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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 964976, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123414

ABSTRACT

Amid the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, vaccination and early therapeutic interventions are the most effective means to combat and control the severity of the disease. Host immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, particularly adaptive immune responses, should be fully understood to develop improved strategies to implement these measures. Single-cell multi-omic technologies, including flow cytometry, single-cell transcriptomics, and single-cell T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor (BCR) profiling, offer a better solution to examine the protective or pathological immune responses and molecular mechanisms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, thus providing crucial support for the development of vaccines and therapeutics for COVID-19. Recent reviews have revealed the overall immune landscape of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection, and this review will focus on adaptive immune responses (including T cells and B cells) to SARS-CoV-2 revealed by single-cell multi-omics technologies. In addition, we explore how the single-cell analyses disclose the critical components of immune protection and pathogenesis during SARS-CoV-2 infection through the comparison between the adaptive immune responses induced by natural infection and by vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis , Vaccination
2.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276460, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089429

ABSTRACT

Excessive neutrophil infiltration and dysfunction contribute to the progression and severity of hyper-inflammatory syndrome, such as in severe COVID19. In the current study, we re-analysed published scRNA-seq datasets of mouse and human neutrophils to classify and compare the transcriptional regulatory networks underlying neutrophil differentiation and inflammatory responses. Distinct sets of TF modules regulate neutrophil maturation, function, and inflammatory responses under the steady state and inflammatory conditions. In COVID19 patients, neutrophil activation was associated with the selective activation of inflammation-specific TF modules. SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive neutrophils showed a higher expression of type I interferon response TF IRF7. Furthermore, IRF7 expression was abundant in neutrophils from severe patients in progression stage. Neutrophil-mediated inflammatory responses positively correlate with the expressional level of IRF7. Based on these results, we suggest that differential activation of activation-related TFs, such as IRF7 mediate neutrophil inflammatory responses during inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neutrophils , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammation/genetics , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Neutrophil Activation/genetics , Neutrophil Activation/physiology , Neutrophils/metabolism , RNA, Viral , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6118, 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077050

ABSTRACT

Computational tools for integrative analyses of diverse single-cell experiments are facing formidable new challenges including dramatic increases in data scale, sample heterogeneity, and the need to informatively cross-reference new data with foundational datasets. Here, we present SCALEX, a deep-learning method that integrates single-cell data by projecting cells into a batch-invariant, common cell-embedding space in a truly online manner (i.e., without retraining the model). SCALEX substantially outperforms online iNMF and other state-of-the-art non-online integration methods on benchmark single-cell datasets of diverse modalities, (e.g., single-cell RNA sequencing, scRNA-seq, single-cell assay for transposase-accessible chromatin use sequencing, scATAC-seq), especially for datasets with partial overlaps, accurately aligning similar cell populations while retaining true biological differences. We showcase SCALEX's advantages by constructing continuously expandable single-cell atlases for human, mouse, and COVID-19 patients, each assembled from diverse data sources and growing with every new data. The online data integration capacity and superior performance makes SCALEX particularly appropriate for large-scale single-cell applications to build upon previous scientific insights.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Cell Analysis , Animals , Humans , Mice , Chromatin , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Transposases
4.
Biol Reprod ; 107(1): 118-134, 2022 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062863

ABSTRACT

Infertility affects 8-12% of couples globally, and the male factor is a primary cause in ~50% of couples. Male infertility is a multifactorial reproductive disorder, which can be caused by paracrine and autocrine factors, hormones, genes, and epigenetic changes. Recent studies in rodents and most notably in humans using multiomics approach have yielded important insights into understanding the biology of spermatogenesis. Nonetheless, the etiology and pathogenesis of male infertility are still largely unknown. In this review, we summarized and critically evaluated findings based on the use of advanced technologies to compare normal and obstructive azoospermic versus nonobstructive azoospermic men, including whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, single-cell RNA-seq, whole-exome sequencing, and transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing. It is obvious that the multiomics approach is the method of choice for basic research and clinical studies including clinical diagnosis of male infertility.


Subject(s)
Azoospermia , Infertility, Male , Azoospermia/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Humans , Infertility, Male/genetics , Male , Single-Cell Analysis , Spermatogenesis/genetics
5.
Nature ; 611(7934): 139-147, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016757

ABSTRACT

Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection1 has been associated with highly inflammatory immune activation since the earliest days of the COVID-19 pandemic2-5. More recently, these responses have been associated with the emergence of self-reactive antibodies with pathologic potential6-10, although their origins and resolution have remained unclear11. Previously, we and others have identified extrafollicular B cell activation, a pathway associated with the formation of new autoreactive antibodies in chronic autoimmunity12,13, as a dominant feature of severe and critical COVID-19 (refs. 14-18). Here, using single-cell B cell repertoire analysis of patients with mild and severe disease, we identify the expansion of a naive-derived, low-mutation IgG1 population of antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) reflecting features of low selective pressure. These features correlate with progressive, broad, clinically relevant autoreactivity, particularly directed against nuclear antigens and carbamylated proteins, emerging 10-15 days after the onset of symptoms. Detailed analysis of the low-selection compartment shows a high frequency of clonotypes specific for both SARS-CoV-2 and autoantigens, including pathogenic autoantibodies against the glomerular basement membrane. We further identify the contraction of this pathway on recovery, re-establishment of tolerance standards and concomitant loss of acute-derived ASCs irrespective of antigen specificity. However, serological autoreactivity persists in a subset of patients with postacute sequelae, raising important questions as to the contribution of emerging autoreactivity to continuing symptomology on recovery. In summary, this study demonstrates the origins, breadth and resolution of autoreactivity in severe COVID-19, with implications for early intervention and the treatment of patients with post-COVID sequelae.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Humans , Autoantibodies/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Autoantigens/immunology , Basement Membrane/immunology
6.
Bioinformatics ; 38(20): 4720-4726, 2022 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008507

ABSTRACT

MOTIVATION: Single cell RNA-Sequencing (scRNA-seq) has rapidly gained popularity over the last few years for profiling the transcriptomes of thousands to millions of single cells. This technology is now being used to analyse experiments with complex designs including biological replication. One question that can be asked from single cell experiments, which has been difficult to directly address with bulk RNA-seq data, is whether the cell type proportions are different between two or more experimental conditions. As well as gene expression changes, the relative depletion or enrichment of a particular cell type can be the functional consequence of disease or treatment. However, cell type proportion estimates from scRNA-seq data are variable and statistical methods that can correctly account for different sources of variability are needed to confidently identify statistically significant shifts in cell type composition between experimental conditions. RESULTS: We have developed propeller, a robust and flexible method that leverages biological replication to find statistically significant differences in cell type proportions between groups. Using simulated cell type proportions data, we show that propeller performs well under a variety of scenarios. We applied propeller to test for significant changes in cell type proportions related to human heart development, ageing and COVID-19 disease severity. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The propeller method is publicly available in the open source speckle R package (https://github.com/phipsonlab/speckle). All the analysis code for the article is available at the associated analysis website: https://phipsonlab.github.io/propeller-paper-analysis/. The speckle package, analysis scripts and datasets have been deposited at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7009042. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Cell Analysis , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , RNA , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Software
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(36): e2120680119, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001001

ABSTRACT

The systemic immune response to viral infection is shaped by master transcription factors, such as NF-κB, STAT1, or PU.1. Although long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been suggested as important regulators of transcription factor activity, their contributions to the systemic immunopathologies observed during SARS-CoV-2 infection have remained unknown. Here, we employed a targeted single-cell RNA sequencing approach to reveal lncRNAs differentially expressed in blood leukocytes during severe COVID-19. Our results uncover the lncRNA PIRAT (PU.1-induced regulator of alarmin transcription) as a major PU.1 feedback-regulator in monocytes, governing the production of the alarmins S100A8/A9, key drivers of COVID-19 pathogenesis. Knockout and transgene expression, combined with chromatin-occupancy profiling, characterized PIRAT as a nuclear decoy RNA, keeping PU.1 from binding to alarmin promoters and promoting its binding to pseudogenes in naïve monocytes. NF-κB-dependent PIRAT down-regulation during COVID-19 consequently releases a transcriptional brake, fueling alarmin production. Alarmin expression is additionally enhanced by the up-regulation of the lncRNA LUCAT1, which promotes NF-κB-dependent gene expression at the expense of targets of the JAK-STAT pathway. Our results suggest a major role of nuclear noncoding RNA networks in systemic antiviral responses to SARS-CoV-2 in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gene Expression Regulation , Monocytes , RNA, Long Noncoding , SARS-CoV-2 , Alarmins/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Janus Kinases/genetics , Monocytes/immunology , NF-kappa B/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis
8.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 23(1): 336, 2022 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies offer unique opportunities for exploring heterogeneous cell populations. However, in-depth single-cell transcriptomic characterization of complex tissues often requires profiling tens to hundreds of thousands of cells. Such large numbers of cells represent an important hurdle for downstream analyses, interpretation and visualization. RESULTS: We develop a framework called SuperCell to merge highly similar cells into metacells and perform standard scRNA-seq data analyses at the metacell level. Our systematic benchmarking demonstrates that metacells not only preserve but often improve the results of downstream analyses including visualization, clustering, differential expression, cell type annotation, gene correlation, imputation, RNA velocity and data integration. By capitalizing on the redundancy inherent to scRNA-seq data, metacells significantly facilitate and accelerate the construction and interpretation of single-cell atlases, as demonstrated by the integration of 1.46 million cells from COVID-19 patients in less than two hours on a standard desktop. CONCLUSIONS: SuperCell is a framework to build and analyze metacells in a way that efficiently preserves the results of scRNA-seq data analyses while significantly accelerating and facilitating them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transcriptome , Cluster Analysis , Humans , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Single-Cell Analysis/methods
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(7)2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963781

ABSTRACT

Single-cell transcriptome studies have revealed immune dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, including lymphopenia, T cell exhaustion, and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while DNA methylation plays an important role in the regulation of immune response and inflammatory response. The specific cell types of immune responses regulated by DNA methylation in COVID-19 patients will be better understood by exploring the COVID-19 DNA methylation variation at the cell-type level. Here, we developed an analytical pipeline to explore single-cell DNA methylation variations in COVID-19 patients by transferring bulk-tissue-level knowledge to the single-cell level. We discovered that the methylation variations in the whole blood of COVID-19 patients showed significant cell-type specificity with remarkable enrichment in gamma-delta T cells and presented a phenomenon of hypermethylation and low expression. Furthermore, we identified five genes whose methylation variations were associated with several cell types. Among them, S100A9, AHNAK, and CX3CR1 have been reported as potential COVID-19 biomarkers previously, and the others (TRAF3IP3 and LFNG) are closely associated with the immune and virus-related signaling pathways. We propose that they might serve as potential epigenetic biomarkers for COVID-19 and could play roles in important biological processes such as the immune response and antiviral activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , DNA Methylation , Biomarkers , COVID-19/genetics , DNA Methylation/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Humans , Single-Cell Analysis
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2203437119, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960624

ABSTRACT

The mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strongly correlated with pulmonary vascular pathology accompanied by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-triggered immune dysregulation and aberrant activation of platelets. We combined histological analyses using field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses of the lungs from autopsy samples and single-cell RNA sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to investigate the pathogenesis of vasculitis and immunothrombosis in COVID-19. We found that SARS-CoV-2 accumulated in the pulmonary vessels, causing exudative vasculitis accompanied by the emergence of thrombospondin-1-expressing noncanonical monocytes and the formation of myosin light chain 9 (Myl9)-containing microthrombi in the lung of COVID-19 patients with fatal disease. The amount of plasma Myl9 in COVID-19 was correlated with the clinical severity, and measuring plasma Myl9 together with other markers allowed us to predict the severity of the disease more accurately. This study provides detailed insight into the pathogenesis of vasculitis and immunothrombosis, which may lead to optimal medical treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , Myosin Light Chains , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thromboinflammation , Vasculitis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Lung/blood supply , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Myosin Light Chains/blood , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Single-Cell Analysis , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Thromboinflammation/pathology , Thromboinflammation/virology , Vasculitis/pathology , Vasculitis/virology
11.
Hum Genomics ; 16(1): 20, 2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951361

ABSTRACT

The increased resolution of single-cell RNA-sequencing technologies has led to major breakthroughs and improved our understanding of the normal and pathologic conditions of multiple tissues and organs. In the study of parenchymal lung disease, single-cell RNA-sequencing has better delineated known cell populations and identified novel cells and changes in cellular phenotypes and gene expression patterns associated with disease. In this review, we aim to highlight the advances and insights that have been made possible by applying these technologies to two seemingly very different lung diseases: fibrotic interstitial lung diseases, a group of relentlessly progressive lung diseases leading to pulmonary fibrosis, and COVID-19 pneumonia, an acute viral disease with life-threatening complications, including pulmonary fibrosis. We discuss changes in cell populations and gene expression, highlighting potential common features, such as alveolar cell epithelial injury and aberrant repair and monocyte-derived macrophage populations, as well as relevance and implications to mechanisms of disease and future directions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Lung/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , RNA , Single-Cell Analysis
12.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(11)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934924

ABSTRACT

Alveolar macrophages (AMs) reside on the luminal surface of the airways and alveoli, ensuring proper gas exchange by ingesting cellular debris and pathogens, and regulating inflammatory responses. Therefore, understanding the heterogeneity and diverse roles played by AMs, interstitial macrophages, and recruited monocytes is critical for treating airway diseases. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on 113,213 bronchoalveolar lavage cells from four healthy and three uninflamed cystic fibrosis subjects and identified two MARCKS+LGMN+IMs, FOLR2+SELENOP+ and SPP1+PLA2G7+ IMs, monocyte subtypes, DC1, DC2, migDCs, plasmacytoid DCs, lymphocytes, epithelial cells, and four AM superclusters (families) based on the gene expression of IFI27 and APOC2 These four AM families have at least eight distinct functional members (subclusters) named after their differentially expressed gene(s): IGF1, CCL18, CXCL5, cholesterol, chemokine, metallothionein, interferon, and small-cluster AMs. Interestingly, the chemokine cluster further divides with each subcluster selectively expressing a unique combination of chemokines. One of the most striking observations, besides the heterogeneity, is the conservation of AM family members in relatively equal ratio across all AM superclusters and individuals. Transcriptional data and TotalSeq technology were used to investigate cell surface markers that distinguish resident AMs from recruited monocytes. Last, other AM datasets were projected onto our dataset. Similar AM superclusters and functional subclusters were observed, along with a significant increase in chemokine and IFN AM subclusters in individuals infected with COVID-19. Overall, functional specializations of the AM subclusters suggest that there are highly regulated AM niches with defined programming states, highlighting a clear division of labor.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein C-II , Macrophages, Alveolar , Membrane Proteins , Apolipoprotein C-II/metabolism , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Chemokines , Humans , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis
13.
Dis Model Mech ; 14(1)2021 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910406

ABSTRACT

Human lifespan is now longer than ever and, as a result, modern society is getting older. Despite that, the detailed mechanisms behind the ageing process and its impact on various tissues and organs remain obscure. In general, changes in DNA, RNA and protein structure throughout life impair their function. Haematopoietic ageing refers to the age-related changes affecting a haematopoietic system. Aged blood cells display different functional aberrations depending on their cell type, which might lead to the development of haematologic disorders, including leukaemias, anaemia or declining immunity. In contrast to traditional bulk assays, which are not suitable to dissect cell-to-cell variation, single-cell-level analysis provides unprecedented insight into the dynamics of age-associated changes in blood. In this Review, we summarise recent studies that dissect haematopoietic ageing at the single-cell level. We discuss what cellular changes occur during haematopoietic ageing at the genomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic and metabolomic level, and provide an overview of the benefits of investigating those changes with single-cell precision. We conclude by considering the potential clinical applications of single-cell techniques in geriatric haematology, focusing on the impact on haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the elderly and infection studies, including recent COVID-19 research.


Subject(s)
Aging/physiology , Hematopoietic System/physiology , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Aging/genetics , Animals , Bone Marrow/physiology , DNA Damage , Epigenome , Glycolysis , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Mutation , Transcriptome
14.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 842-844, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900503

ABSTRACT

Respiratory immune characteristics associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity are currently unclear. We characterized bronchoalveolar lavage fluid immune cells from patients with varying severity of COVID-19 and from healthy people by using single-cell RNA sequencing. Proinflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages were abundant in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with severe COVID-9. Moderate cases were characterized by the presence of highly clonally expanded CD8+ T cells. This atlas of the bronchoalveolar immune microenvironment suggests potential mechanisms underlying pathogenesis and recovery in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Single-Cell Analysis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 336, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890208

ABSTRACT

Bats are considered reservoirs of many lethal zoonotic viruses and have been implicated in several outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. It is necessary to systematically derive the expression patterns of bat virus receptors and their regulatory features for future research into bat-borne viruses and the prediction and prevention of pandemics. Here, we performed single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) and single-nucleus assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (snATAC-seq) of major organ samples collected from Chinese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus affinis) and systematically checked the expression pattern of bat-related virus receptors and chromatin accessibility across organs and cell types, providing a valuable dataset for studying the nature of infection among bat-borne viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Receptors, Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Genome, Viral , Humans , Phylogeny , Single-Cell Analysis
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2453: 379-421, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872265

ABSTRACT

Single-cell adaptive immune receptor repertoire sequencing (scAIRR-seq) offers the possibility to access the nucleotide sequences of paired receptor chains from T-cell receptors (TCR) or B-cell receptors (BCR ). Here we describe two protocols and the downstream bioinformatic approaches that facilitate the integrated analysis of paired T-cell receptor (TR ) alpha/beta (TRA /TRB ) AIRR-seq, RNA sequencing (RNAseq), immunophenotyping, and antigen-binding information. To illustrate the methodologies with a use case, we describe how to identify, characterize, and track SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells over multiple time points following infection with the virus. The first method allows the analysis of pools of memory CD8+ cells, identifying expansions and contractions of clones of interest. The second method allows the study of rare or antigen-specific cells and allows studying their changes over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Cell Analysis , Base Sequence , Humans , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Transcriptome
17.
Genome Biol ; 23(1): 55, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiplexing of samples in single-cell RNA-seq studies allows a significant reduction of the experimental costs, straightforward identification of doublets, increased cell throughput, and reduction of sample-specific batch effects. Recently published multiplexing techniques using oligo-conjugated antibodies or -lipids allow barcoding sample-specific cells, a process called "hashing." RESULTS: Here, we compare the hashing performance of TotalSeq-A and -C antibodies, custom synthesized lipids and MULTI-seq lipid hashes in four cell lines, both for single-cell RNA-seq and single-nucleus RNA-seq. We also compare TotalSeq-B antibodies with CellPlex reagents (10x Genomics) on human PBMCs and TotalSeq-B with different lipids on primary mouse tissues. Hashing efficiency was evaluated using the intrinsic genetic variation of the cell lines and mouse strains. Antibody hashing was further evaluated on clinical samples using PBMCs from healthy and SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, where we demonstrate a more affordable approach for large single-cell sequencing clinical studies, while simultaneously reducing batch effects. CONCLUSIONS: Benchmarking of different hashing strategies and computational pipelines indicates that correct demultiplexing can be achieved with both lipid- and antibody-hashed human cells and nuclei, with MULTISeqDemux as the preferred demultiplexing function and antibody-based hashing as the most efficient protocol on cells. On nuclei datasets, lipid hashing delivers the best results. Lipid hashing also outperforms antibodies on cells isolated from mouse brain. However, antibodies demonstrate better results on tissues like spleen or lung.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Animals , Antibodies/chemistry , Case-Control Studies , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Nucleus/chemistry , Humans , Lipids/chemistry , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutrophils/chemistry , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/virology
18.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(7)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780426

ABSTRACT

Immune responses are different between individuals and personal health histories and unique environmental conditions should collectively determine the present state of immune cells. However, the molecular systems underlying such heterogeneity remain elusive. Here, we conducted a systematic time-lapse single-cell analysis, using 171 single-cell libraries and 30 mass cytometry datasets intensively for seven healthy individuals. We found substantial diversity in immune-cell profiles between different individuals. These patterns showed daily fluctuations even within the same individual. Similar diversities were also observed for the T-cell and B-cell receptor repertoires. Detailed immune-cell profiles at healthy statuses should give essential background information to understand their immune responses, when the individual is exposed to various environmental conditions. To demonstrate this idea, we conducted the similar analysis for the same individuals on the vaccination of influenza and SARS-CoV-2. In fact, we detected distinct responses to vaccines between individuals, although key responses are common. Single-cell immune-cell profile data should make fundamental data resource to understand variable immune responses, which are unique to each individual.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Cell Analysis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 798712, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779939

ABSTRACT

The immune system is a complex and sophisticated biological system, spanning multiple levels of complexity, from the molecular level to that of tissue. Our current understanding of its function and complexity, of the heterogeneity of leukocytes, is a result of decades of concentrated efforts to delineate cellular markers using conventional methods of antibody screening and antigen identification. In mammalian models, this led to in-depth understanding of individual leukocyte subsets, their phenotypes, and their roles in health and disease. The field was further propelled forward by the development of single-cell (sc) RNA-seq technologies, offering an even broader and more integrated view of how cells work together to generate a particular response. Consequently, the adoption of scRNA-seq revealed the unexpected plasticity and heterogeneity of leukocyte populations and shifted several long-standing paradigms of immunology. This review article highlights the unprecedented opportunities offered by scRNA-seq technology to unveil the individual contributions of leukocyte subsets and their crosstalk in generating the overall immune responses in bony fishes. Single-cell transcriptomics allow identifying unseen relationships, and formulating novel hypotheses tailored for teleost species, without the need to rely on the limited number of fish-specific antibodies and pre-selected markers. Several recent studies on single-cell transcriptomes of fish have already identified previously unnoticed expression signatures and provided astonishing insights into the diversity of teleost leukocytes and the evolution of vertebrate immunity. Without a doubt, scRNA-seq in tandem with bioinformatics tools and state-of-the-art methods, will facilitate studying the teleost immune system by not only defining key markers, but also teaching us about lymphoid tissue organization, development/differentiation, cell-cell interactions, antigen receptor repertoires, states of health and disease, all across time and space in fishes. These advances will invite more researchers to develop the tools necessary to explore the immunology of fishes, which remain non-conventional animal models from which we have much to learn.


Subject(s)
Fishes/genetics , Fishes/immunology , Leukocytes/immunology , Leukocytes/metabolism , RNA-Seq , Single-Cell Analysis , Animals , Immunity , Single-Cell Analysis/methods
20.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D27-D38, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758797

ABSTRACT

The National Genomics Data Center (NGDC), part of the China National Center for Bioinformation (CNCB), provides a family of database resources to support global research in both academia and industry. With the explosively accumulated multi-omics data at ever-faster rates, CNCB-NGDC is constantly scaling up and updating its core database resources through big data archive, curation, integration and analysis. In the past year, efforts have been made to synthesize the growing data and knowledge, particularly in single-cell omics and precision medicine research, and a series of resources have been newly developed, updated and enhanced. Moreover, CNCB-NGDC has continued to daily update SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences, variants, haplotypes and literature. Particularly, OpenLB, an open library of bioscience, has been established by providing easy and open access to a substantial number of abstract texts from PubMed, bioRxiv and medRxiv. In addition, Database Commons is significantly updated by cataloguing a full list of global databases, and BLAST tools are newly deployed to provide online sequence search services. All these resources along with their services are publicly accessible at https://ngdc.cncb.ac.cn.


Subject(s)
Databases, Factual , Animals , China , Computational Biology , Databases, Genetic , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Dogs , Epigenome , Genome, Human , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Humans , Methylation , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/pathology , Regeneration , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis , Software , Synthetic Biology
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