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2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(4)2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774938

ABSTRACT

We present an unusual case of a woman in her 30s who was admitted for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in the setting of newly diagnosed but late COVID-19 infection with associated Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Her altered mental status, out of proportion with her metabolic decompensation, revealed a superimposed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) with fulminant cerebral oedema and ultimately brain death. This unusual and fulminant case of cerebral oedema in the setting of COVID-19 infection with bacterial infection, DKA and CVST was the perfect storm with multiple interwoven factors. It offered diagnostic and treatment challenges with an unfortunate outcome. This unique case is a reminder that it is important to consider a broad neurological differential in patients with COVID-19 with unexplained neurological manifestations, which may require specific neurointensive care management.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Brain Edema/complications , Brain Edema/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging
3.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e935355, 2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Vaccine-related thrombosis and thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) is a rare life-threatening syndrome reported after vaccination against COVID-19. CASE REPORT We describe a case of 56-year-old postmenopausal, obese woman with hypothyroidism and hyperlipidemia, who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with fluctuating mental status and left-side weakness for 5 days. She received her first and second dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine (Moderna) at 12 and 8 weeks, respectively, prior to presentation. She was found to have multiple hemorrhages and infarcts on a computed tomography (CT) scan of the head. She was intubated in the ED for airway protection and mechanically ventilated. Magnetic resonance angiogram and venogram showed multiple infarcts in right frontal, parietal, and left parietal lobes, along with occlusion of left-side transverse sinus, sagittal sinuses, and left internal jugular vein, suggesting cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). Despite anticoagulation, her clinical condition continued to worsen, and she was referred for emergent endovascular thrombectomy. Her clinical condition improved after thrombectomy, and she was discharged on warfarin. At 4-month follow-up, she was able to walk with an assistive device and able to carry out activities of daily living with assistance. She is planned for further work-up for hypercoagulable state at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS This case highlights the occurrence of vaccine-related thrombosis 3 months after vaccine administration. Only 2 cases of TTS have been reported so far after mRNA-1273 vaccination (Moderna). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CVST presenting 3 months after the first dose of COVID-19 mRNA-1273 vaccine (Moderna).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Thrombectomy/methods
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(4): 106306, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic hyper-coagulabilty leading to micro and macro thrombosis is a known complication of Coronavirus disease - 2019(COVID -19). The postulated mechanism appears to be the viral activation of endothelium, triggering the coagulation pathways. Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses (CVT), a potentially serious condition, has been increasingly reported with COVID - 19 infection. In this clinical study we attempt to describe the clinical profile, investigations and outcomes of patients with COVID- 19 associated CVT. METHODS: This is a single center prospective observational study from South India. The study included patients (aged >18 years) with concomitant COVID infection and CVT. The clinical, laboratory, imaging characteristics, management and outcomes were described and compared with COVID negative CVT patients. RESULTS: Out of 97 cases of CVT treated at our center during the first and second waves of the COVID pandemic 11/97 (11%) were COVID related CVT. Among these 11 patients, 9 (81%) had presented with only CVT related symptoms and signs and were tested positive for COVID - 19 infection during the pre-hospitalization screening. Respiratory symptoms were absent in 90% of the patients. Headache (100%) and seizures (90%) were the common presenting symptoms. The median time to diagnosis was 6 hours, from presentation to the emergency department. Transverse sinus was involved 10/11 (90%) and majority of them (9/11) had Haemorrhagic Venous Infarction (HVI). Acute inflammatory markers were elevated in comparison with non COVID CVT patients, with the mean serum D-dimer being 2462.75 ng/ml and the C-reactive protein was 64.5 mg/dl. Three patients (30%) underwent decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) because of large hemispheric HVI. All patients survived in the COVID CVT group while the mortality in the non COVID group was 4%. At 6 months follow up excellent outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2) was noted equally in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms and signs of CVT may be the only presentation of COVID-19 infection. Prompt recognition and aggressive medical management including DHC offers excellent outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebral Veins , Intracranial Thrombosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Venous Thrombosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
5.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 18(1): 80-85, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648529

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. COVID-19 has been reported to increase the propensity for systemic hypercoagulability and thromboembolism disorders such as cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). A 66-year-old woman was found dead at her home. She had symptoms of fever, dizziness, and malaise 2 weeks prior to her death. However, her fever declined 3 days before death. Postmortem computed tomography conducted before the autopsy suggested CVST. On autopsy, a massive thrombus was observed from the cortical veins to the superior sagittal sinus and transverse sinus accompanied by a small infarction region in the left parietal region. Although the rapid antigen test was negative, the reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction test was positive for SARS-CoV-2, with a cycle threshold (Ct) value of 38.9. The serum C-reactive protein level was 0.532 mg/dL. COVID-19 was the only risk factor for CVST, and no other cause of death was determined. Therefore, the cause of death was determined as acute intracranial hypertension due to CVST associated with COVID-19. The patient died after the symptoms improved, the Ct value of RT-qPCR was 38.9, and the serum C-reactive protein level decreased. Therefore, CVST might have occurred in the convalescent phase of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombosis , Aged , Autopsy , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications
7.
JAMA ; 326(4): 332-338, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355843

ABSTRACT

Importance: Cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in combination with thrombocytopenia have recently been reported within 4 to 28 days of vaccination with the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AstraZeneca/Oxford) and Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccines. An immune-mediated response associated with platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies has been proposed as the underlying pathomechanism. Objective: To determine the frequencies of admission thrombocytopenia, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and presence of platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies in patients diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a descriptive analysis of a retrospective sample of consecutive patients diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis between January 1987 and March 2018 from 7 hospitals participating in the International Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Consortium from Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden, Mexico, Iran, and Costa Rica. Of 952 patients, 865 with available baseline platelet count were included. In a subset of 93 patients, frozen plasma samples collected during a previous study between September 2009 and February 2016 were analyzed for the presence of platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies. Exposures: Diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Frequencies of admission thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150 ×103/µL), heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (as diagnosed by the treating physician), and platelet factor 4/heparin IgG antibodies (optical density >0.4, in a subset of patients with previously collected plasma samples). Results: Of 865 patients (median age, 40 years [interquartile range, 29-53 years], 70% women), 73 (8.4%; 95% CI, 6.8%-10.5%) had thrombocytopenia, which was mild (100-149 ×103/µL) in 52 (6.0%), moderate (50-99 ×103/µL) in 17 (2.0%), and severe (<50 ×103/µL) in 4 (0.5%). Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies was diagnosed in a single patient (0.1%; 95% CI, <0.1%-0.7%). Of the convenience sample of 93 patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis included in the laboratory analysis, 8 (9%) had thrombocytopenia, and none (95% CI, 0%-4%) had platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, baseline thrombocytopenia was uncommon, and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies were rare. These findings may inform investigations of the possible association between the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccines and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Heparin/immunology , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Adult , Antibodies/blood , Female , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology
8.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(12): 1451-1460, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349213

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic saw one of the fastest developments of vaccines in an effort to combat an out-of-control pandemic. The 2 most common COVID-19 vaccine platforms currently in use, messenger RNA (mRNA) and adenovirus vector, were developed on the basis of previous research in use of this technology. Postauthorization surveillance of COVID-19 vaccines has identified safety signals, including unusual cases of thrombocytopenia with thrombosis reported in recipients of adenoviral vector vaccines. One of the devastating manifestations of this syndrome, termed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), is cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). This review summarizes the current evidence and indications regarding biology, clinical characteristics, and pharmacological management of VITT with CVST. Observations: VITT appears to be similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), with both disorders associated with thrombocytopenia, thrombosis, and presence of autoantibodies to platelet factor 4 (PF4). Unlike VITT, HIT is triggered by recent exposure to heparin. Owing to similarities between these 2 conditions and lack of high-quality evidence, interim recommendations suggest avoiding heparin and heparin analogues in patients with VITT. Based on initial reports, female sex and age younger than 60 years were identified as possible risk factors for VITT. Treatment consists of therapeutic anticoagulation with nonheparin anticoagulants and prevention of formation of autoantibody-PF4 complexes, the latter being achieved by administration of high-dose intravenous immunoglobin (IVIG). Steroids, which can theoretically inhibit the production of new antibodies, have been used in combination with IVIG. In severe cases, plasma exchange should be used for clearing autoantibodies. Monoclonal antibodies, such as rituximab and eculizumab, can be considered when other therapies fail. Routine platelet transfusions, aspirin, and warfarin should be avoided because of the possibility of worsening thrombosis and magnifying bleeding risk. Conclusions and Relevance: Adverse events like VITT, while uncommon, have been described despite vaccination remaining the most essential component in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. While it seems logical to consider the use of types of vaccines (eg, mRNA-based administration) in individuals at high risk, treatment should consist of therapeutic anticoagulation mostly with nonheparin products and IVIG.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Adult , Age Factors , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma Exchange/methods , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/drug therapy , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/physiopathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Safety , Sex Characteristics , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/physiopathology , Steroids/administration & dosage , Steroids/therapeutic use
9.
JAMA ; 326(4): 332-338, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293117

ABSTRACT

Importance: Cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in combination with thrombocytopenia have recently been reported within 4 to 28 days of vaccination with the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AstraZeneca/Oxford) and Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccines. An immune-mediated response associated with platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies has been proposed as the underlying pathomechanism. Objective: To determine the frequencies of admission thrombocytopenia, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and presence of platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies in patients diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a descriptive analysis of a retrospective sample of consecutive patients diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis between January 1987 and March 2018 from 7 hospitals participating in the International Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Consortium from Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden, Mexico, Iran, and Costa Rica. Of 952 patients, 865 with available baseline platelet count were included. In a subset of 93 patients, frozen plasma samples collected during a previous study between September 2009 and February 2016 were analyzed for the presence of platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies. Exposures: Diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Frequencies of admission thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150 ×103/µL), heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (as diagnosed by the treating physician), and platelet factor 4/heparin IgG antibodies (optical density >0.4, in a subset of patients with previously collected plasma samples). Results: Of 865 patients (median age, 40 years [interquartile range, 29-53 years], 70% women), 73 (8.4%; 95% CI, 6.8%-10.5%) had thrombocytopenia, which was mild (100-149 ×103/µL) in 52 (6.0%), moderate (50-99 ×103/µL) in 17 (2.0%), and severe (<50 ×103/µL) in 4 (0.5%). Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies was diagnosed in a single patient (0.1%; 95% CI, <0.1%-0.7%). Of the convenience sample of 93 patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis included in the laboratory analysis, 8 (9%) had thrombocytopenia, and none (95% CI, 0%-4%) had platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, baseline thrombocytopenia was uncommon, and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies were rare. These findings may inform investigations of the possible association between the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccines and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Heparin/immunology , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Adult , Antibodies/blood , Female , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology
10.
Stroke ; 52(5): e117-e130, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195876
13.
J Neurol ; 268(10): 3549-3560, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of COVID-19 pandemic, several cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) have been reported in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. METHODS: Consecutive patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as clinical and radiological characteristics of CVST, were reported from three teaching hospitals in the South West, North West, and the center of Iran between June and July 2020. We also searched the abstract archives until the end of August 2020 and gathered 28 reported cases. The diagnostic criteria for SARS-CoV-2 infection were determined according to SARS-CoV-2 detection in oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal samples in clinically suspected patients. Demographics, prominent COVID-19 symptoms, confirmatory tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis, the interval between the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and CVST, clinical and radiological features of CVST, therapeutic strategies, CVST outcomes, rate of hemorrhagic transformation, and mortality rate were investigated. RESULTS: Six patients (31-62 years-old) with confirmed CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to our centers. Four patients had no respiratory symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Five patients developed the clinical manifestations of CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection simultaneously. Three patients had known predisposing factors for CVST. Despite receiving CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection treatments, four patients died. SARS-COV-2 associated CVST patients were older (49.26 vs. 37.77 years-old), had lower female/male ratio (1.42 vs. 2.19), and higher mortality rate (35.29% vs. 6.07%) than CVST not associated with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The role of SARS-CoV-2 as a "cause" versus an "additive contributor" remains to be elucidated. Practitioners should be aware of the possibility of CVST in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology
14.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(3): 770-772, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089032

ABSTRACT

The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been frequently associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this case report, an atypical presentation of COVID-19 in young with a thromboembolic event is reported. The patient initially presented with fever of unknown origin not responding to therapy. On examination, visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes with bilateral disc oedema and disc haemorrhage in the right eye. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and D-Dimer were elevated. Magnetic resonance venography (MRV) revealed features suggestive of cerebral venous thrombosis. Timely diagnosis and intervention have prevented a fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Papilledema/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Visual Acuity , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , Papilledema/diagnosis , Phlebography , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Young Adult
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