzed full genomes of HIV and SIV-1 and identified 271 rate-shifting sites along the HIV-1/SIV phylogeny. The majority of rate shifts occurred at long branches, often corresponding to cross-species transmission branches. We noted that in most proteins, the number of rate accelerations and decelerations was equal, and we suggest that this reflects epistatic interactions among sites. However, several accessory proteins were enriched for either accelerations or decelerations, and we suggest that this may be a signature of adaptation to new hosts. Interestingly, the non-pandemic HIV-1 group O clade exhibited a substantially higher number of rate-shift events than the pandemic group M clade. We propose that this may be a reflection of the height of the species barrier between gorillas and humans versus chimpanzees and humans. Our results provide a genome-wide view of the constraints operating on proteins of HIV-1 and SIV.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , HIV-1/genetics , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics , Animals , HIV Seropositivity/genetics , HIV Seropositivity/transmission , HIV-1/classification , Humans , Pan troglodytes , Phylogeny , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/classification , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics
4.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1137): 408-411, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639885

ABSTRACT

All animal life on earth is thought to have a common origin and have common genetic mechanisms. Evolution has enabled differentiation of species. Pathogens likewise have evolved within various species and mostly come to a settled dynamic equilibrium such that co-existence results (pathogens ideally should not kill their hosts). Problems arise when pathogens jump species because the new host had not developed any resistance. These infections from related species are known as zoonoses. COVID-19 is the latest example of a virus entering another species but HIV (and various strains of influenza) were previous examples.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/pathogenicity , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Primates/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/virology , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics , Zoonoses/virology
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