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1.
Neurology ; 97(21): e2136-e2147, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is accumulating evidence supporting an association between the thrombosis and thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) and adenovirus vector-based vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Yet TTS and TTS-associated cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) remain poorly characterized. We aim to systematically evaluate the proportion of CVST among TTS cases and assess its characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials, cohorts, case series, and registry-based studies with the aim to assess (1) the pooled mortality rate of CVST, TTS-associated CVST, and TTS and (2) the pooled proportion of patients with CVST among patients with any thrombotic event and TTS. Secondary outcomes comprised clinical characteristics of patients with postvaccination thrombotic event. This meta-analysis is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and was written according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology proposal. RESULTS: Sixty-nine studies were included in the qualitative analysis comprising 370 patients with CVST out of 4,182 patients with any thrombotic event associated with SARS-CoV-2 vector-based vaccine administration. Twenty-three studies were included further in quantitative meta-analysis. Among TTS cases, the pooled proportion of CVST was 51% (95% confidence interval [CI] 36%-66%; I 2 = 61%). TTS was independently associated with a higher likelihood of CVST when compared to patients without TTS with thrombotic events after vaccination (odds ratio 13.8; 95% CI 2.0-97.3; I 2 = 78%). The pooled mortality rates of TTS and TTS-associated CVST were 28% (95% CI 21%-36%) and 38% (95% CI 27%-49%), respectively. Thrombotic complications developed within 2 weeks of exposure to vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines (mean interval 10 days; 95% CI 8-12) and affected predominantly women (69%; 95% CI 60%-77%) under age 45, even in the absence of prothrombotic risk factors. DISCUSSION: Approximately half of patients with TTS present with CVST; almost one-third of patients with TTS do not survive. Further research is required to identify independent predictors of TTS following adenovirus vector-based vaccination. REGISTRATION INFORMATION: The prespecified study protocol has been registered in the International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews PROSPERO (CRD42021250709).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology
3.
Neurology ; 97(21): e2136-e2147, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is accumulating evidence supporting an association between the thrombosis and thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) and adenovirus vector-based vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Yet TTS and TTS-associated cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) remain poorly characterized. We aim to systematically evaluate the proportion of CVST among TTS cases and assess its characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials, cohorts, case series, and registry-based studies with the aim to assess (1) the pooled mortality rate of CVST, TTS-associated CVST, and TTS and (2) the pooled proportion of patients with CVST among patients with any thrombotic event and TTS. Secondary outcomes comprised clinical characteristics of patients with postvaccination thrombotic event. This meta-analysis is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and was written according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology proposal. RESULTS: Sixty-nine studies were included in the qualitative analysis comprising 370 patients with CVST out of 4,182 patients with any thrombotic event associated with SARS-CoV-2 vector-based vaccine administration. Twenty-three studies were included further in quantitative meta-analysis. Among TTS cases, the pooled proportion of CVST was 51% (95% confidence interval [CI] 36%-66%; I 2 = 61%). TTS was independently associated with a higher likelihood of CVST when compared to patients without TTS with thrombotic events after vaccination (odds ratio 13.8; 95% CI 2.0-97.3; I 2 = 78%). The pooled mortality rates of TTS and TTS-associated CVST were 28% (95% CI 21%-36%) and 38% (95% CI 27%-49%), respectively. Thrombotic complications developed within 2 weeks of exposure to vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines (mean interval 10 days; 95% CI 8-12) and affected predominantly women (69%; 95% CI 60%-77%) under age 45, even in the absence of prothrombotic risk factors. DISCUSSION: Approximately half of patients with TTS present with CVST; almost one-third of patients with TTS do not survive. Further research is required to identify independent predictors of TTS following adenovirus vector-based vaccination. REGISTRATION INFORMATION: The prespecified study protocol has been registered in the International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews PROSPERO (CRD42021250709).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology
4.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 61(9): 594-601, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344506

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are important in managing the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Despite the very low incidence, severe cases of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia after COVID-19 vaccination termed as Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS) have been reported. TTS clinically resembles autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. TTS can cause disability and even death. It usually presents 4-28 days after vaccination characterized by thrombocytopenia and progressive thrombosis, often causing cerebral vein/venous thrombosis (CVT) and splanchnic venous thrombosis. We should avoid all forms of heparin and platelet transfusion. While awaiting further information on the pathophysiological mechanism and treatment of TTS, clinicians should be aware of TTS with CVT in patients receiving COVID-19 vaccinations. This new syndrome of TTS is an active area of investigation globally. Here, we review the available literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cerebral Veins , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/therapy , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/therapy , Time Factors
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(10): 105923, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300924

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of COVID-19 vaccines and non-COVID-19 vaccines with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). MATERIALS AND METHOD: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 771,805 vaccination events across 266,094 patients in the Mayo Clinic Health System between 01/01/2017 and 03/15/2021. The primary outcome was a positive diagnosis of CVST, identified either by the presence of a corresponding ICD code or by an NLP algorithm which detected positive diagnosis of CVST within free-text clinical notes. For each vaccine we calculated the relative risk by dividing the incidence of CVST in the 30 days following vaccination to that in the 30 days preceding vaccination. RESULTS: We identified vaccination events for all FDA-approved COVID-19 vaccines including Pfizer-BioNTech (n = 94,818 doses), Moderna (n = 36,350 doses) and Johnson & Johnson - J&J (n = 1,745 doses). We also identified vaccinations events for 10 common FDA-approved non-COVID-19 vaccines (n = 771,805 doses). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence rate of CVST in 30-days before and after vaccination for any vaccine in this population. We further found the baseline CVST incidence in the study population between 2017 and 2021 to be 45 to 98 per million patient years. CONCLUSIONS: This real-world evidence-based study finds that CVST is rare and is not significantly associated with COVID-19 vaccination in our patient cohort. Limitations include the rarity of CVST in our dataset, a relatively small number of J&J COVID-19 vaccination events, and the use of a population drawn from recipients of a SARS-CoV-2 PCR test in a single health system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
6.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211022847, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277871

ABSTRACT

Pediatric cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is rare but a potentially fatal disease requiring its understanding in local setting. In this study, we observed the clinical course, management, and outcome of pediatric patients with sinus thrombosis in a tertiary care center at Pakistan. Patients between age 0 to 18 years of both genders diagnosed with sinus thrombosis during 2011 to 2020 were included. Data was collected through in-house computerized system and SPSS version 19 was used for analysis. Of 143492 pediatric admissions, 32 (21 males and 11 females) patients with a median (IQR) age of 4.5 years (0-16) had CVST. This is equivalent to 18.5 CVST events per million pediatric admissions. Adolescents were mostly affected, and the overall mortality was 7%. Primary underlying disorders were infections (59%), hematological neoplasms (12.5%), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (3%) and antiphospholipid syndrome (3%). Activated protein C resistance (44%) was the most common inherited thrombophilia. Twenty-one (66%) patients were anemic with a mean (±SD) hemoglobin of 9.0 g/dL (±2.3). Regression analysis showed a positive association of anemia with multiple sinus involvement (P-value 0.009) but not with duration of symptoms (P-value 0.344), hospital stay (P-value 0.466), age (P-value 0.863) or gender (P-value 0.542) of the patients. SARS-COV2 was negative in patients during 2020. Adolescents were primarily affected by sinus thrombosis and infections was the predominant risk factor for all age groups, with a low all-cause mortality. A high index of clinical suspicion is required for prompt diagnosis and intervention.


Subject(s)
Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Poverty , Risk Factors
7.
Nat Med ; 27(7): 1290-1297, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263501

ABSTRACT

Reports of ChAdOx1 vaccine-associated thrombocytopenia and vascular adverse events have led to some countries restricting its use. Using a national prospective cohort, we estimated associations between exposure to first-dose ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 vaccination and hematological and vascular adverse events using a nested incident-matched case-control study and a confirmatory self-controlled case series (SCCS) analysis. An association was found between ChAdOx1 vaccination and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) (0-27 d after vaccination; adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 5.77, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.41-13.83), with an estimated incidence of 1.13 (0.62-1.63) cases per 100,000 doses. An SCCS analysis confirmed that this was unlikely due to bias (RR = 1.98 (1.29-3.02)). There was also an increased risk for arterial thromboembolic events (aRR = 1.22, 1.12-1.34) 0-27 d after vaccination, with an SCCS RR of 0.97 (0.93-1.02). For hemorrhagic events 0-27 d after vaccination, the aRR was 1.48 (1.12-1.96), with an SCCS RR of 0.95 (0.82-1.11). A first dose of ChAdOx1 was found to be associated with small increased risks of ITP, with suggestive evidence of an increased risk of arterial thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events. The attenuation of effect found in the SCCS analysis means that there is the potential for overestimation of the reported results, which might indicate the presence of some residual confounding or confounding by indication. Public health authorities should inform their jurisdictions of these relatively small increased risks associated with ChAdOx1. No positive associations were seen between BNT162b2 and thrombocytopenic, thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211021498, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249538

ABSTRACT

Today the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global health problem. After more than a year with the pandemic, although our knowledge has progressed on COVID-19, there are still many unknowns in virological, pathophysiological and immunological aspects. It is obvious that the most efficient solution to end this pandemic are safe and efficient vaccines. This manuscript summarizes the pathophysiological and thrombotic features of COVID-19 and the safety and efficacy of currently approved COVID-19 vaccines with an aim to clarify the recent concerns of thromboembolic events after COVID-19 vaccination. The influx of newer information is rapid, requiring periodic updates and objective assessment of the data on the pathogenesis of COVID-19 variants and the safety and efficacy of currently available vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Autoantibodies/biosynthesis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Drug Approval , Female , Genetic Vectors , Glycosaminoglycans/immunology , Humans , Male , Models, Cardiovascular , Pandemics/prevention & control , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Safety , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(18): 680-684, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218745

ABSTRACT

On February 27, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Janssen (Ad.26.COV2.S) COVID-19 vaccine (Janssen Biotech, Inc., a Janssen Pharmaceutical company, Johnson & Johnson) (1). The Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, the third COVID-19 vaccine authorized for use in the United States, uses a replication-incompetent human adenoviral type 26 vector platform* (2) and is administered as a single intramuscular dose, whereas the first two authorized vaccines use an mRNA platform and require 2 doses. On February 28, 2021, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued interim recommendations for use of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine among persons aged ≥18 years (3). During April 13-23, CDC and FDA recommended a pause in use of Janssen vaccine after reports of six cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) with thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150,000/µL of blood) among Janssen vaccine recipients (4). Similar thrombotic events, primarily among women aged <60 years, have been described in Europe after receipt of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, which uses a replication-incompetent chimpanzee adenoviral vector (5-7). The U.S. CVST cases that prompted the pause in Janssen vaccination, as well as subsequently detected CVST cases, are described elsewhere (8). This report summarizes adverse events among Janssen vaccine recipients, including non-CVST cases of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), reported to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), a passive surveillance system, and through v-safe, an active monitoring system. As of April 21, 2021, 7.98 million doses of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine had been administered. Among 13,725 VAERS reports reviewed, 97% were classified as nonserious and 3% as serious,† including three reports among women of cases of thrombosis in large arteries or veins accompanied by thrombocytopenia during the second week after vaccination. These three cases and the previously detected CVST cases are consistent with 17 cases of TTS,§ a newly defined condition. Approximately 338,700 Janssen COVID-19 vaccine recipients completed at least one v-safe survey during the week after vaccination; 76% reported a systemic reaction, 61% reported a local reaction, and 34% reported a health impact.¶ Fatigue and pain were commonly reported symptoms in both VAERS and v-safe. The overall safety profile is consistent with preauthorization clinical trials data. Prompt review of U.S. vaccine safety data detected three additional cases of non-CVST TTS, in addition to the previously recognized CVST cases that initiated the pause in use of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. Ongoing monitoring of adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination, including vaccination with the Janssen single-dose vaccine, is essential for evaluating the risks and benefits of each vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Approval , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Safety-Based Drug Withdrawals , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration , Young Adult
11.
Stroke ; 52(5): e117-e130, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195876
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(6): 105733, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection has been known to predispose patients to both arterial and venous thromboembolic events such as deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke. A few reports from the literature suggest that Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis (CVSTs) may be a direct complication of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical and radiological presentation of COVID-19 positive patients diagnosed with CVST. METHODS: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional, retrospective study of patients diagnosed with CVST and COVID-19 reviewed from March 1, 2020 to November 8, 2020. We evaluated their clinical presentations, risk factors, clinical management, and outcome. We reviewed all published cases of CVST in patients with COVID-19 infection from January 1, 2020 to November 13, 2020. RESULTS: There were 8 patients diagnosed with CVST and COVID-19 during the study period at 7 out of 31 participating centers. Patients in our case series were mostly female (7/8, 87.5%). Most patients presented with non-specific symptoms such as headache (50%), fever (50%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (75%). Several patients presented with focal neurologic deficits (2/8, 25%) or decreased consciousness (2/8, 25%). D-dimer and inflammatory biomarkers were significantly elevated relative to reference ranges in patients with available laboratory data. The superior sagittal and transverse sinuses were the most common sites for acute CVST formation (6/8, 75%). Median time to onset of focal neurologic deficit from initial COVID-19 diagnosis was 3 days (interquartile range 0.75-3 days). Median time from onset of COVID-19 symptoms to CVST radiologic diagnosis was 11 days (interquartile range 6-16.75 days). Mortality was low in this cohort (1/8 or 12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should consider the risk of acute CVST in patients positive for COVID-19, especially if neurological symptoms develop.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Cranial Sinuses/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/mortality , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
13.
J Neurol ; 268(10): 3549-3560, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of COVID-19 pandemic, several cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) have been reported in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. METHODS: Consecutive patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as clinical and radiological characteristics of CVST, were reported from three teaching hospitals in the South West, North West, and the center of Iran between June and July 2020. We also searched the abstract archives until the end of August 2020 and gathered 28 reported cases. The diagnostic criteria for SARS-CoV-2 infection were determined according to SARS-CoV-2 detection in oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal samples in clinically suspected patients. Demographics, prominent COVID-19 symptoms, confirmatory tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis, the interval between the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and CVST, clinical and radiological features of CVST, therapeutic strategies, CVST outcomes, rate of hemorrhagic transformation, and mortality rate were investigated. RESULTS: Six patients (31-62 years-old) with confirmed CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to our centers. Four patients had no respiratory symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Five patients developed the clinical manifestations of CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection simultaneously. Three patients had known predisposing factors for CVST. Despite receiving CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection treatments, four patients died. SARS-COV-2 associated CVST patients were older (49.26 vs. 37.77 years-old), had lower female/male ratio (1.42 vs. 2.19), and higher mortality rate (35.29% vs. 6.07%) than CVST not associated with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The role of SARS-CoV-2 as a "cause" versus an "additive contributor" remains to be elucidated. Practitioners should be aware of the possibility of CVST in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology
14.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(3): 770-772, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089032

ABSTRACT

The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been frequently associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this case report, an atypical presentation of COVID-19 in young with a thromboembolic event is reported. The patient initially presented with fever of unknown origin not responding to therapy. On examination, visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes with bilateral disc oedema and disc haemorrhage in the right eye. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and D-Dimer were elevated. Magnetic resonance venography (MRV) revealed features suggestive of cerebral venous thrombosis. Timely diagnosis and intervention have prevented a fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Papilledema/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Visual Acuity , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , Papilledema/diagnosis , Phlebography , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Young Adult
15.
Ann Neurol ; 89(4): 657-665, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979540

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) include arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in adults and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Whether stroke is a frequent complication of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. This study aimed to determine the proportion of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 cases with ischemic stroke and the proportion of incident pediatric strokes with SARS-CoV-2 in the first 3 months of the pandemic in an international cohort. METHODS: We surveyed 61 international sites with pediatric stroke expertise. Survey questions included: numbers of hospitalized pediatric (≤ 18 years) patients with SARS-CoV-2; numbers of incident neonatal and childhood ischemic strokes; frequency of SARS-CoV-2 testing for pediatric patients with stroke; and numbers of stroke cases positive for SARS-CoV-2 from March 1 to May 31, 2020. RESULTS: Of 42 centers with SARS-CoV-2 hospitalization numbers, 8 of 971 (0.82%) pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 had ischemic strokes. Proportions of stroke cases positive for SARS-CoV-2 from March to May 2020 were: 1 of 108 with neonatal AIS (0.9%), 0 of 33 with neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT; 0%), 6 of 166 with childhood AIS (3.6%), and 1 of 54 with childhood CSVT (1.9%). However, only 30.5% of neonates and 60% of children with strokes were tested for SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, these proportions represent 2.9, 0, 6.1, and 3.0% of stroke cases tested for SARS-CoV-2. Seven of 8 patients with SARS-CoV-2 had additional established stroke risk factors. INTERPRETATION: As in adults, pediatric stroke is an infrequent complication of SARS-CoV-2, and SARS-CoV-2 was detected in only 4.6% of pediatric patients with ischemic stroke tested for the virus. However, < 50% of strokes were tested. To understand the role of SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric stroke better, SARS-CoV-2 testing should be considered in pediatric patients with stroke as the pandemic continues. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:657-665.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
16.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 40(4): 457-462, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926387

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have noted concern for increased thromboembolic events in the setting of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a form of thromboembolism that has been observed as a neuro-ophthalmologic complication of COVID-19. METHODS: Review of the scientific literature. RESULTS: In this article, we report an overview of CVST epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, disease pathophysiology, and management in the setting of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: CVST is an uncommon thromboembolic event with variable phenotypes and multiple etiologies. Neurologic complications can be severe, including significant visual deficits and death. Current observations suggest that the risk of CVST may be profoundly impacted by this novel COVID-19 pandemic, thus prompting increased attention to disease presentation, pathogenesis, and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Cerebral Angiography , Humans , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/physiopathology , United States/epidemiology
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