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1.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(5): 442-447, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637623

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the possible association between invasive fungal sinusitis (mucormycosis) and coronavirus disease. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary care centre over four months, involving all patients with mucormycosis of the paranasal sinuses suffering from or having a history of coronavirus disease infection. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients presented with mucormycosis, all had an association with coronavirus disease 2019. The ethmoids (100 per cent) were the most common sinuses affected. Intra-orbital extension was seen in 43.47 per cent of cases, while intracranial extension was only seen in 8.69 per cent. Diabetes mellitus was present in 21 of 23 cases, and was uncontrolled in 12 cases. All patients had a history of steroid use during their coronavirus treatment. CONCLUSION: New manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 are appearing over time. The association between coronavirus and mucormycosis of the paranasal sinuses must be given serious consideration. Uncontrolled diabetes and over-zealous use of steroids are two main factors aggravating the illness, and both of these must be properly checked.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Mucorales/isolation & purification , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Paranasal Sinuses/microbiology , Administration, Intravenous , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/microbiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mucorales/drug effects , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/etiology , Pandemics , Paranasal Sinuses/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/microbiology , Steroids/adverse effects , Steroids/therapeutic use
2.
Br J Radiol ; 95(1132): 20210749, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594506

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Acute invasive fungal sinusitis (AIFS) is a rapidly progressive disease, whose delayed identification results in poor outcomes, especially in immunocompromised individuals. A surge in of AIFS in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic has lent additional morbidity and mortality to an already precarious clinical scenario. Early detection of AIFS in individuals who are symptomatic/ at risk can allow early therapy, enabling better patient outcomes. Our study aims to determine optimal soft-tissue markers on CT for the early detection of AIFS. METHODS: In this case-control study, 142 patients with equal distribution of subjects were chosen based on histopathological diagnosis of AIFS; and their non-contrast CT scans were retrospectively assessed to determine the diagnostic utility of specific soft-tissue markers that would enable diagnosis of AIFS. RESULTS: A total of nine markers with adequate sensitivity and specificity were identified, including pterygopalatine and sphenopalatine fossae, inferior orbital fissure and nasolacrimal duct involvement, premaxillary thickening, retro-antral and orbital stranding, and infratemporal muscle oedema. It was determined that the combined occurrence of any three out of nine markers was 91.5% sensitive and 95.9% specific for diagnosis of AIFS (p < 0.005). CONCLUSION: Early, accurate detection of AIFS in predisposed individuals is possible with identification of soft-tissue markers on NECT, enabling early intervention. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Being the aggressive disease that it is, AIFS may be managed early if the index of suspicion is held high via CT imaging; which our diagnostic checklist aims at enabling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinusitis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Sinusitis/diagnostic imaging , Sinusitis/microbiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480795

ABSTRACT

Among millions of sufferers of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), the challenge is not only constantly coping with CRS-related symptoms, such as congested nose, sinus pain, and headaches, but also various complications, such as attention difficulties and possible depression. These complications suggest that neural activity in the central nervous system may be altered in those patients, leading to unexpected conditions, such as neurodegeneration in elderly patients. Recently, some studies linked the presence of CRS and cognitive impairments that could further develop into Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly and is characterised by progressive memory loss, cognitive behavioural deficits, and significant personality changes. The microbiome, especially those in the gut, has been recognised as a human organ and plays an important role in the development of various conditions, including AD. However, less attention has been paid to the microbiome in the nasal cavity. Increased nasal inflammatory responses due to CRS may be an initial event that changes local microbiome homeostasis, which may further affect neuronal integrity in the central nervous system resulting in AD. Evidence suggests a potential of ß-amyloid deposition starting in olfactory neurons, which is then expanded from the nasal cavity to the central nervous system. In this paper, we reviewed currently available evidence that suggests this potential mechanism to advise the need to investigate the link between these two conditions.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/microbiology , Nose/microbiology , Rhinitis/complications , Sinusitis/complications , Alzheimer Disease/etiology , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Brain/pathology , Chronic Disease , Humans , Microbiota , Rhinitis/microbiology , Rhinitis/pathology , Sinusitis/microbiology , Sinusitis/pathology
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 449-453, 2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371040

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 first emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Since that time, the frequency of bacterial and fungal coinfections has been continuously increasing. Although invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is being increasingly recognized in association with COVID-19, there is limited information regarding COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. We describe a 50-year-old woman with uncontrolled diabetes who received systemic corticosteroids and remdesevir during her admission for COVID-19. A few days after discharge, the patient was readmitted because of facial swelling and numbness, and a diagnosis of COVID-19-associated rhinosinusitis mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus arrhizus (formerly called Rhizopus oryzae) was confirmed with sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. This report aimed to address the importance of short-term follow-up for COVID-19 patients who have received systemic corticosteroids, particularly those with predisposing conditions, because early detection and prompt, aggressive treatment are essential for the management of invasive fungal infections.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Rhinitis/etiology , Rhizopus oryzae/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sinusitis/etiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/etiology , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis , Rhinitis/diagnosis , Rhinitis/microbiology , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/microbiology
7.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(7): e297-e303, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311399

ABSTRACT

Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is the most common type of fungal sinus infection. AFS is a robust allergic reaction to inhaled soil fungi that causes sinus inflammation, and the fungal debris then accumulates in the sinus cavities. This accumulation can cause nasal polyps, facial pain and pressure, bone remodeling of the face, and even bone erosion, which can cause damage to the eyes and brain. AFS can also cause thick, sticky nasal mucus and postnasal drip, and it can affect the sense of smell. Most patients with AFS are adolescents who also have chronic symptoms of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Endoscopic sinus surgery to remove the disease and open the sinus cavities is the main treatment approach. Adjuvant immunotherapy is helpful in reducing the inflammatory response and preventing future recurrence of this allergy-mediated condition. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(7):e297-e303.].


Subject(s)
Hypersensitivity , Mycoses , Nasal Polyps , Sinusitis , Adolescent , Child , Endoscopy , Humans , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/therapy , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/microbiology , Sinusitis/therapy
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 710, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242036

ABSTRACT

Saliva omics has immense potential for non-invasive diagnostics, including monitoring very young or elderly populations, or individuals in remote locations. In this study, multiple saliva omics from an individual were monitored over three periods (100 timepoints) involving: (1) hourly sampling over 24 h without intervention, (2) hourly sampling over 24 h including immune system activation using the standard 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, (3) daily sampling for 33 days profiling the post-vaccination response. At each timepoint total saliva transcriptome and proteome, and small RNA from salivary extracellular vesicles were profiled, including mRNA, miRNA, piRNA and bacterial RNA. The two 24-h periods were used in a paired analysis to remove daily variation and reveal vaccination responses. Over 18,000 omics longitudinal series had statistically significant temporal trends compared to a healthy baseline. Various immune response and regulation pathways were activated following vaccination, including interferon and cytokine signaling, and MHC antigen presentation. Immune response timeframes were concordant with innate and adaptive immunity development, and coincided with vaccination and reported fever. Overall, mRNA results appeared more specific and sensitive (timewise) to vaccination compared to other omics. The results suggest saliva omics can be consistently assessed for non-invasive personalized monitoring and immune response diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections/immunology , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Proteome/drug effects , Saliva/metabolism , Sinusitis/immunology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology , Transcriptome/drug effects , Adult , Humans , Immunity , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Saliva/drug effects , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Sinusitis/microbiology , Time Factors , Vaccination
9.
Laryngoscope ; 131(12): 2652-2658, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233217

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Occurrence of invasive fungal respiratory superinfections in patients with COVID-19 has gained increasing attention in the latest studies. Yet, description of acute invasive fungal sinusitis with its management in those patients is still scarce. This study aims to describe this recently increasing clinical entity in relation to COVID-19 patients. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal prospective study. METHODS: Prospective longitudinal study included patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis after a recent COVID-19 infection. Antifungal agents given included amphotericin B, voriconazole, and/or posaconazole. Surgical treatment was restricted to patients with PCR negative results for COVID-19. Endoscopic, open, and combined approaches were utilized to eradicate infection. Follow-up for survived patients was maintained regularly for the first postoperative month. RESULTS: A total of 36 patients with a mean age of 52.92 ± 11.30 years old were included. Most common associated disease was diabetes mellitus (27.8%). Mycological analysis revealed infection with Mucor and Aspergillus species in 77.8% and 30.6% of patients, respectively. Sino-nasal, orbital, cerebral, and palatine involvement was found in 100%, 80.6%, 27.8%, and 33.3% of patients, respectively. The most common reported symptoms and signs are facial pain (75%), facial numbness (66.7%), ophthalmoplegia, and visual loss (63.9%). All patients were treated simultaneously by surgical debridement with antifungal medications except for two patients with PCR-positive swab for COVID-19. These two patients received antifungal therapy alone. Overall survival rate was 63.89% (23/36). CONCLUSION: Clinical suspicion of acute invasive fungal sinusitis among COVID-19 patients and early management with antifungal therapy and surgical debridement is essential for better outcomes and higher survival. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:2652-2658, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Rhinitis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinusitis/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Debridement , Female , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/microbiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/therapy , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Rhinitis/microbiology , Rhinitis/therapy , Sinusitis/microbiology , Sinusitis/therapy
10.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(6): 103080, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) is aggressive morbidity affecting immunocompromised patients. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may allow secondary fungal disease through a propensity to cause respiratory infection by affecting the immune system leading to dysregulation and reduced numbers of T lymphocytes, CD4+T, and CD8+T cells, altering the innate immunity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) in COVID-19 patients. METHODOLOGY: Data for acute invasive rhinosinusitis was obtained from the Otorhinolaryngology departments at our tertiary hospital at the period from January 2017 to December 2020. Then the risk factors of comorbid diseases and fungal types between post-COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups regarding the incidence of AIFRS are compared. RESULTS: Consequently, the incidence of AIFRS showed a more significant difference (P < 0.05) in post-COVID-19 patients than in non-COVID-19 especially in immunocompromised patients, diabetic, renal, and liver dysfunction patients as well as patients with risk factors of AIFRS. The most common organisms affecting patients with AIFRS are Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Absidia mucor. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of AIFRS is markedly prominent in post-COVID-19 patients than in those of non-COVID-19, especially in immunocompromised, diabetic, renal, and liver dysfunction patients and patients with risk factors for rhinosinusitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Outbreaks , Invasive Fungal Infections , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/microbiology , Sinusitis/epidemiology , Sinusitis/microbiology , Absidia , Acute Disease , Aged , Aspergillus fumigatus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Incidence , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Rhinitis/diagnostic imaging , Rhinitis/immunology , Rhizopus oryzae , Risk Factors , Sinusitis/diagnostic imaging , Sinusitis/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(7)2020 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657507

ABSTRACT

A 45-year-old man presented with acute sinusitis. He was treated with a 10-day course of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and a subsequent 14-day course of amoxicillin-clavulanate with no improvement in symptoms. Culture of purulent nasal secretions revealed the rare enterobacter Cedecea lapagei The patient had complete resolution of his symptoms after a 14-day course of gentamicin/dexamethasone nasal rinses. Emerging pathogens have been a timeless concern for physicians, as witnessed by the current SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. C. lapagei has been reported to cause human infection only a dozen times since its discovery, all in severely compromised patients. This is the first documented case of sinusitis reported with C. lapagei and may portend a rising prevalence of disease burden in the general population. This case demonstrates the necessity of obtaining cultures when standard antibiotics result in treatment failure.


Subject(s)
Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Gentamicins/administration & dosage , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Acute Disease , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/complications , Gentamicins/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinusitis/microbiology , Treatment Outcome , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
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