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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(4)2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774938

ABSTRACT

We present an unusual case of a woman in her 30s who was admitted for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in the setting of newly diagnosed but late COVID-19 infection with associated Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Her altered mental status, out of proportion with her metabolic decompensation, revealed a superimposed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) with fulminant cerebral oedema and ultimately brain death. This unusual and fulminant case of cerebral oedema in the setting of COVID-19 infection with bacterial infection, DKA and CVST was the perfect storm with multiple interwoven factors. It offered diagnostic and treatment challenges with an unfortunate outcome. This unique case is a reminder that it is important to consider a broad neurological differential in patients with COVID-19 with unexplained neurological manifestations, which may require specific neurointensive care management.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Brain Edema/complications , Brain Edema/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging
3.
Neuroradiology ; 64(5): 865-874, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699643

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST) after adenovirus-vectored COVID-19 ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) is a rare complication, occurring mainly in individuals under 60 years of age and more frequently in women. It manifests 4-24 days after vaccination. In most cases, antibodies against platelet factor-4/polyanion complexes play a pathogenic role, leading to thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) and sometimes a severe clinical or even fatal course. The leading symptom is headache, which usually increases in intensity over a few days. Seizures, visual disturbances, focal neurological symptoms, and signs of increased intracranial pressure are also possible. These symptoms may be combined with clinical signs of disseminated intravascular coagulation such as petechiae or gastrointestinal bleeding. If TTS-CVST is suspected, checking D-dimers, platelet count, and screening for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT-2) are diagnostically and therapeutically guiding. The imaging method of choice for diagnosis or exclusion of CVST is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with contrast-enhanced venous MR angiography (MRA). On T2*-weighted or susceptibility weighted MR sequences, the thrombus causes susceptibility artefacts (blooming), that allow for the detection even of isolated cortical vein thromboses. The diagnosis of TTS-CVST can usually be made reliably in synopsis with the clinical and laboratory findings. A close collaboration between neurologists and neuroradiologists is mandatory. TTS-CVST requires specific regimens of anticoagulation and immunomodulation therapy if thrombocytopenia and/or pathogenic antibodies to PF4/polyanion complexes are present. In this review article, the diagnostic and therapeutic steps in cases of suspected TTS associated CSVT are presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Adenoviridae , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Thrombosis/complications , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 62(3): 184-189, 2022 Mar 29.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1696603

ABSTRACT

A 31-year-old man visited our hospital due to experiencing severe headaches, vomiting, and hypesthesia in the left side of his body. He had no past illnesses and had had no severe headaches before. The symptoms started the day after receiving the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination with Tozinameran. An MRI revealed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and high intensity (DWI & FLAIR) of the right thalamus. Anticoagulant therapy was initiated, and his symptoms improved gradually. The follow-up MRI showed recanalization in a large part of the occluded venous sinuses. Most of the coagulation tests were normal, except for slightly high value of D-dimer, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was negative. Further cases are needed to judge if there is some sort of relationship between the vaccination and the cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Adult , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Vaccination
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(4): 106311, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare complication after adenoviral vector vaccination against COVID-19 reported up to 24 days after ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 (AZD1222) vaccination. This report describes a case with a significantly later onset of VITT with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a 42-year-old woman presenting to the emergency department 53 days after AZD1222 vaccination with sudden onset sensory aphasia and an 18-day history of headache. Cranial computed tomography (CT) showed acute intracranial hemorrhage and CT venogram demonstrated thrombosis of the left vein of Labbé and transverse and sigmoid sinus. D-dimers were elevated and despite a normal platelet count, platelet-activating anti-PF4 antibody testing was positive, confirming the diagnosis of VITT. The patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulins and argatroban, and was discharged without any neurological deficit on day 12. CONCLUSION: Our report of VITT with symptom onset on day 35 and diagnosis of cerebral sinuous thrombosis on day 53 after AZD1222 vaccination significantly enhances the time window during which VITT may occur.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Vaccines/adverse effects
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(4): 106306, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic hyper-coagulabilty leading to micro and macro thrombosis is a known complication of Coronavirus disease - 2019(COVID -19). The postulated mechanism appears to be the viral activation of endothelium, triggering the coagulation pathways. Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses (CVT), a potentially serious condition, has been increasingly reported with COVID - 19 infection. In this clinical study we attempt to describe the clinical profile, investigations and outcomes of patients with COVID- 19 associated CVT. METHODS: This is a single center prospective observational study from South India. The study included patients (aged >18 years) with concomitant COVID infection and CVT. The clinical, laboratory, imaging characteristics, management and outcomes were described and compared with COVID negative CVT patients. RESULTS: Out of 97 cases of CVT treated at our center during the first and second waves of the COVID pandemic 11/97 (11%) were COVID related CVT. Among these 11 patients, 9 (81%) had presented with only CVT related symptoms and signs and were tested positive for COVID - 19 infection during the pre-hospitalization screening. Respiratory symptoms were absent in 90% of the patients. Headache (100%) and seizures (90%) were the common presenting symptoms. The median time to diagnosis was 6 hours, from presentation to the emergency department. Transverse sinus was involved 10/11 (90%) and majority of them (9/11) had Haemorrhagic Venous Infarction (HVI). Acute inflammatory markers were elevated in comparison with non COVID CVT patients, with the mean serum D-dimer being 2462.75 ng/ml and the C-reactive protein was 64.5 mg/dl. Three patients (30%) underwent decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) because of large hemispheric HVI. All patients survived in the COVID CVT group while the mortality in the non COVID group was 4%. At 6 months follow up excellent outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2) was noted equally in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms and signs of CVT may be the only presentation of COVID-19 infection. Prompt recognition and aggressive medical management including DHC offers excellent outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebral Veins , Intracranial Thrombosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Venous Thrombosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
7.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 164(3): 853-858, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630497

ABSTRACT

We present a rare case of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in a COVID-19-positive, 2-month-old infant, to this day the youngest described patient with this rare combination of findings. He was hospitalized with focal seizures. The first brain imaging showed subdural hematoma and focal ischemic changes. The subdural hematoma was successfully evacuated. The control imaging, done due to lethargy, showed an extensive cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. The thrombosis was managed with low molecular weight heparin leading to clinical and radiological improvement. With this case report, we would like to add to the information pool of COVID-19 neurological manifestations in children, particularly those younger than 1 year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , COVID-19/complications , Child , Cranial Sinuses/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma, Subdural , Humans , Infant , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology
8.
Neurol Sci ; 43(3): 1499-1502, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616161

ABSTRACT

We report a case of massive cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in the contest of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia that required the rapid coordination of many specialists from different departments, notably emergency, neurology, neuroradiology, hematology, and neurosurgery. The patient was rapidly treated with steroids, immunoglobulin, and fondaparinux. She underwent within 6 h after hospital admission a mechanical thrombectomy in order to allow flow restoration in cerebral venous systems. Neuroendovascular treatment in cerebral venous thrombosis related to VITT has never been described before. It can represent a complementary tool along with the other therapies and a multidisciplinary approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Vaccines/adverse effects
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(12)2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591388

ABSTRACT

Thrombosis and thrombocytopaenia secondary to ChAdOx-1 nCov-19 vaccine is a new phenomenon that usually occurs after the first dose of vaccine. Most of these patients are healthy without any prior history of thromboembolic events or heparin use. Hall marks of this condition include detectable antibodies to platelet factor 4 and thrombosis at atypical sites particularly cerebral veins and sinuses mimicking atypical heparin induced thrombocytopaenia. We describe a case of a patient who was diagnosed with this rare condition and treated successfully.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging
12.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 43(1): 98-101, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581414

ABSTRACT

Reports of a rare form of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with profound thrombocytopenia have emerged following introduction of the adenovirus-vectored coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. Between March and June 2021, seven cases of refractory vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia were referred to our institution for mechanical thrombectomy. The condition of 1 patient deteriorated during interhospital transfer, and the remaining 6 underwent successful recanalization. No procedure-related adverse events were reported. At the time of this writing, 3 patients have been discharged with a good functional outcome (mRS 0-1), one required rehabilitation for mild dysarthria and vocal cord palsy (mRS 3), and 2 have died due to severe mass effect. Our anecdotal experience suggests that endovascular therapy may be safe and effective in reducing thrombus burden in selected cases of postvaccination cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Thrombectomy
16.
Blood ; 138(22): 2256-2268, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443788

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) causes a thromboembolic complication termed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). Using biophysical techniques, mouse models, and analysis of VITT patient samples, we identified determinants of this vaccine-induced adverse reaction. Super-resolution microscopy visualized vaccine components forming antigenic complexes with platelet factor 4 (PF4) on platelet surfaces to which anti-PF4 antibodies obtained from VITT patients bound. PF4/vaccine complex formation was charge-driven and increased by addition of DNA. Proteomics identified substantial amounts of virus production-derived T-REx HEK293 proteins in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-containing vaccine. Injected vaccine increased vascular leakage in mice, leading to systemic dissemination of vaccine components known to stimulate immune responses. Together, PF4/vaccine complex formation and the vaccine-stimulated proinflammatory milieu trigger a pronounced B-cell response that results in the formation of high-avidity anti-PF4 antibodies in VITT patients. The resulting high-titer anti-PF4 antibodies potently activated platelets in the presence of PF4 or DNA and polyphosphate polyanions. Anti-PF4 VITT patient antibodies also stimulated neutrophils to release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in a platelet PF4-dependent manner. Biomarkers of procoagulant NETs were elevated in VITT patient serum, and NETs were visualized in abundance by immunohistochemistry in cerebral vein thrombi obtained from VITT patients. Together, vaccine-induced PF4/adenovirus aggregates and proinflammatory reactions stimulate pathologic anti-PF4 antibody production that drives thrombosis in VITT. The data support a 2-step mechanism underlying VITT that resembles the pathogenesis of (autoimmune) heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
Antigen-Antibody Complex/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Capsid Proteins/adverse effects , Drug Contamination , Genetic Vectors/adverse effects , HEK293 Cells/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/adverse effects , Adenoviridae/immunology , Animals , Antigen-Antibody Complex/ultrastructure , Autoantibodies/biosynthesis , Capillary Leak Syndrome/etiology , Capsid Proteins/immunology , Cell Line, Transformed , /immunology , Dynamic Light Scattering , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials/etiology , Genetic Vectors/immunology , HEK293 Cells/chemistry , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Inflammation , Mice , Microscopy/methods , Platelet Activation , Proteomics , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/blood , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virus Cultivation
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438072

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a relatively novel term which describes patients who have developed a low platelet count and prothrombotic tendencies secondary to receiving a vaccine. The concept has been derived from the well-established phenomenon of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and several cases of VITT have now been reported in patients who have received the AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCov-19) vaccine. Unfortunately, some of these patients have gone on to develop intracranial venous sinus thrombosis. We present a case of VITT-associated sinus thrombosis secondary to the AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCov-19) vaccine, which was complicated by a large intracerebral haemorrhage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/chemically induced , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging
19.
Radiologe ; 61(10): 923-932, 2021 Oct.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine-induced cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (VI-CVST) is a rare complication in recipients of the adenovirus-vectored coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (Vaxzevria®; AstraZeneca). OBJECTIVES: Development of a diagnostic and therapeutic standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of clinical and basic research findings, expert opinions, and experience with our own cases. RESULTS: VI-CVST usually manifests on day 4-24 after vaccination, mostly in individuals aged < 60 years, and women. In the majority there is an immune pathogenesis caused by antibodies against platelet factor 4/polyanion complexes, leading to thrombotic thrombocytopenia which can result in severe, sometimes fatal, course. The cardinal symptom is headache worsening within days which, however, also can be of variable intensity. Other possible symptoms are seizures, visual disturbance, focal neurological deficits and signs of increased intracranial pressure. If VI-CVST is suspected, the determination of plasma D­dimer level, platelet count, and screening for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT-2) are essential for treatment decision-making. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with venous MR-angiography is the neuroimaging modality of choice to confirm or exclude VI-CVST. On T2* susceptibility-weighted MRI, the clot in the sinuses or veins produces marked susceptibility artifacts ("blooming"), which also enables the detection of isolated cortical venous thromboses. MRI/MR-angiography or computed tomography (CT)/CT-angiography usually allow-in combination with clinical and laboratory findings-reliable diagnosis of VI-CVST. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical suspicion of VI-CVST calls for urgent laboratory and neuroimaging workup. In the presence of thrombocytopenia and/or pathogenic antibodies, specific medications for anticoagulation and immunomodulation are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Vaccination
20.
Neuroradiol J ; 35(2): 247-249, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334723

ABSTRACT

Thrombosis-thrombocytopenia syndrome and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis have been rarely reported in patients who have received severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 adenoviral vector vaccines. Awareness of this potential adverse effect, recognizing early clinical symptoms and subtle signs of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis on head computed tomography and brain magnetic resonance imaging, appropriate vascular imaging, and unique treatment for this condition is critical. This is a report of a case of vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia and associated cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with emphasis on imaging and clinical course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Humans , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnostic imaging
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