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1.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480883

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are among the most complex medical problems and have been a major threat to the economy and global health. Several epidemics and pandemics have occurred due to viruses, which has led to a significant increase in mortality and morbidity rates. Natural products have always been an inspiration and source for new drug development because of their various uses. Among all-natural sources, plant sources are the most dominant for the discovery of new therapeutic agents due to their chemical and structural diversity. Despite the traditional use and potential source for drug development, natural products have gained little attention from large pharmaceutical industries. Several plant extracts and isolated compounds have been extensively studied and explored for antiviral properties against different strains of viruses. In this review, we have compiled antiviral plant extracts and natural products isolated from plants reported since 2015.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Drug Development , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-HIV Agents/chemistry , Anti-HIV Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Drug Discovery , Flavivirus/drug effects , Hepatitis Viruses/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Structure , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Simplexvirus/drug effects
2.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448933

ABSTRACT

Virus-induced infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are among the most serious problems in public health and can be associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, where these manifestations have been neglected. Typically, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, varicella-zoster, and enterovirus are responsible for a high number of cases in immunocompetent hosts, whereas other herpesviruses (for example, cytomegalovirus) are the most common in immunocompromised individuals. Arboviruses have also been associated with outbreaks with a high burden of neurological disorders, such as the Zika virus epidemic in Brazil. There is a current lack of understanding in Brazil about the most common viruses involved in CNS infections. In this review, we briefly summarize the most recent studies and findings associated with the CNS, in addition to epidemiological data that provide extensive information on the circulation and diversity of the most common neuro-invasive viruses in Brazil. We also highlight important aspects of the prion-associated diseases. This review provides readers with better knowledge of virus-associated CNS infections. A deeper understanding of these infections will support the improvement of the current surveillance strategies to allow the timely monitoring of the emergence/re-emergence of neurotropic viruses.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Diseases/virology , Central Nervous System Infections/epidemiology , Prion Diseases/epidemiology , Alphavirus/pathogenicity , Brazil/epidemiology , Central Nervous System/virology , Central Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Central Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Infections/virology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/virology , Enterovirus/pathogenicity , Flavivirus/pathogenicity , Herpesviridae/pathogenicity , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Prion Diseases/physiopathology , Prions/metabolism , Prions/pathogenicity , Simplexvirus/pathogenicity , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/pathogenicity , Zika Virus/pathogenicity
3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e145, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392726

ABSTRACT

The appearance on the skin of herpes virus lesions, concomitantly with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, leads us to suspect an underlying infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Diagnostic reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG seroconversion studies have therefore been carried out. We present three cases of herpes virus infections in immunocompetent patients: one of the infections was herpes simplex 1 in a 40-year-old woman, and the other two were herpes varicella-zoster infections in a 62-year-old man and a 25-year-old woman. The patients were in the care of the southern health district of Seville of the SAS (Andalusian Health Service) during the Spanish state of alarm over the COVID-19 pandemic. The SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in only one of the three cases. In this study, we briefly review the etiopathogenic role of the COVID-19 pandemic situation, whereby immunodeficiencies are generated that favour the appearance of other viral infections, such as herpes virus infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Herpes Simplex/etiology , Herpes Zoster/etiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human/physiology , Simplexvirus/physiology , Virus Activation , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/virology , Herpes Zoster/diagnosis , Herpes Zoster/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e041808, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338866

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is a rare severe form of brain inflammation that commonly leaves survivors and their families with devastating long-term consequences. The virus particularly targets the temporal lobe of the brain causing debilitating problems in memory, especially verbal memory. It is postulated that immunomodulation with the corticosteroid, dexamethasone, could improve outcomes by reducing brain swelling. However, there are concerns (so far not observed) that such immunosuppression might facilitate increased viral replication with resultant worsening of disease. A previous trail closed early because of slow recruitment. METHOD: DexEnceph is a pragmatic multicentre, randomised, controlled, open-label, observer-blind trial to determine whether adults with HSV encephalitis who receive dexamethasone alongside standard antiviral treatment with aciclovir for have improved clinical outcomes compared with those who receive standard treatment alone. Overall, 90 patients with HSV encephalitis are being recruited from a target of 45 recruiting sites; patients are randomised 1:1 to the dexamethasone or control arms of the study. The primary outcome measured is verbal memory as assessed by the Weschler Memory Scale fourth edition Auditory Memory Index at 26 weeks after randomisation. Secondary outcomes are measured up to 72 weeks include additional neuropsychological, clinical and functional outcomes as well as comparison of neuroimaging findings. Patient safety monitoring occurs throughout and includes the detection of HSV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid 2 weeks after randomisation, which is indicative of ongoing viral replication. Innovative methods are being used to ensure recrutiment targets are met for this rare disease. DISCUSSION: DexEnceph aims to be the first completed randomised controlled trial of corticosteroid therapy in HSV encephalitis. The results will provide evidence for future practice in managing adults with the condition and has the potential to improve outcomes . ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial has ethical approval from the UK National Research Ethics Committee (Liverpool Central, REF: 15/NW/0545, 10 August 2015). Protocol V.2.1, July 2019. The results will be published and presented as soon as possible on completion. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: ISRCTN11774734, EUDRACT 2015-001609-16.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Adult , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Simplexvirus , Treatment Outcome
5.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274611

ABSTRACT

Th17 cells are recognized as indispensable in inducing protective immunity against bacteria and fungi, as they promote the integrity of mucosal epithelial barriers. It is believed that Th17 cells also play a central role in the induction of autoimmune diseases. Recent advances have evaluated Th17 effector functions during viral infections, including their critical role in the production and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and in the recruitment and activation of other immune cells. Thus, Th17 is involved in the induction both of pathogenicity and immunoprotective mechanisms seen in the host's immune response against viruses. However, certain Th17 cells can also modulate immune responses, since they can secrete immunosuppressive factors, such as IL-10; these cells are called non-pathogenic Th17 cells. Here, we present a brief review of Th17 cells and highlight their involvement in some virus infections. We cover these notions by highlighting the role of Th17 cells in regulating the protective and pathogenic immune response in the context of viral infections. In addition, we will be describing myocarditis and multiple sclerosis as examples of immune diseases triggered by viral infections, in which we will discuss further the roles of Th17 cells in the induction of tissue damage.


Subject(s)
Myocarditis/immunology , Th17 Cells/metabolism , Virus Diseases/immunology , Adenoviridae , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Chikungunya virus , Cytokines/immunology , Dengue Virus , Humans , Immune System , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Inflammation , Interleukin-10/biosynthesis , Lymphocytes/cytology , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/metabolism , Multiple Sclerosis/virology , Myocarditis/metabolism , Myocarditis/virology , Orthomyxoviridae , SARS-CoV-2 , Simplexvirus , Th1 Cells/cytology , Th2 Cells/cytology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Zika Virus
6.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154291

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, intraneuronal deposition of misfolded proteins known as Lewy bodies, and chronic neuroinflammation. PD can arise from monogenic mutations, but in most cases, the etiology is unclear. Viral infection is gaining increasing attentions as a trigger of PD. In this study, we investigated whether the PD-causative 620 aspartate (D) to asparagine (N) mutation in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 ortholog (Vps35) precipitated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. We observed that ectopic expression of Vps35 significantly reduced the proliferation and release of HSV-1 virions; the D620N mutation rendered Vps35 a partial loss of such inhibitory effects. Tetherin is a host cell protein capable of restricting the spread of encapsulated viruses including HSV-1 and SARS-Cov-2, both of which are implicated in the development of parkinsonism. Compared with cells overexpressing wildtype Vps35, cells expressing mutant Vps35 with D620N had less Tetherin on cell surfaces. Real-time and static cell imaging revealed that Tetherin recycled through Vps35-positive endosomes. Expression of Vps35 with D620N reduced endosomal dynamics and frequency of motile Tetherin-containing vesicles, a sign of defective production of recycling carriers. Our study suggests that the D620N mutation in Vps35 hinders Tetherin trafficking to cell surfaces and facilitates virus spread.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow Stromal Antigen 2/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/virology , Simplexvirus/metabolism , Vesicular Transport Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Endosomes/metabolism , Humans , Mutation , Parkinson Disease/genetics , Protein Transport/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Simplexvirus/pathogenicity , Transfection , Vesicular Transport Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics
7.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151739

ABSTRACT

Global processes, such as climate change, frequent and distant travelling and population growth, increase the risk of viral infection spread. Unfortunately, the number of effective and accessible medicines for the prevention and treatment of these infections is limited. Therefore, in recent years, efforts have been intensified to develop new antiviral medicines or vaccines. In this review article, the structure and activity of the most promising antiviral cyanobacterial products are presented. The antiviral cyanometabolites are mainly active against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other enveloped viruses such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), Ebola or the influenza viruses. The majority of the metabolites are classified as lectins, monomeric or dimeric proteins with unique amino acid sequences. They all show activity at the nanomolar range but differ in carbohydrate specificity and recognize a different epitope on high mannose oligosaccharides. The cyanobacterial lectins include cyanovirin-N (CV-N), scytovirin (SVN), microvirin (MVN), Microcystisviridis lectin (MVL), and Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin (OAA). Cyanobacterial polysaccharides, peptides, and other metabolites also have potential to be used as antiviral drugs. The sulfated polysaccharide, calcium spirulan (CA-SP), inhibited infection by enveloped viruses, stimulated the immune system's response, and showed antitumor activity. Microginins, the linear peptides, inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), therefore, their use in the treatment of COVID-19 patients with injury of the ACE2 expressing organs is considered. In addition, many cyanobacterial extracts were revealed to have antiviral activities, but the active agents have not been identified. This fact provides a good basis for further studies on the therapeutic potential of these microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cyanobacteria/chemistry , HIV/drug effects , Lectins/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Simplexvirus/drug effects , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbohydrates/chemistry , Carbohydrates/pharmacology , Cyanobacteria/metabolism , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Lectins/chemistry , Lectins/metabolism , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/metabolism
9.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983187

ABSTRACT

Viral infections and associated diseases are responsible for a substantial number of mortality and public health problems around the world. Each year, infectious diseases kill 3.5 million people worldwide. The current pandemic caused by COVID-19 has become the greatest health hazard to people in their lifetime. There are many antiviral drugs and vaccines available against viruses, but they have many disadvantages, too. There are numerous side effects for conventional drugs, and active mutation also creates drug resistance against various viruses. This has led scientists to search herbs as a source for the discovery of more efficient new antivirals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 65% of the world population is in the practice of using plants and herbs as part of treatment modality. Additionally, plants have an advantage in drug discovery based on their long-term use by humans, and a reduced toxicity and abundance of bioactive compounds can be expected as a result. In this review, we have highlighted the important viruses, their drug targets, and their replication cycle. We provide in-depth and insightful information about the most favorable plant extracts and their derived phytochemicals against viral targets. Our major conclusion is that plant extracts and their isolated pure compounds are essential sources for the current viral infections and useful for future challenges.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Discovery , HIV/drug effects , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV/physiology , HIV Infections/pathology , HIV Infections/virology , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepacivirus/physiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Herpes Simplex/pathology , Herpes Simplex/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/pathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/classification , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plants, Medicinal , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Simplexvirus/drug effects , Simplexvirus/pathogenicity , Simplexvirus/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
10.
Molecules ; 25(23)2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952889

ABSTRACT

Curcumin is a natural compound that has many medical applications. However, its low solubility and poor stability could impede its clinical applications. The present study aimed to formulate dry proniosomes to overcome these pitfalls and improve the therapeutic efficacy of Curcumin. Curcumin-loaded proniosomes were fabricated by the slurry method according to 32 factorial design using Design-Expert software to demonstrate the impact of different independent variables on entrapment efficiency (EE%) and % drug released after 12 h (Q12h). The optimized formula (F5) was selected according to the desirability criteria. F5 exhibited good flowability and appeared, after reconstitution, as spherical nanovesicles with EE% of 89.94 ± 2.31% and Q12h of 70.89 ± 1.62%. F5 demonstrated higher stability and a significant enhancement of Q12h than the corresponding niosomes. The docking study investigated the ability of Curcumin to bind effectively with the active site of DNA polymerase of Herpes simplex virus (HSV). The antiviral activity and the safety of F5 were significantly higher than Curcumin. F5 improved the safety of Acyclovir (ACV) and reduced its effective dose that produced a 100% reduction of viral plaques. Proniosomes could be promising stable carriers of Curcumin to be used as a safe and efficient antiviral agent.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Curcumin/pharmacology , Drug Delivery Systems , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Liposomes/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Simplexvirus/drug effects , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Curcumin/chemistry , Herpes Simplex/chemically induced , In Vitro Techniques , Liposomes/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Vero Cells
11.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 46(12): e61-e63, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910345

ABSTRACT

This case report describes a negative result for antigen testing for the SARS-CoV-2 virus in an aqueous sample taken during the management of suspected herpes simplex keratitis from a patient with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 based on antigen testing of high nasal swab. The implications of no viral load detectable in the aqueous sample are discussed in context of routine phacoemulsification surgery during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Aqueous Humor/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Corneal Stroma/virology , Keratitis, Herpetic/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Humans , Keratitis, Herpetic/drug therapy , Keratitis, Herpetic/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Recurrence , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Simplexvirus/pathogenicity , Visual Acuity/physiology
12.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887617

ABSTRACT

Most cells can release extracellular vesicles (EVs), membrane vesicles containing various proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes, and signaling molecules. The exchange of EVs between cells facilitates intercellular communication, amplification of cellular responses, immune response modulation, and perhaps alterations in viral pathogenicity. EVs serve a dual role in inhibiting or enhancing viral infection and pathogenesis. This review examines the current literature on EVs to explore the complex role of EVs in the enhancement, inhibition, and potential use as a nanotherapeutic against clinically relevant viruses, focusing on neurotropic viruses: Zika virus (ZIKV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Overall, this review's scope will elaborate on EV-based mechanisms, which impact viral pathogenicity, facilitate viral spread, and modulate antiviral immune responses.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Communication/physiology , Coronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Exosomes/metabolism , HIV/metabolism , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/metabolism , Humans , Retroviridae/metabolism , Simplexvirus/metabolism , Therapeutics/methods , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/virology , Zika Virus/metabolism , Zika Virus/pathogenicity , Zika Virus Infection/metabolism
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