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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820286

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study aims to identify factors associated with anxiety levels of adults living in Singapore before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected using a web-based survey conducted from July to November 2020, accruing 264 eligible participants. Ordered logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), ranked as minimal (0-4), mild (5-9), moderate (10-14), and severe (15-21) before and during the pandemic. About 74% of participants were female, 50% were aged 25-34, and 50% were married. The GAD-7 level went up from the pre-pandemic for moderate (12.5% to 16%) and severe GAD (2% to 11%). Alcohol consumption (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.04-3.06), loneliness (AOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.54), and difficulty in switching off social media (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.29-3.79) predicted increased GAD-7 levels. The quality of life (AOR 0.84, 95% CI 0.79-0.90) was significantly associated with decreased GAD-7 levels. The results heighten the awareness that early initiation of mental health support is crucial for the population in addition to the various financial support measures provided by the government as they are adapting to live with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820253

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been an unprecedented health crisis for the general population as well as for patients with chronic illnesses such as those requiring maintenance dialysis. Patients suffering from chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis are considered a high-risk population. Multiple reports have highlighted an increased need for intensive care and higher death rates among this group of patients. Most maintenance dialysis patients are in-centre haemodialysis patients who receive treatment in shared facilities (community dialysis centres). The inability to maintain social distancing in these facilities has led to case clustering among patients and staff. This poses a substantial risk to the patients, their household members, and the wider community. To mitigate the risks of COVID-19 transmission, telemedicine was rapidly adopted in the past year by nephrologists and other allied-health staff to provide care via remote consultations and reviews. Telemedicine poses unique challenges even in an era where so much is performed online with a high degree of success and satisfaction. In applying distant clinical care for maintenance haemodialysis patients via telemedicine, there is a need to ensure adequate protection for the health and safety of patients as well as understand the ethical and legal implications of telemedicine. We discussed, in this article, these three core aspects of patient safety and quality, ethics and legal implications in telemedicine, and how each of these is crucial to the safe and effective delivery of care in general as well as unique aspects of this in Singapore.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Quality of Health Care , Renal Dialysis , Singapore/epidemiology
3.
J Frailty Aging ; 11(2): 236-241, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811433

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to synthesize available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccines for frail older adults through a rapid review, supplemented with geriatricians' consensus statements. METHODS: References were identified through MEDLINE and Web of Science on 1st February 2021 using relevant terms related to COVID-19, vaccine, and older adults. Searches were also conducted on reference lists of review articles and Google Scholar. The content was updated on 8th April via hand searching. We included studies on Phase III randomized controlled trials, and data from real world administration of vaccines. A two-round Delphi study was conducted with 15 geriatricians to elicit their thoughts and recommendations regarding COVID-19 vaccination for frail older adults. RESULTS: Five Phase III randomized controlled efficacy trials reported vaccine efficacy ranging from 66.7% to 95% among participants aged 16 to 95. The vaccine efficacy for participants aged 65 and above is 94.7% and 86.4% for Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna respectively. Sputnik V reported a vaccine efficacy of 91.8% for participants 60 and above. Serious adverse events were reported by 0.27% to 1% of participants who received at least one dose of the four vaccines. For the Delphi study, 16 out of 24 statements achieved consensus. The Delphi panel opined that frail or very old adults, except those with limited life expectancy, should be vaccinated due to their vulnerability. They also agree that vaccination decisions should be made by patients when possible, with the involvement of next-of-kin should the frail older adult be unable to do so. Lastly, the panel thought that frail older adults should be included in future clinical trials. CONCLUSION: In early clinical trials, there is paucity of evidence on efficacy and safety of current COVID-19 vaccines among frail older adults. Geriatricians' consensus indicate that frail older adults should be vaccinated except where life expectancy is limited. Future trials assessing efficacy and safety should include frail older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Delphi Technique , Frail Elderly , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Singapore/epidemiology , Vaccination
5.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 81, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Factors affecting COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy among primary healthcare workers (HCW) remain poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors associated with vaccine acceptance and hesitancy among HCW. METHODS: A multi-centre online cross-sectional survey was performed across 6 primary care clinics from May to June 2021, after completion of staff vaccination exercise. Demographics, profession, years working in healthcare, residential status, presence of chronic medical conditions, self-perceived risk of acquiring COVID-19 and previous influenza vaccination were collected. HCW who accepted vaccine were then asked to rank their top 5 reasons for vaccine acceptance; HCW who were vaccine hesitant had to complete the 15-item 5C scale on psychological antecedents of vaccination. RESULTS: Five hundred fifty seven out of 1182 eligible HCW responded (47.1%). Twenty nine were excluded due to contraindications. Among 528 respondents, vaccine acceptance rate was 94.9% (n = 501). There were no statistically significant differences in COVID-19 vaccine acceptance between sex, age, ethnicity, profession, number of years in healthcare, living alone, presence of chronic diseases, self-perceived risk or previous influenza vaccination. The top 3 reasons for COVID-19 vaccine acceptance ranked by 501 HCW were to protect their family and friends, protect themselves from COVID-19 and due to high risk of acquiring COVID-19 because of their jobs. HCW with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 exposure were 3.4 times more likely to rank 'high risk at work' as one of the top reasons for vaccine acceptance (χ2 = 41.9, p < 0.001, OR = 3.38, 95%C.I. 2.32-4.93). High mean scores of 'Calculation' (5.79) and low scores for 'Constraint' (2.85) for 5C components among vaccine hesitant HCW (n = 27) highlighted that accessibility was not a concern; HCW took time to weigh vaccine benefits and consequences. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is a minute issue among Singapore primary HCW, having achieved close to 95% acceptance rate. COVID-19 exposure risk influences vaccine acceptance; time is required for HCW to weigh benefits against the risks. Future studies can focus on settings with higher hesitancy rates, and acceptance of booster vaccinations with the emergence of delta and omicron variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Urinary Bladder Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology
6.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263039, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Distrust, and more broadly, public perception of government's handling of a crisis, has been a widely studied topic within health crisis research and suggests that these perceptions are significantly associated with the behavior of its citizens. PURPOSE: To understand which aspects of the public's perception of government handling of the COVID-19 pandemic predicted engagement of protective behaviors among older adults, who are the most vulnerable to COVID-19. METHODS: Participants were recruited from an ongoing biopsychosocial study on aging amongst community-dwelling older adults. There were two rounds of data collection, during the national lockdown and post-lockdown. The average length of follow-up was 5.88 months. N = 421 completed the first round of data collection and N = 318 subsequently completed the second round of questionnaires. RESULTS: During the lockdown, perceptions that pandemic-related measures in place were sufficient, effective, timely, provided a sense of safety, important information was easily accessible, and government handling of the pandemic could be trusted, were found to significantly predict engagement in protective behaviors. During post-lockdown, only perceptions that measures in place were sufficient, provided a sense of safety, and important information was easily accessible, remained significant predictors. The perception that COVID-19 measures were clear and easy to understand now became a significant predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Public perceptions of government handling of the pandemic predicted engagement in protective behaviors but were less important during post-lockdown. To effectively engage older adults in protective behavior, our findings suggest for pandemic-related information to be accessible, introducing timely safety measures, and having easy-to-understand instructions for nuanced measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Crew Resource Management, Healthcare/methods , Trust/psychology , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Government , Government Programs/trends , Humans , Independent Living/psychology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Vaccine ; 40(21): 2949-2959, 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant morbidity and mortality globally. As vaccines have been developed under expedited conditions, their safety and efficacy are being questioned by some populations leading to vaccine hesitancy, resulting in delayed vaccine uptake and herd immunity. This study aims to adopt a combination of Health Belief Model and other independent risk factors associated with high vaccine acceptance. METHODS: An anonymized cross-sectional survey was distributed between 15 January and 3 February 2021 across Singapore, Hong Kong and Australia among adult respondents through a certified online panel. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were carried out to assess perception constructs followed by multivariate regression modelling to assess factors associated with high vaccine acceptance against SARS_CoV-2. RESULTS: A total of 3,133 anonymised participants from Singapore (n = 1,009), Australia (n = 1,118) and Hong Kong (n = 1,006) completed the survey. While age and gender were not significantly associated, Asian ethnicity, current smokers and self-efficacy were significant associated factors of increased vaccine acceptance. While specific practices like taking micronutrients more frequently, cleaning and disinfecting their house more often were positively associated with increased vaccine acceptance, seeking medical help for COVID-19 symptoms like loss of smell/taste and overall COVID-19 knowledge score were negatively associated. Increased likelihood of vaccine acceptance was seen among those that obtained COVID-19 information less frequently and used digital media or non-health-related sources like influencers as a source of information. Among the eight perception constructs, perceived susceptibility and perceived response efficacy were positively associated, while perceived barriers were negatively associated with high vaccine acceptance. CONCLUSION: While demographic parameters have weak association with vaccine acceptance, perceptions and practices parameters can help to better understand and influence vaccine acceptance. Study findings should provide guidance on the risk communication strategy to enhance vaccine acceptance for vaccination and boosters against new SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Internet , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Singapore/epidemiology , Vaccination
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(3): 310-314, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765984

ABSTRACT

As of December 31, 2021, Singapore reported that 4 758 601 had completed at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccination, 4 714 655 had completed two doses of COVID-19 vaccination, and 2 207 341 had received one booster shot of COVID-19 vaccine. This article analyses the current performance of COVID-19 vaccination in Singapore, interprets the content of Singapore's National Vaccination Programme, and systematically introduces specific measures of COVID-19 vaccination in Singapore, such as door-to-door vaccination, vaccination differentiated management, and self-payment of medical expenses for those who refuse to be vaccinated, to provide reference for the COVID-19 vaccination in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization Programs , Singapore , Vaccination
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e222940, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748799

ABSTRACT

Importance: Reports of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) after messenger RNA (mRNA)-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has caused safety concerns, but CVT is also known to occur after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Comparing the relative incidence of CVT after infection vs vaccination may provide a better perspective of this complication. Objective: To compare the incidence rates and clinical characteristics of CVT following either SARS-CoV-2 infection or mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between January 23, 2020, and August 3, 2021, this observational cohort study was conducted at all public acute hospitals in Singapore, where patients hospitalized with CVT within 6 weeks of SARS-CoV-2 infection or after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]) were identified. Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection was based on quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or positive serology. National SARS-CoV-2 infection data were obtained from the National Centre for Infectious Disease, Singapore, and vaccination data were obtained from the National Immunisation Registry, Singapore. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection or mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical characteristics, crude incidence rate (IR), and incidence rate ratio (IRR) of CVT after SARS-CoV-2 infection and after mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Results: Among 62 447 individuals diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infections included in this study, 58 989 (94.5%) were male; the median (range) age was 34 (0-102) years; 6 CVT cases were identified (all were male; median [range] age was 33.5 [27-40] years). Among 3 006 662 individuals who received at least 1 dose of mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, 1 626 623 (54.1%) were male; the median (range) age was 50 (12-121) years; 9 CVT cases were identified (7 male individuals [77.8%]; median [range] age: 60 [46-76] years). The crude IR of CVT after SARS-CoV-2 infections was 83.3 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 30.6-181.2 per 100 000 person-years) and 2.59 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 1.19-4.92 per 100 000 person-years) after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Six (66.7%) received BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine and 3 (33.3%) received mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. The crude IRR of CVT hospitalizations with SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with those who received mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was 32.1 (95% CI, 9.40-101; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The incidence rate of CVT after SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly higher compared with after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. CVT remained rare after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, reinforcing its safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Vaccination , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Young Adult
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 507, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While older age is associated with better emotional well-being, it is unclear whether such age advantages remain during a pandemic. This study examined differences in mental health, adaptive behaviours, social support, perceived stress, digital media usage, and perceived change in circumstances between younger and older adults during the circuit breaker period (partial lockdown) in Singapore. METHODS: A door-to-door survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of 602 younger (n = 302) and older (n = 300) adults aged 21-89 years from Singapore from 17 October to 27 November 2020. All participants self-reported their depression, anxiety, stress, adaptive behaviours, social support, perceived stress, change in circumstances, and digital media usage during the partial lockdown period. RESULTS: Older adults were found to report significantly lower levels of depression, anxiety, and stress as compared to younger adults. Although older adults were less able to perform essential activities during the lockdown, they were more adaptable psycho-socially. Logistic regression analyses revealed that for older age group, adaptability and health status significantly predicted better mental health. Older adults had higher odds of low depression scores [odds ratio (OR) 1.81, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.07-3.08], anxiety scores (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.05-3.08), and stress scores (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.72-5.41). In addition, adaptability was found to moderate the relationship between age and mental health with detrimental effects of low adaptability stronger for younger adults than older adults. CONCLUSIONS: During the lockdown period, older adults in Singapore had better mental health, perceived less stress-related concerns and were more adaptable psycho-socially as compared to younger adults. This study's findings extend current evidence that age-related advantages in emotional well-being persisted in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Internet , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Singapore/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732008

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: As COVID-19 transmission continues despite vaccination programs, healthcare workers (HCWs) face an ongoing pandemic response. We explore the effects of this on (1) Heartware, by which we refer to morale and commitment of HCWs; and identify how to improve (2) Hardware, or ways of enabling operational safety and functioning. (2) Methods: Qualitative e-diary entries were shared by HCWs during the early phases of the outbreak in Singapore from June to August 2020. Data were collected via an online survey of n = 3616 HCWs of all cadres. Nine institutions-restructured hospitals (n = 5), affiliated primary partners (n = 2) and hospices (n = 2)-participated. Applied thematic analysis was undertaken and organized according to Heartware and Hardware. Major themes are in italics (3) Results: n = 663 (18%) HCWs submitted a qualitative entry. Dominant themes undermining (1) Heartware consisted of burnout from being overworked and emotional exhaustion and at times feeling a lack of appreciation or support at work. The most common themes overriding morale breakers were a stoic acceptance to fight, adjust and hold the line, coupled with motivation from engaging leadership and supportive colleagues. The biggest barrier in (2) Hardware analysis related to sub-optimal segregation strategies within wards and designing better protocols for case detection, triage, and admissions criteria. Overall, the most cited enabler was the timely and well-planned provision of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for front-liners, though scope for scale-up was called for by those not considered frontline. Analysis maps internal organizational functioning to wider external public and policy-related narratives. (4) Conclusions: COVID-19 surges are becoming endemic rather than exceptional events. System elasticity needs to build on known pillars coupling improving safety and care delivery with improving HCW morale. Accordingly, a model capturing such facets of Adaptive Pandemic Response derived from our data analyses is described. HCW burnout must be urgently addressed, and health systems moved away from reactive "wartime" response configurations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Military Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Organizational Innovation , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology
14.
Soc Sci Med ; 296: 114767, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730110

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy presents significant challenges for public health. OBJECTIVE: Vaccine hesitancy among middle-aged and older adults has been a significant barrier in Singapore's battle against COVID-19. We hypothesize that the trust middle-aged and older adults place in various sources of information influences vaccine hesitancy, and that distinct typologies of trust can be identified to better inform targeted health communication efforts. METHOD: Data from a nationally representative panel survey of Singaporeans aged 56-75 (N = 6094) was utilized. Modules fielded in August and November 2020, and June 2021 were analyzed, assessing social networks, trust in sources of information, and vaccination status respectively. Predictors of vaccination status were first examined. Latent class analysis was then used to identify typologies of trust in various sources of information. RESULTS: Trust in formal sources of information (e.g government sources) is found to predict vaccination status among respondents. Contrary to expectations, trust in social media and informal sources (family and friends), and perceived social support did not predict vaccination status. Latent class analysis identified 4 typologies of respondents based on their patterns of trust in these sources. Significantly, it is found that a portion of respondents with low trust in formal sources of information have high trust in informal sources. The four distinct typologies of trust in sources of information are also found to predict vaccination status. CONCLUSIONS: Because trust in formal sources of information influences vaccination status, authorities should build trust in such sources to encourage vaccination against COVID-19. However, health communication strategies with middle-aged and older adults who have low levels of trust in the formal sources may be more effective if authorities leveraged alternative channels such as informal sources, including the social networks of such individuals. Overall, the findings suggest the need for targeted communication strategies to encourage vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Communication , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Trust , Vaccination
15.
J Med Ethics ; 48(3): 174, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723860
16.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e54, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721344

ABSTRACT

The motivations that govern the adoption of digital contact tracing (DCT) tools are complex and not well understood. Hence, we assessed the factors influencing the acceptance and adoption of Singapore's national DCT tool - TraceTogether - during the COVID-19 pandemic. We surveyed 3943 visitors of Tan Tock Seng Hospital from July 2020 to February 2021 and stratified the analyses into three cohorts. Each cohort was stratified based on the time when significant policy interventions were introduced to increase the adoption of TraceTogether. Binary logistic regression was preceded by principal components analysis to reduce the Likert items. Respondents who 'perceived TraceTogether as useful and necessary' had higher likelihood of accepting it but those with 'Concerns about personal data collected by TraceTogether' had lower likelihood of accepting and adopting the tool. The injunctive and descriptive social norms were also positively associated with both the acceptance and adoption of the tool. Liberal individualism was mixed in the population and negatively associated with the acceptance and adoption of TraceTogether. Policy measures to increase the uptake of a national DCT bridged the digital divide and accelerated its adoption. However, good public communications are crucial to address the barriers of acceptance to improve voluntary uptake widespread adoption.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/instrumentation , Digital Technology/instrumentation , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Social Norms , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(2)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714403

ABSTRACT

It has been nearly 2 years since the first case of COVID-19 was reported. Governments worldwide have introduced numerous non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to combat this disease. Many of these NPIs were designed in response to initial outbreaks but are unsustainable in the long term. Governments are exploring how to adjust their current NPIs to resume normal activities while effectively protecting their population. As one of the most controversial NPIs, the implementation of travel restrictions varies across regions. Some governments have abandoned their previous travel restrictions because of the induced costs to society and on the economy. Other areas, including Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region of China) and Singapore, continue employing these NPIs as a long-term disease prevention tactic. However, the multidimensional impacts of travel restrictions require careful consideration of how to apply restrictions more appropriately. We have proposed an adapted framework to examine Hong Kong and Singapore's travel restrictions. We aimed to study these two regions' experiences in balancing disease control efforts with easing the burden on lives and livelihoods. Based on the experiences of Hong Kong and Singapore, we have outlined six policy recommendations to serve as the cornerstone for future research and policy practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Travel
18.
Nature ; 602(7898): 578, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713140
19.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 5, 2022 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a consequence of precision medicine initiatives, genomic technologies have rapidly spread around the world, raising questions about genetic privacy and the ethics of data sharing. Previous scholarship in bioethics and science and technology studies has made clear that different nations have varying expectations about trust, transparency, and public reason in relation to emerging technologies and their governance. The key aims of this article are to assess genetic literacy, perceptions of genetic testing, privacy concerns, and governing norms amongst the Singapore population by collecting surveys. METHODS: This study investigated genetic literacy and broad public attitudes toward genetic tests in Singapore with an online public survey (n = 560). To assess potential changes in attitudes following receipt of results from a genetic test, we also surveyed undergraduate students who underwent a genetic screen as part of a university class before and after they received their test results (n = 25). RESULTS: Public participants showed broad support for the use of genetic tests; scored an average of 48.9% in genetic literacy; and expressed privacy concerns over data sharing and a desire for control over their genetic data. After taking a genetic test and receiving genetic test results, students reported less fear of genetic tests while other attitudes did not change significantly. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the potential of genetic education and active engagement with genetic testing to increase support and participation in genomic projects, PM, and biobanking initiatives; and they suggest that data privacy protections could potentially reduce discrimination by giving participants control over who can access their data. More specifically, these findings and the dataset we provide may be helpful in formulating culturally sensitive education programs and regulations concerning genomic technologies and data privacy.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks , Genetic Testing , Attitude , Fear , Humans , Singapore
20.
Yonsei Med J ; 63(3): 296-303, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704902

ABSTRACT

This study investigated how three Asian countries-Republic of Korea (ROK), Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore-considered as standouts, responded to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in terms of governance system, health sector innovation, and social distancing to draw lessons that other countries can learn from. The countries were commonly in success of the response in early stage of the pandemic thanks to their effective and efficient strategies paired with advanced information and communications technology (ICT). Consequently, the three jurisdictions reported lower confirmed cases as well as fatality rate of the infectious disease compared to other high-income countries. In addition, the countries' previous experiences with other pandemics, including influenza A, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and severe acute respiratory syndrome, enabled them to establish resilient public health systems and gain public acceptance to governmental control or surveillance during national infectious disease-related crises outbreaks. Advanced ICT infrastructure and digital technology were used as effective tools for testing, tracing, and treatment of the pandemic in collaboration with the private sector as a crucial player. The ROK, Taiwan, and Singapore adopted different strategies between containment and mitigation policy to flatten the epidemic curves effectively according to their own situation and judgement. Despite the exemplary aspect of the three nations in coping with the COVID-19 pandemic, a few limitations were also observed in terms of vaccination and unequal consequences of the pandemic among people. These should be further discussed in order to be prepared for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Taiwan/epidemiology
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