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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(5)2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861598

ABSTRACT

mRNA vaccines including Pfizer BioNTech and Moderna have categorically been considered safe when it comes to preventing COVID-19. However, there is still a small associated risk of thromboembolic phenomenon including venous sinus thrombosis with it and our case report highlights one.We describe a patient who developed severe progressive headache, tinnitus and visual disturbance symptoms post-Pfizer-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. His medical history included essential tremors, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease stage 3, anxiety, depression and long-term catheterisation. Systemic examination revealed hypotonia, generalised reduced power and central diplopia along with peripheral visual field defect in the left eye. He was extensively investigated, the COVID-19 PCR test was negative and all routine blood tests were in the normal range except a marginally raised D-dimer of 779 ng/mL. CT head was unremarkable. He was also tested for myasthenia gravis; however, acetylcholine receptors antibodies were negative and nerve conduction studies were normal. Subsequent MRI of the brain with venography confirmed venous sinus thrombosis. A 24-hour Holter monitoring test did not reveal any cardiac rate or rhythm abnormality. He was treated with apixaban as per a neurologist's advice. His clinical condition started to improve and was later discharged from the hospital with an outpatient neurologist clinic follow-up.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy
2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(4): 106311, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare complication after adenoviral vector vaccination against COVID-19 reported up to 24 days after ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 (AZD1222) vaccination. This report describes a case with a significantly later onset of VITT with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a 42-year-old woman presenting to the emergency department 53 days after AZD1222 vaccination with sudden onset sensory aphasia and an 18-day history of headache. Cranial computed tomography (CT) showed acute intracranial hemorrhage and CT venogram demonstrated thrombosis of the left vein of Labbé and transverse and sigmoid sinus. D-dimers were elevated and despite a normal platelet count, platelet-activating anti-PF4 antibody testing was positive, confirming the diagnosis of VITT. The patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulins and argatroban, and was discharged without any neurological deficit on day 12. CONCLUSION: Our report of VITT with symptom onset on day 35 and diagnosis of cerebral sinuous thrombosis on day 53 after AZD1222 vaccination significantly enhances the time window during which VITT may occur.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Vaccines/adverse effects
8.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 6(4): 668-670, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304246

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) have been recently described as rare complications following vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 with vector vaccines. We report a case of a young woman who presented with VITT and cerebral CVST 7 days following vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AstraZeneca). While the initial MRI was considered void of pathological findings, MRI 3 days later revealed extensive CVST of the transversal and sigmoidal sinus with intracerebral haemorrhage. Diagnostic tests including a platelet-factor-4-induced platelet activation assay confirmed the diagnosis of VITT. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins and argatroban resulted in a normalisation of platelet counts and remission of CVST.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Vaccination
9.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(4): 511-514, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293546

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia is a newly described disease process in the setting of expanding access to COVID-19 vaccination. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends treatment with an alternative to heparin in patients suspected of having vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia. At this time there have been no reported outcomes from the treatment of vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia with bivalirudin as a heparin alternative. We describe the early outcomes from the treatment of vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia with bivalirudin as a heparin alternative. A 40-year-old Caucasian woman was found to have thrombocytopenia, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism following vaccination for COVID-19 with Ad26.COV2.S. She exhibited a steady rise in platelet count: 20×109/L at hospital day 0, 115×109/L at discharge on hospital day 6, and 182×109/L on outpatient follow-up on day 9. While the patient exhibited a transient drop in hemoglobin, there was no clinical evidence of bleeding. This patient did not demonstrate any clinical sequelae of thrombosis, and she reported resolution of her headache. Vaccination with Ad26.COV2.S appears to be associated with a small but significant risk for thrombotic thrombocytopenia within 13 days of receipt. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidance to consider an alternative to heparin was not accompanied by specifically recommended alternatives. A single patient treated with bivalirudin for suspected vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia subsequently experienced symptom improvement and a rise in platelet count and did not demonstrate any immediate negative outcomes. A provider may consider bivalirudin as an alternative to heparin in patients with suspected vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination, pending more definitive research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Peptide Fragments/therapeutic use , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Adult , Blood Chemical Analysis , Blood Physiological Phenomena , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hirudins , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276915

ABSTRACT

A 27-year-old fit and well man presented with intermittent headaches associated with eye floaters and vomiting. His symptoms started 48 hours after having the first dose of ChADOx1 nCOV-19 vaccine (Vaxzevria, previously AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine; AstraZeneca) and bloods showed raised D-dimer, low platelets and fibrinogen. CT venogram demonstrated significant cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. He was immediately started on intravenous immunoglobulins and dabigatran after liasing with haematologist. The next day, he complained of worsening headache and new homonymous hemianopia. Repeat CT of the head showed an acute parenchymal bleed with subdural extension and was given idarucizumab and high-dose steroids. He had an emergency decompressive craniotomy and external ventricular drain as his intracranial pressures were difficult to control. Despite full medical and surgical management, his intracranial pressures continued to rise and his brain injury was felt to be too devastating and was deemed unsurvivable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105906, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243063

ABSTRACT

The development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has raised several concerns regarding venous thromboembolism, namely cerebral venous thrombosis. Although cerebral venous thrombosis has been reported after administration of a viral vector vaccine, due to a possible auto-immune mechanism inducing thrombocytopenia, the same has not happened in mRNA vaccines. We report two cases of cerebral venous thrombosis, shortly after administration of mRNA vaccine. In both patients, there was no evidence of thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet antibodies, and alternative causes for cerebral venous thrombosis were found. As such, despite the temporal relation of both cases to vaccine administration, these types of cerebral venous thrombosis do not seem to be pathophysiological different from cerebral venous thrombosis not associated to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Continuous pharmacovigilance is necessary to monitor possible new events and clarify this association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(10)2020 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894844

ABSTRACT

An 18-year-old man presented with persistent isolated headache 2 weeks after recovering from acute COVID-19 illness. Extensive cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) was detected on CT venogram despite him having no other thrombotic risk factors. CVST can complicate COVID-19. A high index of clinical suspicion is warranted as it can often have a subtle presentation with paucity of neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
Analgesics/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Headache/etiology , Heparin/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Drug Therapy, Combination , Headache/diagnostic imaging , Headache/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Phlebography/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prognosis , Rare Diseases , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome
14.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105379, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-816739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been increasing reports associating the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with thromboembolic phenomenon including ischemic strokes and venous thromboembolism. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare neurovascular emergency that has been observed in some COVID-19 patients, yet much remains to be learnt of its underlying pathophysiology. OBJECTIVE: We present a case series of local patients with concomitant COVID-19 infection and CVT; and aim to perform a systematic review of known cases in the current literature. METHODS: We describe two patients with concomitant COVID-19 infection and CVT from a nationwide registry in Singapore. We then conducted a literature search in PubMed and Embase using a suitable keyword search strategy from 1st December 2019 to 11th June 2020. All studies reporting CVT in COVID-19 patients were included. RESULTS: Nine studies and 14 COVID-19 patients with CVT were studied. The median age was 43 years (IQR=36-58) and majority had no significant past medical conditions (60.0%). The time taken from onset of COVID-19 symptoms to CVT diagnosis was a median of 7 days (IQR=6-14). CVT was commonly seen in the transverse (75.0%) and sigmoid sinus (50.0%); 33.3% had involvement of the deep venous sinus system. A significant proportion of patients had raised D-dimer (75.0%) and CRP levels (50.0%). Two patients reported presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Most patients received anticoagulation (91.7%) while overall mortality rate was 45.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The high mortality rate of CVT in COVID-19 infection warrants a high index of suspicion from physicians, and early treatment with anticoagulation should be initiated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/blood , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(8)2020 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713010

ABSTRACT

A 63-year-old man was admitted with left-sided weakness and subsequent focal seizures following a recent diagnosis of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia in a nearby hospital. He developed status epilepticus and became comatose, requiring intensive care unit admission for invasive ventilation. Imaging done at admission confirmed extensive cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) with bilateral venous cortical infarcts and acute cortical haemorrhage. No known risk factor for CVST could be identified. He improved with anticoagulation and antiepileptic therapy. He was subsequently transferred to an inpatient rehabilitation facility. Although Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) infection has been previously associated with thrombotic complications, these mostly relate to the pulmonary vasculature. We present this case as a potential association between CVST and COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cranial Sinuses/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy
16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104989, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622312

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Identify clinical and radiographic features of venous infarct as a presenting feature of COVID-19 in the young. BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection causes hypercoagulability and inflammation leading to venous thrombotic events (VTE). Although elderly patients with comorbidities are at higher risk, COVID-19 may also cause VTE in a broader patient population without these risks. Neurologic complications and manifestations of COVID-19, including neuropathies, seizures, strokes and encephalopathy usually occur in severe established cases of COVID-19 infection who primarily present with respiratory distress. CASE DESCRIPTION: Case report of a 29-year-old woman, with no significant past medical history or comorbidities, presenting with new onset seizures. Further questioning revealed a one-week history of headaches, low-grade fever, mild cough and shortness of breath, diagnosed as COVID-19. Imaging revealed a left temporoparietal hemorrhagic venous infarction with left transverse and sigmoid sinus thrombosis treated with full dose anticoagulation and antiepileptics. CONCLUSION: Although elderly patients with comorbidities are considered highest risk for COVID-19 neurologic complications, usually when systemic symptoms are severe, this case report emphasizes that young individuals are at risk for VTE with neurologic complications even when systemic symptoms are mild, likely induced by COVID-19 associated hypercoagulable state.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain Infarction/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/virology , Venous Thrombosis/virology , Adult , Age Factors , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Brain Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Brain Infarction/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
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