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1.
J Transl Med ; 21(1): 358, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The distribution of ACE2 and accessory proteases (ANAD17 and CTSL) in cardiovascular tissue and the host cell receptor binding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are crucial to understanding the virus's cell invasion, which may play a significant role in determining the viral tropism and its clinical manifestations. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the cell type-specific expression of ACE2, ADAM17, and CTSL in myocardial tissue from 10 patients using RNA sequencing. Our study included a meta-analysis of 2 heart single-cell RNA-sequencing studies with a total of 90,024 cells from 250 heart samples of 10 individuals. We used co-expression analysis to locate specific cell types that SARS-CoV-2 may invade. RESULTS: Our results revealed cell-type specific associations between male gender and the expression levels of ACE2, ADAM17, and CTSL, including pericytes and fibroblasts. AGT, CALM3, PCSK5, NRP1, and LMAN were identified as potential accessory proteases that might facilitate viral invasion. Enrichment analysis highlighted the extracellular matrix interaction pathway, adherent plaque pathway, vascular smooth muscle contraction inflammatory response, and oxidative stress as potential immune pathways involved in viral infection, providing potential molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. We also found specific high expression of IFITM3 and AGT in pericytes and differences in the IFN-II signaling pathway and PAR signaling pathway in fibroblasts from different cardiovascular comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicated possible high-risk groups for COVID-19 and provided emerging avenues for future investigations of its pathogenesis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: (Not applicable).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Male , Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins
2.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 3244, 2023 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239143

ABSTRACT

Variations of cell-type proportions within tissues could be informative of biological aging and disease risk. Single-cell RNA-sequencing offers the opportunity to detect such differential abundance patterns, yet this task can be statistically challenging due to the noise in single-cell data, inter-sample variability and because such patterns are often of small effect size. Here we present a differential abundance testing paradigm called ELVAR that uses cell attribute aware clustering when inferring differentially enriched communities within the single-cell manifold. Using simulated and real single-cell and single-nucleus RNA-Seq datasets, we benchmark ELVAR against an analogous algorithm that uses Louvain for clustering, as well as local neighborhood-based methods, demonstrating that ELVAR improves the sensitivity to detect cell-type composition shifts in relation to aging, precancerous states and Covid-19 phenotypes. In effect, leveraging cell attribute information when inferring cell communities can denoise single-cell data, avoid the need for batch correction and help retrieve more robust cell states for subsequent differential abundance testing. ELVAR is available as an open-source R-package.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Cell Gene Expression Analysis , Humans , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , RNA-Seq/methods , Algorithms , Cluster Analysis , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Gene Expression Profiling/methods
3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D27-D38, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312875

ABSTRACT

The National Genomics Data Center (NGDC), part of the China National Center for Bioinformation (CNCB), provides a family of database resources to support global research in both academia and industry. With the explosively accumulated multi-omics data at ever-faster rates, CNCB-NGDC is constantly scaling up and updating its core database resources through big data archive, curation, integration and analysis. In the past year, efforts have been made to synthesize the growing data and knowledge, particularly in single-cell omics and precision medicine research, and a series of resources have been newly developed, updated and enhanced. Moreover, CNCB-NGDC has continued to daily update SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences, variants, haplotypes and literature. Particularly, OpenLB, an open library of bioscience, has been established by providing easy and open access to a substantial number of abstract texts from PubMed, bioRxiv and medRxiv. In addition, Database Commons is significantly updated by cataloguing a full list of global databases, and BLAST tools are newly deployed to provide online sequence search services. All these resources along with their services are publicly accessible at https://ngdc.cncb.ac.cn.


Subject(s)
Databases, Factual , Animals , China , Computational Biology , Databases, Genetic , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Dogs , Epigenome , Genome, Human , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Humans , Methylation , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/pathology , Regeneration , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis , Software , Synthetic Biology
4.
Nat Genet ; 55(5): 753-767, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294568

ABSTRACT

Mechanisms underpinning the dysfunctional immune response in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection are elusive. We analyzed single-cell transcriptomes and T and B cell receptors (BCR) of >895,000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 73 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and 75 healthy controls of Japanese ancestry with host genetic data. COVID-19 patients showed a low fraction of nonclassical monocytes (ncMono). We report downregulated cell transitions from classical monocytes to ncMono in COVID-19 with reduced CXCL10 expression in ncMono in severe disease. Cell-cell communication analysis inferred decreased cellular interactions involving ncMono in severe COVID-19. Clonal expansions of BCR were evident in the plasmablasts of patients. Putative disease genes identified by COVID-19 genome-wide association study showed cell type-specific expressions in monocytes and dendritic cells. A COVID-19-associated risk variant at the IFNAR2 locus (rs13050728) had context-specific and monocyte-specific expression quantitative trait loci effects. Our study highlights biological and host genetic involvement of innate immune cells in COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Humans , Genome-Wide Association Study , COVID-19/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis , Immunity, Innate/genetics
5.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2484, 2023 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302122

ABSTRACT

Tissues are highly complicated with spatial heterogeneity in gene expression. However, the cutting-edge single-cell RNA-seq technology eliminates the spatial information of individual cells, which contributes to the characterization of cell identities. Herein, we propose single-cell spatial position associated co-embeddings (scSpace), an integrative method to identify spatially variable cell subpopulations by reconstructing cells onto a pseudo-space with spatial transcriptome references (Visium, STARmap, Slide-seq, etc.). We benchmark scSpace with both simulated and biological datasets, and demonstrate that scSpace can accurately and robustly identify spatially variated cell subpopulations. When employed to reconstruct the spatial architectures of complex tissue such as the brain cortex, the small intestinal villus, the liver lobule, the kidney, the embryonic heart, and others, scSpace shows promising performance on revealing the pairwise cellular spatial association within single-cell data. The application of scSpace in melanoma and COVID-19 exhibits a broad prospect in the discovery of spatial therapeutic markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Cell Analysis , Humans , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Transcriptome , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Gene Expression Profiling/methods
6.
Sci Adv ; 9(8): eade5090, 2023 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278196

ABSTRACT

Cells sense a wide variety of signals and respond by adopting complex transcriptional states. Most single-cell profiling is carried out today at cellular baseline, blind to cells' potential spectrum of functional responses. Exploring the space of cellular responses experimentally requires access to a large combinatorial perturbation space. Single-cell genomics coupled with multiplexing techniques provide a useful tool for characterizing cell states across several experimental conditions. However, current multiplexing strategies require programmatic handling of many samples in macroscale arrayed formats, precluding their application in large-scale combinatorial analysis. Here, we introduce StimDrop, a method that combines antibody-based cell barcoding with parallel droplet processing to automatically formulate cell population × stimulus combinations in a microfluidic device. We applied StimDrop to profile the effects of 512 sequential stimulation conditions on human dendritic cells. Our results demonstrate that priming with viral ligands potentiates hyperinflammatory responses to a second stimulus, and show transcriptional signatures consistent with this phenomenon in myeloid cells of patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Myeloid Cells , Ligands , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Single-Cell Analysis
7.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics ; 20(5): 814-835, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252969

ABSTRACT

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has become a routinely used technique to quantify the gene expression profile of thousands of single cells simultaneously. Analysis of scRNA-seq data plays an important role in the study of cell states and phenotypes, and has helped elucidate biological processes, such as those occurring during the development of complex organisms, and improved our understanding of disease states, such as cancer, diabetes, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Deep learning, a recent advance of artificial intelligence that has been used to address many problems involving large datasets, has also emerged as a promising tool for scRNA-seq data analysis, as it has a capacity to extract informative and compact features from noisy, heterogeneous, and high-dimensional scRNA-seq data to improve downstream analysis. The present review aims at surveying recently developed deep learning techniques in scRNA-seq data analysis, identifying key steps within the scRNA-seq data analysis pipeline that have been advanced by deep learning, and explaining the benefits of deep learning over more conventional analytic tools. Finally, we summarize the challenges in current deep learning approaches faced within scRNA-seq data and discuss potential directions for improvements in deep learning algorithms for scRNA-seq data analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Humans , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Artificial Intelligence , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Cluster Analysis
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1935, 2023 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221864

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread worldwide. Patients with COVID-19 show distinct clinical symptoms. Although many studies have reported various causes for the diversity of symptoms, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from COVID-19 patients were collected longitudinally, and single-cell transcriptome and T cell receptor repertoire analysis was performed. Comparison of molecular features and patients' clinical information revealed that the proportions of cells present, and gene expression profiles differed significantly between mild and severe cases; although even among severe cases, substantial differences were observed among the patients. In one severely-infected elderly patient, an effective antibody response seemed to have failed, which may have caused prolonged viral clearance. Naïve T cell depletion, low T cell receptor repertoire diversity, and aberrant hyperactivation of most immune cell subsets were observed during the acute phase in this patient. Through this study, we provided a better understanding of the diversity of immune landscapes and responses. The information obtained from this study can help medical professionals develop personalized optimal clinical treatment strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Japan/epidemiology , Single-Cell Analysis , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
9.
Nat Cell Biol ; 25(2): 337-350, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221822

ABSTRACT

The increasing availability of large-scale single-cell atlases has enabled the detailed description of cell states. In parallel, advances in deep learning allow rapid analysis of newly generated query datasets by mapping them into reference atlases. However, existing data transformations learned to map query data are not easily explainable using biologically known concepts such as genes or pathways. Here we propose expiMap, a biologically informed deep-learning architecture that enables single-cell reference mapping. ExpiMap learns to map cells into biologically understandable components representing known 'gene programs'. The activity of each cell for a gene program is learned while simultaneously refining them and learning de novo programs. We show that expiMap compares favourably to existing methods while bringing an additional layer of interpretability to integrative single-cell analysis. Furthermore, we demonstrate its applicability to analyse single-cell perturbation responses in different tissues and species and resolve responses of patients who have coronavirus disease 2019 to different treatments across cell types.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 988573, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198863

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease with multicellular involvement, and knowledge gaps remain in our understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma. Efforts are still being made to investigate the immune pathogenesis of asthma in order to identify possible targets for prevention. Single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technology is a useful tool for exploring heterogeneous diseases, identifying rare cell types and distinct cell subsets, enabling elucidation of key processes of cell differentiation, and understanding regulatory gene networks that predict immune function. In this article, we provide an overview of the importance of scRNA-seq for asthma research, followed by an in-depth discussion of the results in recent years, in order to provide new ideas for the pathogenesis, drug development and treatment of asthma.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Single-Cell Analysis , Humans , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Gene Regulatory Networks , RNA/genetics , Asthma/genetics
11.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 24(1): 5, 2023 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Single-cell omics technology is rapidly developing to measure the epigenome, genome, and transcriptome across a range of cell types. However, it is still challenging to integrate omics data from different modalities. Here, we propose a variation of the Siamese neural network framework called MinNet, which is trained to integrate multi-omics data on the single-cell resolution by using graph-based contrastive loss. RESULTS: By training the model and testing it on several benchmark datasets, we showed its accuracy and generalizability in integrating scRNA-seq with scATAC-seq, and scRNA-seq with epitope data. Further evaluation demonstrated our model's unique ability to remove the batch effect, a common problem in actual practice. To show how the integration impacts downstream analysis, we established model-based smoothing and cis-regulatory element-inferring method and validated it with external pcHi-C evidence. Finally, we applied the framework to a COVID-19 dataset to bolster the original work with integration-based analysis, showing its necessity in single-cell multi-omics research. CONCLUSIONS: MinNet is a novel deep-learning framework for single-cell multi-omics sequencing data integration. It ranked top among other methods in benchmarking and is especially suitable for integrating datasets with batch and biological variances. With the single-cell resolution integration results, analysis of the interplay between genome and transcriptome can be done to help researchers understand their data and question.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiomics , Humans , Transcriptome , Neural Networks, Computer , Single-Cell Analysis/methods
12.
Brief Bioinform ; 24(1)2023 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188256

ABSTRACT

The proliferation of single-cell multimodal sequencing technologies has enabled us to understand cellular heterogeneity with multiple views, providing novel and actionable biological insights into the disease-driving mechanisms. Here, we propose a comprehensive end-to-end single-cell multimodal analysis framework named Deep Parametric Inference (DPI). DPI transforms single-cell multimodal data into a multimodal parameter space by inferring individual modal parameters. Analysis of cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) reveals that the multimodal parameter space can characterize the heterogeneity of cells more comprehensively than individual modalities. Furthermore, comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods on multiple datasets show that DPI has superior performance. Additionally, DPI can reference and query cell types without batch effects. As a result, DPI can successfully analyze the progression of COVID-19 disease in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Notably, we further propose a cell state vector field and analyze the transformation pattern of bone marrow cells (BMC) states. In conclusion, DPI is a powerful single-cell multimodal analysis framework that can provide new biological insights into biomedical researchers. The python packages, datasets and user-friendly manuals of DPI are freely available at https://github.com/studentiz/dpi.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Humans , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Computational Biology/methods
13.
Nat Methods ; 20(2): 304-315, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185967

ABSTRACT

The ability to align individual cellular information from multiple experimental sources is fundamental for a systems-level understanding of biological processes. However, currently available tools are mainly designed for single-cell transcriptomics matching and integration, and generally rely on a large number of shared features across datasets for cell matching. This approach underperforms when applied to single-cell proteomic datasets due to the limited number of parameters simultaneously accessed and lack of shared markers across these experiments. Here, we introduce a cell-matching algorithm, matching with partial overlap (MARIO) that accounts for both shared and distinct features, while consisting of vital filtering steps to avoid suboptimal matching. MARIO accurately matches and integrates data from different single-cell proteomic and multimodal methods, including spatial techniques and has cross-species capabilities. MARIO robustly matched tissue macrophages identified from COVID-19 lung autopsies via codetection by indexing imaging to macrophages recovered from COVID-19 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by cellular indexing of transcriptomes and epitopes by sequencing, revealing unique immune responses within the lung microenvironment of patients with COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Proteomics , Humans , Proteomics/methods , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Transcriptome , Lung , Single-Cell Analysis/methods
14.
Nature ; 614(7949): 752-761, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185939

ABSTRACT

Acute viral infections can have durable functional impacts on the immune system long after recovery, but how they affect homeostatic immune states and responses to future perturbations remain poorly understood1-4. Here we use systems immunology approaches, including longitudinal multimodal single-cell analysis (surface proteins, transcriptome and V(D)J sequences) to comparatively assess baseline immune statuses and responses to influenza vaccination in 33 healthy individuals after recovery from mild, non-hospitalized COVID-19 (mean, 151 days after diagnosis) and 40 age- and sex-matched control individuals who had never had COVID-19. At the baseline and independent of time after COVID-19, recoverees had elevated T cell activation signatures and lower expression of innate immune genes including Toll-like receptors in monocytes. Male individuals who had recovered from COVID-19 had coordinately higher innate, influenza-specific plasmablast, and antibody responses after vaccination compared with healthy male individuals and female individuals who had recovered from COVID-19, in part because male recoverees had monocytes with higher IL-15 responses early after vaccination coupled with elevated prevaccination frequencies of 'virtual memory'-like CD8+ T cells poised to produce more IFNγ after IL-15 stimulation. Moreover, the expression of the repressed innate immune genes in monocytes increased by day 1 to day 28 after vaccination in recoverees, therefore moving towards the prevaccination baseline of the healthy control individuals. By contrast, these genes decreased on day 1 and returned to the baseline by day 28 in the control individuals. Our study reveals sex-dimorphic effects of previous mild COVID-19 and suggests that viral infections in humans can establish new immunological set-points that affect future immune responses in an antigen-agnostic manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Memory , Influenza Vaccines , Sex Characteristics , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination , Female , Humans , Male , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Interleukin-15/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Monocytes , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Healthy Volunteers
15.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 223, 2023 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185846

ABSTRACT

Consistent annotation transfer from reference dataset to query dataset is fundamental to the development and reproducibility of single-cell research. Compared with traditional annotation methods, deep learning based methods are faster and more automated. A series of useful single cell analysis tools based on autoencoder architecture have been developed but these struggle to strike a balance between depth and interpretability. Here, we present TOSICA, a multi-head self-attention deep learning model based on Transformer that enables interpretable cell type annotation using biologically understandable entities, such as pathways or regulons. We show that TOSICA achieves fast and accurate one-stop annotation and batch-insensitive integration while providing biologically interpretable insights for understanding cellular behavior during development and disease progressions. We demonstrate TOSICA's advantages by applying it to scRNA-seq data of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, and CD14+ monocytes in COVID-19 to reveal rare cell types, heterogeneity and dynamic trajectories associated with disease progression and severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Disease Progression , Exome Sequencing , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods
16.
Virol J ; 19(1): 217, 2022 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162390

ABSTRACT

The application of single-cell RNA sequencing in COVID-19 research has greatly improved our understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis and immunological characteristics. In this commentary, we discuss the current challenges, limitations, and perspectives in harnessing the power of single-cell RNA sequencing to accelerate both basic research and therapeutic development for COVID-19 and other emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Single-Cell Analysis , Single-Cell Gene Expression Analysis , Sequence Analysis, RNA
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 964976, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123414

ABSTRACT

Amid the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, vaccination and early therapeutic interventions are the most effective means to combat and control the severity of the disease. Host immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, particularly adaptive immune responses, should be fully understood to develop improved strategies to implement these measures. Single-cell multi-omic technologies, including flow cytometry, single-cell transcriptomics, and single-cell T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor (BCR) profiling, offer a better solution to examine the protective or pathological immune responses and molecular mechanisms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, thus providing crucial support for the development of vaccines and therapeutics for COVID-19. Recent reviews have revealed the overall immune landscape of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection, and this review will focus on adaptive immune responses (including T cells and B cells) to SARS-CoV-2 revealed by single-cell multi-omics technologies. In addition, we explore how the single-cell analyses disclose the critical components of immune protection and pathogenesis during SARS-CoV-2 infection through the comparison between the adaptive immune responses induced by natural infection and by vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis , Vaccination
18.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276460, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089429

ABSTRACT

Excessive neutrophil infiltration and dysfunction contribute to the progression and severity of hyper-inflammatory syndrome, such as in severe COVID19. In the current study, we re-analysed published scRNA-seq datasets of mouse and human neutrophils to classify and compare the transcriptional regulatory networks underlying neutrophil differentiation and inflammatory responses. Distinct sets of TF modules regulate neutrophil maturation, function, and inflammatory responses under the steady state and inflammatory conditions. In COVID19 patients, neutrophil activation was associated with the selective activation of inflammation-specific TF modules. SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive neutrophils showed a higher expression of type I interferon response TF IRF7. Furthermore, IRF7 expression was abundant in neutrophils from severe patients in progression stage. Neutrophil-mediated inflammatory responses positively correlate with the expressional level of IRF7. Based on these results, we suggest that differential activation of activation-related TFs, such as IRF7 mediate neutrophil inflammatory responses during inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neutrophils , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammation/genetics , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Neutrophil Activation/genetics , Neutrophil Activation/physiology , Neutrophils/metabolism , RNA, Viral , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis
19.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6118, 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077050

ABSTRACT

Computational tools for integrative analyses of diverse single-cell experiments are facing formidable new challenges including dramatic increases in data scale, sample heterogeneity, and the need to informatively cross-reference new data with foundational datasets. Here, we present SCALEX, a deep-learning method that integrates single-cell data by projecting cells into a batch-invariant, common cell-embedding space in a truly online manner (i.e., without retraining the model). SCALEX substantially outperforms online iNMF and other state-of-the-art non-online integration methods on benchmark single-cell datasets of diverse modalities, (e.g., single-cell RNA sequencing, scRNA-seq, single-cell assay for transposase-accessible chromatin use sequencing, scATAC-seq), especially for datasets with partial overlaps, accurately aligning similar cell populations while retaining true biological differences. We showcase SCALEX's advantages by constructing continuously expandable single-cell atlases for human, mouse, and COVID-19 patients, each assembled from diverse data sources and growing with every new data. The online data integration capacity and superior performance makes SCALEX particularly appropriate for large-scale single-cell applications to build upon previous scientific insights.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Cell Analysis , Animals , Humans , Mice , Chromatin , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Transposases
20.
Biol Reprod ; 107(1): 118-134, 2022 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062863

ABSTRACT

Infertility affects 8-12% of couples globally, and the male factor is a primary cause in ~50% of couples. Male infertility is a multifactorial reproductive disorder, which can be caused by paracrine and autocrine factors, hormones, genes, and epigenetic changes. Recent studies in rodents and most notably in humans using multiomics approach have yielded important insights into understanding the biology of spermatogenesis. Nonetheless, the etiology and pathogenesis of male infertility are still largely unknown. In this review, we summarized and critically evaluated findings based on the use of advanced technologies to compare normal and obstructive azoospermic versus nonobstructive azoospermic men, including whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, single-cell RNA-seq, whole-exome sequencing, and transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing. It is obvious that the multiomics approach is the method of choice for basic research and clinical studies including clinical diagnosis of male infertility.


Subject(s)
Azoospermia , Infertility, Male , Azoospermia/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Humans , Infertility, Male/genetics , Male , Single-Cell Analysis , Spermatogenesis/genetics
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