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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20323, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467136

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to develop a highly sensitive SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen assay using the single molecule array (Simoa) technology and compare it with real time RT-PCR as used in routine clinical practice with the ambition to achieve a comparative technical and clinical sensitivity. Samples were available from 148 SARS-CoV-2 real time RT-PCR positive and 73 SARS-CoV-2 real time RT-PCR negative oropharyngeal swabs. For determination of technical sensitivity SARS-CoV-2 virus culture material was used. The samples were treated with lysis buffer and analyzed using both an in-house and a pre-commercial SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen assay on Simoa. Both nucleocapsid antigen assays have a technical sensitivity corresponding to around 100 SARS-CoV-2 RNA molecules/mL. Using a cut-off at 0.1 pg/mL the pre-commercial SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen assay had a sensitivity of 96% (95% CI 91.4-98.5%) and specificity of 100% (95% CI 95.1-100%). In comparison the in-house nucleocapsid antigen assay had sensitivity of 95% (95% CI 89.3-98.1%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI 95.1-100%) using a cut-off at 0.01 pg/mL. The two SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen assays correlated with r = 0.91 (P < 0.0001). The in-house and the pre-commercial SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen assay demonstrated technical and clinical sensitivity comparable to real-time RT-PCR methods for identifying SARS-CoV-2 infected patients and thus can be used clinically as well as serve as a reference method for antigen Point of Care Testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Denmark , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleocapsid/analysis , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Single Molecule Imaging/methods , Virion/chemistry
2.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255096, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325440

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic raises the need for diverse diagnostic approaches to rapidly detect different stages of viral infection. The flexible and quantitative nature of single-molecule imaging technology renders it optimal for development of new diagnostic tools. Here we present a proof-of-concept for a single-molecule based, enzyme-free assay for detection of SARS-CoV-2. The unified platform we developed allows direct detection of the viral genetic material from patients' samples, as well as their immune response consisting of IgG and IgM antibodies. Thus, it establishes a platform for diagnostics of COVID-19, which could also be adjusted to diagnose additional pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single Molecule Imaging/methods , Viral Proteins/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Base Sequence , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Nasopharynx/virology , Polyproteins/blood , Polyproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Single Molecule Imaging/instrumentation , Viral Proteins/blood
3.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(18): 4645-4654, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245612

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid detection technology based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody detection based on immunochromatography still have many problems such as false negatives for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, it is of great importance to develop new techniques to improve the diagnostic accuracy of COVID-19. We herein developed an ultrasensitive, rapid, and duplex digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dELISA) for simultaneous detection of spike (S-RBD) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 based on a single molecule array. This assay effectively combines magnetic bead encoding technology and the ultrasensitive detection capability of a single molecule array. The detection strategies of S-RBD protein and N-protein exhibited wide response ranges of 0.34-1065 pg/mL and 0.183-338 pg/mL with detection limits of 20.6 fg/mL and 69.8 fg/mL, respectively. It is a highly specific method for the simultaneous detection of S-RBD protein and N-protein and has minimal interference from other blood proteins. Moreover, the spike assay showed a satisfactory and reproducible recovery rate for the detection of S-RBD protein and N-protein in serum samples. Overall, this work provides a highly sensitive method for the simultaneous detection of S-RBD protein and N-protein, which shows ultrasensitivity and high signal-to-noise ratio and contributes to improve the diagnosis accuracy of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Single Molecule Imaging/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Magnetics , Microspheres , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(7)2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060504

ABSTRACT

The RNA polymerase inhibitor favipiravir is currently in clinical trials as a treatment for infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), despite limited information about the molecular basis for its activity. Here we report the structure of favipiravir ribonucleoside triphosphate (favipiravir-RTP) in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) bound to a template:primer RNA duplex, determined by electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) to a resolution of 2.5 Å. The structure shows clear evidence for the inhibitor at the catalytic site of the enzyme, and resolves the conformation of key side chains and ions surrounding the binding pocket. Polymerase activity assays indicate that the inhibitor is weakly incorporated into the RNA primer strand, and suppresses RNA replication in the presence of natural nucleotides. The structure reveals an unusual, nonproductive binding mode of favipiravir-RTP at the catalytic site of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, which explains its low rate of incorporation into the RNA primer strand. Together, these findings inform current and future efforts to develop polymerase inhibitors for SARS coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Amides/pharmacology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyrazines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Amides/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Cryoelectron Microscopy/methods , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Pyrazines/chemistry , Ribonucleotides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Single Molecule Imaging/methods
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(2)2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016225

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been declared an international public health crisis. It is essential to develop diagnostic tests that can quickly identify infected individuals to limit the spread of the virus and assign treatment options. Herein, we report a proof-of-concept label-free electrochemical immunoassay for the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus via the spike surface protein. The assay consists of a graphene working electrode functionalized with anti-spike antibodies. The concept of the immunosensor is to detect the signal perturbation obtained from ferri/ferrocyanide measurements after binding of the antigen during 45 min of incubation with a sample. The absolute change in the [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- current upon increasing antigen concentrations on the immunosensor surface was used to determine the detection range of the spike protein. The sensor was able to detect a specific signal above 260 nM (20 µg/mL) of subunit 1 of recombinant spike protein. Additionally, it was able to detect SARS-CoV-2 at a concentration of 5.5 × 105 PFU/mL, which is within the physiologically relevant concentration range. The novel immunosensor has a significantly faster analysis time than the standard qPCR and is operated by a portable device which can enable on-site diagnosis of infection.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Dielectric Spectroscopy , Electrochemical Techniques/instrumentation , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Equipment Design , Graphite , Humans , Limit of Detection , Pandemics , Proof of Concept Study , Protein Subunits , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single Molecule Imaging/instrumentation , Single Molecule Imaging/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors
7.
Structure ; 29(2): 186-195.e6, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939287

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) have enabled the structural determination of numerous protein assemblies at high resolution, yielding unprecedented insights into their function. However, despite its extraordinary capabilities, cryo-EM remains time-consuming and resource-intensive. It is therefore beneficial to have a means for rapidly assessing and optimizing the quality of samples prior to lengthy cryo-EM analyses. To do this, we have developed a native mass spectrometry (nMS) platform that provides rapid feedback on sample quality and highly streamlined biochemical screening. Because nMS enables accurate mass analysis of protein complexes, it is well suited to routine evaluation of the composition, integrity, and homogeneity of samples prior to their plunge-freezing on EM grids. We demonstrate the utility of our nMS-based platform for facilitating cryo-EM studies using structural characterizations of exemplar bacterial transcription complexes as well as the replication-transcription assembly from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Cryoelectron Microscopy/methods , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Single Molecule Imaging/methods , Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli Proteins/chemistry , Escherichia coli Proteins/metabolism , Methyltransferases/chemistry , Methyltransferases/metabolism , RNA Helicases/chemistry , RNA Helicases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Transcription Factors/chemistry , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
8.
ACS Nano ; 14(10): 13964-13974, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-766008

ABSTRACT

RNA quantification methods are broadly used in life science research and in clinical diagnostics. Currently, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the most common analytical tool for RNA quantification. However, in cases of rare transcripts or inhibiting contaminants in the sample, an extensive amplification could bias the copy number estimation, leading to quantification errors and false diagnosis. Single-molecule techniques may bypass amplification but commonly rely on fluorescence detection and probe hybridization, which introduces noise and limits multiplexing. Here, we introduce reverse transcription quantitative nanopore sensing (RT-qNP), an RNA quantification method that involves synthesis and single-molecule detection of gene-specific cDNAs without the need for purification or amplification. RT-qNP allows us to accurately quantify the relative expression of metastasis-associated genes MACC1 and S100A4 in nonmetastasizing and metastasizing human cell lines, even at levels for which RT-qPCR quantification produces uncertain results. We further demonstrate the versatility of the method by adapting it to quantify severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA against a human reference gene. This internal reference circumvents the need for producing a calibration curve for each measurement, an imminent requirement in RT-qPCR experiments. In summary, we describe a general method to process complicated biological samples with minimal losses, adequate for direct nanopore sensing. Thus, harnessing the sensitivity of label-free single-molecule counting, RT-qNP can potentially detect minute expression levels of RNA biomarkers or viral infection in the early stages of disease and provide accurate amplification-free quantification.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Nanopores , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Single Molecule Imaging/methods , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biosensing Techniques/standards , HCT116 Cells , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , S100 Calcium-Binding Protein A4/genetics , S100 Calcium-Binding Protein A4/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Single Molecule Imaging/standards , Trans-Activators/genetics , Trans-Activators/metabolism
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