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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(12)2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591388

ABSTRACT

Thrombosis and thrombocytopaenia secondary to ChAdOx-1 nCov-19 vaccine is a new phenomenon that usually occurs after the first dose of vaccine. Most of these patients are healthy without any prior history of thromboembolic events or heparin use. Hall marks of this condition include detectable antibodies to platelet factor 4 and thrombosis at atypical sites particularly cerebral veins and sinuses mimicking atypical heparin induced thrombocytopaenia. We describe a case of a patient who was diagnosed with this rare condition and treated successfully.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495133

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) following novel coronavirus-2019 (nCoV-19) vaccination is a rare adverse effect. We report the first case of CVST associated with ChAdOx1 vaccination, with positive anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies, from India. A 44-year-old woman developed a thunderclap headache 4 days after the first dose of the adenoviral vector vaccine ChAdOx1 (Covishield). Physical examination was unremarkable barring mild neck stiffness with no focal neurological deficits. MRI identified right transverse sinus thrombosis. Laboratory tests revealed raised D-dimer and thrombocytopenia; anti-PF4 antibodies were subsequently identified, consistent with thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS). She was treated with non-heparin anticoagulation and intravenous immunoglobulin and made an uneventful recovery. Early recognition of adenoviral vector vaccine-related TTS, which resembles heparin-induced thrombocytopenia syndrome, is important as heparin and heparin analogues are best avoided in the treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects
3.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(11): 1314-1323, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439655

ABSTRACT

Importance: Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) has been reported after vaccination with the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson). Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination with and without TTS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from an international registry of consecutive patients with CVST within 28 days of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination included between March 29 and June 18, 2021, from 81 hospitals in 19 countries. For reference, data from patients with CVST between 2015 and 2018 were derived from an existing international registry. Clinical characteristics and mortality rate were described for adults with (1) CVST in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, (2) CVST after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination not fulling criteria for TTS, and (3) CVST unrelated to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Exposures: Patients were classified as having TTS if they had new-onset thrombocytopenia without recent exposure to heparin, in accordance with the Brighton Collaboration interim criteria. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical characteristics and mortality rate. Results: Of 116 patients with postvaccination CVST, 78 (67.2%) had TTS, of whom 76 had been vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCov-19; 38 (32.8%) had no indication of TTS. The control group included 207 patients with CVST before the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 63 of 78 (81%), 30 of 38 (79%), and 145 of 207 (70.0%) patients, respectively, were female, and the mean (SD) age was 45 (14), 55 (20), and 42 (16) years, respectively. Concomitant thromboembolism occurred in 25 of 70 patients (36%) in the TTS group, 2 of 35 (6%) in the no TTS group, and 10 of 206 (4.9%) in the control group, and in-hospital mortality rates were 47% (36 of 76; 95% CI, 37-58), 5% (2 of 37; 95% CI, 1-18), and 3.9% (8 of 207; 95% CI, 2.0-7.4), respectively. The mortality rate was 61% (14 of 23) among patients in the TTS group diagnosed before the condition garnered attention in the scientific community and 42% (22 of 53) among patients diagnosed later. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients with CVST, a distinct clinical profile and high mortality rate was observed in patients meeting criteria for TTS after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/mortality , Registries , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/mortality , Thrombocytopenia/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Sex Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/blood , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Young Adult
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438072

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a relatively novel term which describes patients who have developed a low platelet count and prothrombotic tendencies secondary to receiving a vaccine. The concept has been derived from the well-established phenomenon of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and several cases of VITT have now been reported in patients who have received the AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCov-19) vaccine. Unfortunately, some of these patients have gone on to develop intracranial venous sinus thrombosis. We present a case of VITT-associated sinus thrombosis secondary to the AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCov-19) vaccine, which was complicated by a large intracerebral haemorrhage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/chemically induced , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging
5.
J Neurol Sci ; 428: 117607, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336665

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The common reported adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccination consist of the injection site's local reaction followed by several non-specific flu-like symptoms. However, rare cases of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after viral vector vaccines (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, Ad26.COV2 vaccine) have been reported. Herein we systemically reviewed the reported cases of CVST and VITT following the COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: This systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. We searched PubMed until May 19, 2021, and the following Keywords were used: COVID Vaccine & Neurology, AstraZeneca COVID vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 COVID vaccine, AZD1222 COVID vaccine, Janssen COVID vaccine, Johnson & Johnson COVID vaccine, Ad26.COV2 COVID vaccine. The authors evaluated the abstracts and titles of each article for screening and inclusion. English reports about post-vaccine CVST and VITT in humans were collected. RESULTS: Until May 19, we found 877 articles with the searched terms. We found 12 articles, which overall present clinical features of 36 patients with CVST and VITT after the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Moreover, two articles were noted, which present 13 patients with CVST and VITT after Ad26.COV2 vaccine. The majority of the patients were females. Symptom onset occurred within one week after the first dose of vaccination (Range 4-19 days). Headache was the most common presenting symptom. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and/or Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were reported in 49% of the patients. The platelet count of the patients was between 5 and 127 cells×109/l, PF4 IgG Assay and d-Dimer were positive in the majority of the reported cases. Among 49 patients with CVST, at least 19 patients died (39%) due to complications of CVST and VITT. CONCLUSION: Health care providers should be familiar with the clinical presentations, pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and management consideration of this rare but severe and potentially fatal complication of the COVID-19 vaccination. Early diagnosis and quick initiation of the treatment may help to provide patients with a more favorable neurological outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects
6.
Radiologe ; 61(10): 923-932, 2021 Oct.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine-induced cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (VI-CVST) is a rare complication in recipients of the adenovirus-vectored coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (Vaxzevria®; AstraZeneca). OBJECTIVES: Development of a diagnostic and therapeutic standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of clinical and basic research findings, expert opinions, and experience with our own cases. RESULTS: VI-CVST usually manifests on day 4-24 after vaccination, mostly in individuals aged < 60 years, and women. In the majority there is an immune pathogenesis caused by antibodies against platelet factor 4/polyanion complexes, leading to thrombotic thrombocytopenia which can result in severe, sometimes fatal, course. The cardinal symptom is headache worsening within days which, however, also can be of variable intensity. Other possible symptoms are seizures, visual disturbance, focal neurological deficits and signs of increased intracranial pressure. If VI-CVST is suspected, the determination of plasma D­dimer level, platelet count, and screening for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT-2) are essential for treatment decision-making. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with venous MR-angiography is the neuroimaging modality of choice to confirm or exclude VI-CVST. On T2* susceptibility-weighted MRI, the clot in the sinuses or veins produces marked susceptibility artifacts ("blooming"), which also enables the detection of isolated cortical venous thromboses. MRI/MR-angiography or computed tomography (CT)/CT-angiography usually allow-in combination with clinical and laboratory findings-reliable diagnosis of VI-CVST. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical suspicion of VI-CVST calls for urgent laboratory and neuroimaging workup. In the presence of thrombocytopenia and/or pathogenic antibodies, specific medications for anticoagulation and immunomodulation are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Vaccination
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276915

ABSTRACT

A 27-year-old fit and well man presented with intermittent headaches associated with eye floaters and vomiting. His symptoms started 48 hours after having the first dose of ChADOx1 nCOV-19 vaccine (Vaxzevria, previously AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine; AstraZeneca) and bloods showed raised D-dimer, low platelets and fibrinogen. CT venogram demonstrated significant cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. He was immediately started on intravenous immunoglobulins and dabigatran after liasing with haematologist. The next day, he complained of worsening headache and new homonymous hemianopia. Repeat CT of the head showed an acute parenchymal bleed with subdural extension and was given idarucizumab and high-dose steroids. He had an emergency decompressive craniotomy and external ventricular drain as his intracranial pressures were difficult to control. Despite full medical and surgical management, his intracranial pressures continued to rise and his brain injury was felt to be too devastating and was deemed unsurvivable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy
11.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 163(8): 2359-2362, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260594

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly transmissible virus and has become pandemic. Part of the prevention of disease spread by the Malaysian government is by getting COVID-19 vaccine. Using the mRNA technology, the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine is one of the vaccines been approved by the Drug Control Authority in Malaysia. Herein, we report an immediate complication of cerebral VST after the first dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors
12.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(8): 1037-1042, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258700

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Several cases of unusual thrombotic events with thrombocytopenia were reported in several countries, in association with AstraZeneca's COVID-19 vaccine. The European medicines agency conducted a detailed review and concluded that there was no evidence to suggest an association of thrombotic events with the use of COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca.Methods: King Abdulaziz Medical City is a 1500 bed tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; this study describes spontaneously reported vaccine adverse effects received through the hospital's internal electronic safety reporting system from December 2020 to 13 April 2021.We assessed each report for causality association utilizing the world health organization's (WHO) causality assessment of an adverse event following immunization (AEFI) classification 2nd Edition 2019.Results: The majority of the reported events were mild to moderate, there were five serious events, one reported cardiac arrest, two cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and two pulmonary embolism. Clinical and laboratory summary of the five patients are presented in detail.Conclusions: Efforts of pharmacovigilance in mediating the rare risk of thrombosis associated with COVID-19 vaccine are crucial in providing awareness on the possible risk factors and signs/symptoms that should raise red flags.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pulmonary Embolism/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Tertiary Care Centers , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Young Adult
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105906, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243063

ABSTRACT

The development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has raised several concerns regarding venous thromboembolism, namely cerebral venous thrombosis. Although cerebral venous thrombosis has been reported after administration of a viral vector vaccine, due to a possible auto-immune mechanism inducing thrombocytopenia, the same has not happened in mRNA vaccines. We report two cases of cerebral venous thrombosis, shortly after administration of mRNA vaccine. In both patients, there was no evidence of thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet antibodies, and alternative causes for cerebral venous thrombosis were found. As such, despite the temporal relation of both cases to vaccine administration, these types of cerebral venous thrombosis do not seem to be pathophysiological different from cerebral venous thrombosis not associated to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Continuous pharmacovigilance is necessary to monitor possible new events and clarify this association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
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