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Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(6): 103076, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202315


BACKGROUND: No study to date has analyzed the progression of sinonasal symptoms over time in COVID-19 patients. The purpose of this study is to analyze the progression of sinonasal symptoms and risk factors for olfactory dysfunction in the mild severity COVID-19 patient. METHODS: An internet survey was used to assess sinonasal symptoms in patients with COVID-19. Changes in rhinologic domain and symptom-specific Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) scores were compared at five time points: two weeks before diagnosis, at diagnosis, two weeks after diagnosis, four weeks after diagnosis, and six months after diagnosis. RESULTS: 521 responses were collected. Rhinologic domain SNOT-22 scores increased significantly (p < 0.001) to 8.94 at the time of diagnosis, remained elevated two weeks post-diagnosis (5.14, p = 0.004), and decreased significantly four weeks post-diagnosis (3.14, p = 0.004). Smell-specific SNOT-22 scores peaked at the time of diagnosis (2.05, p < 0.001), remained elevated two weeks after diagnosis (1.19, p < 0.001), and returned to baseline four weeks post-diagnosis (0.64, p > 0.999). Taste-specific SNOT-22 scores also peaked at diagnosis (2.06, p < 0.001), remained elevated two weeks after diagnosis (1.19, p < 0.001), and returned to baseline four weeks after diagnosis (0.71, p > 0.999). There were no significant differences in sense of smell or taste between 1-month and 6-month timepoints. CONCLUSION: Sinonasal symptoms, particularly loss of smell and taste, may be important presenting symptoms in the mild severity COVID-19 patient. Our findings support incorporating these symptoms into screening protocols. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.

COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Paranasal Sinuses/physiopathology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sino-Nasal Outcome Test , Taste Disorders/etiology , Time Factors
Pharmacol Rep ; 73(3): 781-785, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099023


BACKGROUND: The benefits of corticosteroids for the treatment of COVID-19 infection are documented in the literature. The goal of the study is to compare the severity of rhinological symptoms of COVID-19 between patients with nasal steroid use (NSU) and the control group (CG) using the sino-nasal outcome test (SNOT-22) questionnaire. METHODS: A face-to-face survey was conducted at a second referral state hospital between. Patients with a complete recovery from COVID-19 were included in NSU and CG groups. Two subscales of the SNOT-22 were filled by the patients. The frequency and duration of smell and taste loss and SNOT-22 scores were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients were included in the study. Thirty-one patients were in CG and 16 patients in the NSU group. Twenty-four (51.1%) patients were females and 23 (48.9%) were males. The mean age was 41.4 ± 8.6 years. Olfactory dysfunction was detected in 12 (75%) patients in the NSU group, and 31 (93.3%) patients in the control group (CG). Gustatory dysfunction was seen in 10 (62.5%) patients in the NSU group and 24 (77.4%) patients NSU group. (p = 0.071, 0.279, respectively). The duration of the olfactory (6.6 ± 2.5 days) and gustatory dysfunction (6.1 ± 2.6 days) and the mean SNOT-22 total score (11.9 ± 1.6) was significantly lower in the NSU group (p < 0.001, CI 11.1-5.1, CI 9.9-4.6, CI 9.3-5.9, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although nasal steroid use does not prevent olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, it may reduce the severity and duration of these symptoms.

COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Steroids/therapeutic use , Taste Disorders/drug therapy , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sino-Nasal Outcome Test , Smell/drug effects , Surveys and Questionnaires
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 10(8): 944-950, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72528


BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is responsible for the largest pandemic since the 1918 influenza A virus subtype H1N1 influenza outbreak. The symptoms presently recognized by the World Health Organization are cough, fever, tiredness, and difficulty breathing. Patient-reported smell and taste loss has been associated with COVID-19 infection, yet no empirical olfactory testing on a cohort of COVID-19 patients has been performed. METHODS: The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), a well-validated 40-odorant test, was administered to 60 confirmed COVID-19 inpatients and 60 age- and sex-matched controls to assess the magnitude and frequency of their olfactory dysfunction. A mixed effects analysis of variance determined whether meaningful differences in test scores existed between the 2 groups and if the test scores were differentially influenced by sex. RESULTS: Fifty-nine (98%) of the 60 patients exhibited some smell dysfunction (mean [95% CI] UPSIT score: 20.98 [19.47, 22.48]; controls: 34.10 [33.31, 34.88]; p < 0.0001). Thirty-five of the 60 patients (58%) were either anosmic (15/60; 25%) or severely microsmic (20/60; 33%); 16 exhibited moderate microsmia (16/60; 27%), 8 mild microsmia (8/60; 13%), and 1 normosmia (1/60; 2%). Deficits were evident for all 40 UPSIT odorants. No meaningful relationships between the test scores and sex, disease severity, or comorbidities were found. CONCLUSION: Quantitative smell testing demonstrates that decreased smell function, but not always anosmia, is a major marker for SARS-CoV-2 infection and suggests the possibility that smell testing may help, in some cases, to identify COVID-19 patients in need of early treatment or quarantine.

Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Olfaction Disorders , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Rhinitis , Sino-Nasal Outcome Test , Sinusitis , Adult , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Differential Threshold , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odorants , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfactory Perception , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Reproducibility of Results , Rhinitis/diagnosis , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/epidemiology , Smell