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3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(12)2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591388

ABSTRACT

Thrombosis and thrombocytopaenia secondary to ChAdOx-1 nCov-19 vaccine is a new phenomenon that usually occurs after the first dose of vaccine. Most of these patients are healthy without any prior history of thromboembolic events or heparin use. Hall marks of this condition include detectable antibodies to platelet factor 4 and thrombosis at atypical sites particularly cerebral veins and sinuses mimicking atypical heparin induced thrombocytopaenia. We describe a case of a patient who was diagnosed with this rare condition and treated successfully.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging
4.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 43(1): 98-101, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581414

ABSTRACT

Reports of a rare form of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with profound thrombocytopenia have emerged following introduction of the adenovirus-vectored coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. Between March and June 2021, seven cases of refractory vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia were referred to our institution for mechanical thrombectomy. The condition of 1 patient deteriorated during interhospital transfer, and the remaining 6 underwent successful recanalization. No procedure-related adverse events were reported. At the time of this writing, 3 patients have been discharged with a good functional outcome (mRS 0-1), one required rehabilitation for mild dysarthria and vocal cord palsy (mRS 3), and 2 have died due to severe mass effect. Our anecdotal experience suggests that endovascular therapy may be safe and effective in reducing thrombus burden in selected cases of postvaccination cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Thrombectomy
5.
Thromb Res ; 209: 84-85, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561446

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination has been reported. There are no data about thrombosis risk in prior CVST patients. The objective of the study was to describe short-term serious adverse events to COVID-19 vaccines in patients with history of CVST. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present an observational prospective study of patients with known CVST who received COVID-19 vaccination. Serious event rates within 30 days after second dose vaccination (except one dose for Janssen) were evaluated, including recurrences, hospital admission and death. RESULTS: The 62 vaccinated patients received: BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) in 43 patients (69.4%), mRNA-1273 (Moderna) in 7 patients (11.3%), AZD1222 (ChAdOx1) in 7 patients (11.3%) and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen) in 5 patients (8.1%). There were no thrombotic recurrences within 30 days of vaccination (95% confidence interval, 0.0-5.8). There was one death (1.6%), not attributable to the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccines are safe for previous CVST patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495133

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) following novel coronavirus-2019 (nCoV-19) vaccination is a rare adverse effect. We report the first case of CVST associated with ChAdOx1 vaccination, with positive anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies, from India. A 44-year-old woman developed a thunderclap headache 4 days after the first dose of the adenoviral vector vaccine ChAdOx1 (Covishield). Physical examination was unremarkable barring mild neck stiffness with no focal neurological deficits. MRI identified right transverse sinus thrombosis. Laboratory tests revealed raised D-dimer and thrombocytopenia; anti-PF4 antibodies were subsequently identified, consistent with thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS). She was treated with non-heparin anticoagulation and intravenous immunoglobulin and made an uneventful recovery. Early recognition of adenoviral vector vaccine-related TTS, which resembles heparin-induced thrombocytopenia syndrome, is important as heparin and heparin analogues are best avoided in the treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462938

ABSTRACT

With increasing presentations of headaches following COVID-19 vaccination, we present one of the UK's earliest proven cases of vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopaenia (VITT), with the aim of giving colleagues a case to compare other patients against. Our patient was a 48-year-old man who presented with frank haematuria, a widespread petechial rash, and headaches, 2 weeks after receiving the first dose of the Oxford AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. He had a platelet count of 14×109/L and an extensive cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) with subarachnoid haemorrhage on imaging. He developed localising neurological signs and experienced a cardiopulmonary arrest. He was successfully resuscitated and transferred to a tertiary care centre for urgent thrombectomy. This case illustrates how the diagnosis of VITT should be based on the platelet count and imaging-and how patients with VITT should be cared for in centres with urgent neurosurgical and interventional radiology services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , COVID-19 Vaccines , Headache , Hematuria , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(11): 1314-1323, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439655

ABSTRACT

Importance: Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) has been reported after vaccination with the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson). Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination with and without TTS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from an international registry of consecutive patients with CVST within 28 days of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination included between March 29 and June 18, 2021, from 81 hospitals in 19 countries. For reference, data from patients with CVST between 2015 and 2018 were derived from an existing international registry. Clinical characteristics and mortality rate were described for adults with (1) CVST in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, (2) CVST after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination not fulling criteria for TTS, and (3) CVST unrelated to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Exposures: Patients were classified as having TTS if they had new-onset thrombocytopenia without recent exposure to heparin, in accordance with the Brighton Collaboration interim criteria. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical characteristics and mortality rate. Results: Of 116 patients with postvaccination CVST, 78 (67.2%) had TTS, of whom 76 had been vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCov-19; 38 (32.8%) had no indication of TTS. The control group included 207 patients with CVST before the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 63 of 78 (81%), 30 of 38 (79%), and 145 of 207 (70.0%) patients, respectively, were female, and the mean (SD) age was 45 (14), 55 (20), and 42 (16) years, respectively. Concomitant thromboembolism occurred in 25 of 70 patients (36%) in the TTS group, 2 of 35 (6%) in the no TTS group, and 10 of 206 (4.9%) in the control group, and in-hospital mortality rates were 47% (36 of 76; 95% CI, 37-58), 5% (2 of 37; 95% CI, 1-18), and 3.9% (8 of 207; 95% CI, 2.0-7.4), respectively. The mortality rate was 61% (14 of 23) among patients in the TTS group diagnosed before the condition garnered attention in the scientific community and 42% (22 of 53) among patients diagnosed later. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients with CVST, a distinct clinical profile and high mortality rate was observed in patients meeting criteria for TTS after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/mortality , Registries , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/mortality , Thrombocytopenia/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Sex Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/blood , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Young Adult
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438072

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a relatively novel term which describes patients who have developed a low platelet count and prothrombotic tendencies secondary to receiving a vaccine. The concept has been derived from the well-established phenomenon of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and several cases of VITT have now been reported in patients who have received the AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCov-19) vaccine. Unfortunately, some of these patients have gone on to develop intracranial venous sinus thrombosis. We present a case of VITT-associated sinus thrombosis secondary to the AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCov-19) vaccine, which was complicated by a large intracerebral haemorrhage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/chemically induced , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging
12.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(1): 339-344, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High mortality rates have been reported in patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) due to vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after vaccination with adenoviral vector SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the mortality of patients with CVST-VITT has decreased over time. METHODS: The EudraVigilance database of the European Medicines Agency was used to identify cases of CVST with concomitant thrombocytopenia occurring within 28 days of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Vaccines were grouped based on vaccine type (adenoviral or mRNA). Cases with CVST onset until 28 March were compared to cases after 28 March 2021, which was the day when the first scientific paper on VITT was published. RESULTS: In total, 270 cases of CVST with thrombocytopenia were identified, of which 266 (99%) occurred after adenoviral vector SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, n = 243; Ad26.COV2.S, n = 23). The reported mortality amongst adenoviral cases with onset up to 28 March 2021 was 47/99 (47%, 95% confidence interval 37%-58%) compared to 36/167 (22%, 95% confidence interval 16%-29%) in cases with onset after 28 March (p < 0.001). None of the four cases of CVST with thrombocytopenia occurring after mRNA vaccination died. CONCLUSION: The reported mortality of CVST with thrombocytopenia after vaccination with adenoviral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has significantly decreased over time, which may indicate a beneficial effect of earlier recognition and/or improved treatment on outcome after VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
13.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e933397, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Multiple vaccines have been developed against COVID-19 as a collaborative worldwide effort. On March 18, 2021 the European Medicines Agency reported a serious and rare adverse effect of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) after receiving the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine; most of these cases were associated with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). To date, there are no cases of TTS-related CVST reported after receipt of either of the 2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccines authorized for use in the United States. We report a case of CVST with the Moderna mRNA vaccine. CASE REPORT A healthy 45-year-old male patient without any risk factors presented with new-onset seizures 8 days after the receipt of the 2nd dose of Moderna (mRNA-1273), with concomitant SAH as a complication. One day prior to admission, he noted headaches and neck pain unrelieved by over-the-counter analgesics. Computed tomography (CT) scan brain without contrast revealed a left frontal lobe intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) along with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A subsequent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain confirmed the CT findings as well as anterior superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. He had normal platelet count with a negative thrombophilia work-up and cancer screening. He was successfully anticoagulated with heparin and discharged on warfarin without neurological sequelae or further seizures. The case was reported to the US Vaccine Surveillance System. CONCLUSIONS mRNA vaccine-related CVST is an extremely rare phenomenon. More data are needed to establish causality and understand the role of vaccine-related immune response resulting in thrombotic events with or without TTS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/etiology , United States , Vaccination/adverse effects
16.
JAMA ; 326(4): 332-338, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355843

ABSTRACT

Importance: Cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in combination with thrombocytopenia have recently been reported within 4 to 28 days of vaccination with the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AstraZeneca/Oxford) and Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccines. An immune-mediated response associated with platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies has been proposed as the underlying pathomechanism. Objective: To determine the frequencies of admission thrombocytopenia, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and presence of platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies in patients diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a descriptive analysis of a retrospective sample of consecutive patients diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis between January 1987 and March 2018 from 7 hospitals participating in the International Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Consortium from Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden, Mexico, Iran, and Costa Rica. Of 952 patients, 865 with available baseline platelet count were included. In a subset of 93 patients, frozen plasma samples collected during a previous study between September 2009 and February 2016 were analyzed for the presence of platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies. Exposures: Diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Frequencies of admission thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150 ×103/µL), heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (as diagnosed by the treating physician), and platelet factor 4/heparin IgG antibodies (optical density >0.4, in a subset of patients with previously collected plasma samples). Results: Of 865 patients (median age, 40 years [interquartile range, 29-53 years], 70% women), 73 (8.4%; 95% CI, 6.8%-10.5%) had thrombocytopenia, which was mild (100-149 ×103/µL) in 52 (6.0%), moderate (50-99 ×103/µL) in 17 (2.0%), and severe (<50 ×103/µL) in 4 (0.5%). Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies was diagnosed in a single patient (0.1%; 95% CI, <0.1%-0.7%). Of the convenience sample of 93 patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis included in the laboratory analysis, 8 (9%) had thrombocytopenia, and none (95% CI, 0%-4%) had platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, baseline thrombocytopenia was uncommon, and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies were rare. These findings may inform investigations of the possible association between the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccines and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Heparin/immunology , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Adult , Antibodies/blood , Female , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology
18.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 61(9): 594-601, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344506

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are important in managing the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Despite the very low incidence, severe cases of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia after COVID-19 vaccination termed as Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS) have been reported. TTS clinically resembles autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. TTS can cause disability and even death. It usually presents 4-28 days after vaccination characterized by thrombocytopenia and progressive thrombosis, often causing cerebral vein/venous thrombosis (CVT) and splanchnic venous thrombosis. We should avoid all forms of heparin and platelet transfusion. While awaiting further information on the pathophysiological mechanism and treatment of TTS, clinicians should be aware of TTS with CVT in patients receiving COVID-19 vaccinations. This new syndrome of TTS is an active area of investigation globally. Here, we review the available literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cerebral Veins , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/therapy , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/therapy , Time Factors
20.
J Neurol Sci ; 428: 117607, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336665

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The common reported adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccination consist of the injection site's local reaction followed by several non-specific flu-like symptoms. However, rare cases of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after viral vector vaccines (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, Ad26.COV2 vaccine) have been reported. Herein we systemically reviewed the reported cases of CVST and VITT following the COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: This systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. We searched PubMed until May 19, 2021, and the following Keywords were used: COVID Vaccine & Neurology, AstraZeneca COVID vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 COVID vaccine, AZD1222 COVID vaccine, Janssen COVID vaccine, Johnson & Johnson COVID vaccine, Ad26.COV2 COVID vaccine. The authors evaluated the abstracts and titles of each article for screening and inclusion. English reports about post-vaccine CVST and VITT in humans were collected. RESULTS: Until May 19, we found 877 articles with the searched terms. We found 12 articles, which overall present clinical features of 36 patients with CVST and VITT after the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Moreover, two articles were noted, which present 13 patients with CVST and VITT after Ad26.COV2 vaccine. The majority of the patients were females. Symptom onset occurred within one week after the first dose of vaccination (Range 4-19 days). Headache was the most common presenting symptom. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and/or Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were reported in 49% of the patients. The platelet count of the patients was between 5 and 127 cells×109/l, PF4 IgG Assay and d-Dimer were positive in the majority of the reported cases. Among 49 patients with CVST, at least 19 patients died (39%) due to complications of CVST and VITT. CONCLUSION: Health care providers should be familiar with the clinical presentations, pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and management consideration of this rare but severe and potentially fatal complication of the COVID-19 vaccination. Early diagnosis and quick initiation of the treatment may help to provide patients with a more favorable neurological outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects
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