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1.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480883

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are among the most complex medical problems and have been a major threat to the economy and global health. Several epidemics and pandemics have occurred due to viruses, which has led to a significant increase in mortality and morbidity rates. Natural products have always been an inspiration and source for new drug development because of their various uses. Among all-natural sources, plant sources are the most dominant for the discovery of new therapeutic agents due to their chemical and structural diversity. Despite the traditional use and potential source for drug development, natural products have gained little attention from large pharmaceutical industries. Several plant extracts and isolated compounds have been extensively studied and explored for antiviral properties against different strains of viruses. In this review, we have compiled antiviral plant extracts and natural products isolated from plants reported since 2015.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Drug Development , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-HIV Agents/chemistry , Anti-HIV Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Drug Discovery , Flavivirus/drug effects , Hepatitis Viruses/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Structure , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Simplexvirus/drug effects
2.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151739

ABSTRACT

Global processes, such as climate change, frequent and distant travelling and population growth, increase the risk of viral infection spread. Unfortunately, the number of effective and accessible medicines for the prevention and treatment of these infections is limited. Therefore, in recent years, efforts have been intensified to develop new antiviral medicines or vaccines. In this review article, the structure and activity of the most promising antiviral cyanobacterial products are presented. The antiviral cyanometabolites are mainly active against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other enveloped viruses such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), Ebola or the influenza viruses. The majority of the metabolites are classified as lectins, monomeric or dimeric proteins with unique amino acid sequences. They all show activity at the nanomolar range but differ in carbohydrate specificity and recognize a different epitope on high mannose oligosaccharides. The cyanobacterial lectins include cyanovirin-N (CV-N), scytovirin (SVN), microvirin (MVN), Microcystisviridis lectin (MVL), and Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin (OAA). Cyanobacterial polysaccharides, peptides, and other metabolites also have potential to be used as antiviral drugs. The sulfated polysaccharide, calcium spirulan (CA-SP), inhibited infection by enveloped viruses, stimulated the immune system's response, and showed antitumor activity. Microginins, the linear peptides, inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), therefore, their use in the treatment of COVID-19 patients with injury of the ACE2 expressing organs is considered. In addition, many cyanobacterial extracts were revealed to have antiviral activities, but the active agents have not been identified. This fact provides a good basis for further studies on the therapeutic potential of these microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cyanobacteria/chemistry , HIV/drug effects , Lectins/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Simplexvirus/drug effects , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbohydrates/chemistry , Carbohydrates/pharmacology , Cyanobacteria/metabolism , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Lectins/chemistry , Lectins/metabolism , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/metabolism
4.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983187

ABSTRACT

Viral infections and associated diseases are responsible for a substantial number of mortality and public health problems around the world. Each year, infectious diseases kill 3.5 million people worldwide. The current pandemic caused by COVID-19 has become the greatest health hazard to people in their lifetime. There are many antiviral drugs and vaccines available against viruses, but they have many disadvantages, too. There are numerous side effects for conventional drugs, and active mutation also creates drug resistance against various viruses. This has led scientists to search herbs as a source for the discovery of more efficient new antivirals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 65% of the world population is in the practice of using plants and herbs as part of treatment modality. Additionally, plants have an advantage in drug discovery based on their long-term use by humans, and a reduced toxicity and abundance of bioactive compounds can be expected as a result. In this review, we have highlighted the important viruses, their drug targets, and their replication cycle. We provide in-depth and insightful information about the most favorable plant extracts and their derived phytochemicals against viral targets. Our major conclusion is that plant extracts and their isolated pure compounds are essential sources for the current viral infections and useful for future challenges.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Discovery , HIV/drug effects , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV/physiology , HIV Infections/pathology , HIV Infections/virology , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepacivirus/physiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Herpes Simplex/pathology , Herpes Simplex/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/pathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/classification , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plants, Medicinal , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Simplexvirus/drug effects , Simplexvirus/pathogenicity , Simplexvirus/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Molecules ; 25(23)2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952889

ABSTRACT

Curcumin is a natural compound that has many medical applications. However, its low solubility and poor stability could impede its clinical applications. The present study aimed to formulate dry proniosomes to overcome these pitfalls and improve the therapeutic efficacy of Curcumin. Curcumin-loaded proniosomes were fabricated by the slurry method according to 32 factorial design using Design-Expert software to demonstrate the impact of different independent variables on entrapment efficiency (EE%) and % drug released after 12 h (Q12h). The optimized formula (F5) was selected according to the desirability criteria. F5 exhibited good flowability and appeared, after reconstitution, as spherical nanovesicles with EE% of 89.94 ± 2.31% and Q12h of 70.89 ± 1.62%. F5 demonstrated higher stability and a significant enhancement of Q12h than the corresponding niosomes. The docking study investigated the ability of Curcumin to bind effectively with the active site of DNA polymerase of Herpes simplex virus (HSV). The antiviral activity and the safety of F5 were significantly higher than Curcumin. F5 improved the safety of Acyclovir (ACV) and reduced its effective dose that produced a 100% reduction of viral plaques. Proniosomes could be promising stable carriers of Curcumin to be used as a safe and efficient antiviral agent.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Curcumin/pharmacology , Drug Delivery Systems , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Liposomes/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Simplexvirus/drug effects , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Curcumin/chemistry , Herpes Simplex/chemically induced , In Vitro Techniques , Liposomes/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Vero Cells
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