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1.
Physiol Rep ; 10(14): e15369, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957609

ABSTRACT

An interaction between mitochondrial dynamics, physical activity levels, and COVID-19 severity has been previously hypothesized. However, this has not been tested. We aimed to compare mitochondrial morphology and cristae density of PBMCs between subjects with non-severe COVID-19, subjects with severe COVID-19, and healthy controls. Additionally, we compared the level of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sitting time between groups. Blood samples were taken to obtain PBMCs. Mitochondrial dynamics were assessed by electron microscopy images and western blot of protein that regulate mitochondrial dynamics. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ; short version) was used to estimate the level of MVPA and the sitting time The patients who develop severe COVID-19 (COVID-19++) not present alterations of mitochondrial size neither mitochondrial density in comparison to non-severe patients COVID-19 (COVID-19) and control subjects (CTRL). However, compared to CTRL, COVID-19 and COVID-19++ groups have lower mitochondrial cristae length, a higher proportion of abnormal mitochondrial cristae. The COVID-19++ group has lower number (trend) and length of mitochondrial cristae in comparison to COVID-19 group. COVID-19, but not COVID-19++ group had lower Opa 1, Mfn 2 and SDHB (Complex II) proteins than CTRL group. Besides, COVID-19++ group has a higher time sitting. Our results show that low mitochondrial cristae density, potentially due to physical inactivity, is associated with COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sitting Position , Humans , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Sedentary Behavior
2.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271482, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951556

ABSTRACT

To reduce the spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), national governments implemented measures to limit contact between citizens. This study evaluated changes in physical activity and sitting in response to the first COVID-19 lockdown in England and factors associated with these changes. A cross-sectional online survey-based study collected data from 818 adults between 29 April and 13 May 2020. Participants self-reported demographic information, physical activity and sitting for a 'typical' week before and during lockdown. Participants were grouped into low, moderate and high physical activity, and low and high (≥8 hours/day) sitting. Paired samples t-tests compared physical activity (MET-min/week) before and during lockdown. Pearson's Chi-squared evaluated the proportion of participants in the physical activity and sitting categories. Logistic regression explored associations of demographic and behavioural factors with physical activity and sitting during lockdown. Walking and total physical activity significantly increased during lockdown by 241 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 176, 304) MET-min/week and 302 (CI: 155, 457) MET-min/week, respectively (P < 0.001). There was a 4% decrease in participants engaging in low physical activity and a 4% increase in those engaging in high physical activity from before to during lockdown (P < 0.001). The proportion engaging in high sitting increased from 29% to 41% during lockdown (P < 0.001). Lower education level (odds ratio [OR] = 1.65, P = 0.045) and higher BMI (OR = 1.05, P = 0.020) were associated with increased odds of low physical activity during lockdown, whereas non-White ethnicity (OR = 0.24, P = 0.001) was associated with reduced odds. Younger age was associated with increased odds of high sitting (OR = 2.28, P = 0.008). These findings suggest that physical activity and sitting both increased during lockdown. Demographic and behavioural factors associated with low physical activity and high sitting have been identified that could inform intervention strategies during situations of home confinement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sitting Position , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Humans , Sedentary Behavior
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892871

ABSTRACT

Children spend over 70% of their school day sitting, most of the time in the classroom. Even when meeting physical activity guidelines but sitting for long uninterrupted periods, children are at risk of poorer health outcomes. With an approach to create an active learning environment through the implementation of sit-stand tables, this exploratory mixed-methods study aims to evaluate a holistic concept for reducing sedentary time in schools by implementing sit-stand tables as well as to examine the feasibility and didactic usability in classroom settings. Children from eight German schools aged 7 to 10 in primary schools and 11 to 13 in secondary schools (n = 211), allocated into control and intervention groups, were included in the study, as well as teachers (n = 13). An accelerometer was used as a quantitative measure to assess sitting and standing times and sport motoric tests were taken. Qualitative interviews were performed with teachers regarding feasibility and acceptance of the sit-stand tables. Independent t-test analysis adjusted for age, sex and school type found that sitting times of children in the intervention group could be reduced (by 30.54 min per school day of 6 h, p < 0.001) within all school and age levels. Overall, implementing sit-stand tables in classrooms serves as a feasible and effective opportunity to reduce sedentary behaviour and create an active learning environment.


Subject(s)
Ergonomics , Sedentary Behavior , Child , Humans , Interior Design and Furnishings , Schools , Sitting Position
4.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 54(7): 1123-1130, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892263

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is a paucity of global data on sedentary behavior during early childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine how device-measured sedentary behavior in young children differed across geographically, economically, and sociodemographically diverse populations, in an international sample. METHODS: This multinational, cross-sectional study included data from 1071 children 3-5 yr old from 19 countries, collected between 2018 and 2020 (pre-COVID). Sedentary behavior was measured for three consecutive days using activPAL accelerometers. Sedentary time, sedentary fragmentation, and seated transport duration were calculated. Linear mixed models were used to examine the differences in sedentary behavior variables between sex, country-level income groups, urban/rural settings, and population density. RESULTS: Children spent 56% (7.4 h) of their waking time sedentary. The longest average bout duration was 81.1 ± 45.4 min, and an average of 61.1 ± 50.1 min·d-1 was spent in seated transport. Children from upper-middle-income and high-income countries spent a greater proportion of the day sedentary, accrued more sedentary bouts, had shorter breaks between sedentary bouts, and spent significantly more time in seated transport, compared with children from low-income and lower-middle-income countries. Sex and urban/rural residential setting were not associated with any outcomes. Higher population density was associated with several higher sedentary behavior measures. CONCLUSIONS: These data advance our understanding of young children's sedentary behavior patterns globally. Country income levels and population density appear to be stronger drivers of the observed differences, than sex or rural/urban residential setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sedentary Behavior , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Humans , Sitting Position
5.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 48(5): 380-390, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic has affected many workers' daily life and possibly their physical activity behavior. We studied the longitudinal association of working from home during the pandemic with physical activity and sedentary behavior. METHODS: Longitudinal data from 17 questionnaire rounds of the Lifelines COVID-19 cohort (March 2020-February 2021) were used. In total, 33 325 workers were included. In every round, participants reported their current work situation: location, home, or hybrid (working on location and from home). Physical activity levels and sedentary behavior before and during the pandemic were asked. Logistic generalized estimating equations adjusted for demographic/work/health covariates were used to study the association of work situation with physical activity and sedentary behavior. RESULTS: Home workers were less likely to meet the recommended ≥150 minutes/week of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity during the pandemic than location workers [odds ratio (OR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-0.96] and more likely to be less physically active than before the pandemic (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.14). Furthermore, compared to location workers, home and hybrid workers were more likely to be more sedentary (sitting ≥8 hours/day) on workdays during than before the pandemic (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.39-1.64/1.36-1.68, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to location workers, home workers (and to a lesser extent hybrid workers) were more often physically inactive and sedentary during than before the COVID-19 pandemic. As a substantial part of the working population may continue to work (partly) from home after the pandemic, workers should be supported to increase activity and reduce sitting while working from home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sedentary Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Humans , Pandemics , Sitting Position
7.
Respir Med ; 194: 106773, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683572

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between time to active sitting position and clinical features in people with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) and referred to physiotherapists. METHOD: Prospective study conducted in the largest temporary ICU in Lombardy (Italy) between April 2020 and June 2021. All individuals with COVID-19 who received physiotherapy were included. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was fitted to explore the statistical association between active sitting position and characteristics of patients referred to physiotherapists, also accounting for the different multidisciplinary teams responsible for patients. RESULTS: 284 individuals over 478 (59.4%) had access to physiotherapy, which was performed for a median of 8 days, without difference between multidisciplinary teams (P = 0.446). The active sitting position was reached after a median of 18 (IQR: 10.0-32.0) days. Sex was the only characteristic associated with the time to active sitting position, with males showing a reduced hazard by a factor of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.48-0.87; P = 0.0042) compared to females. At ICU discharge, nearly 50% individuals increased Manchester Mobility Score by 3 points. During physiotherapy no major adverse event was recorded. CONCLUSION: Individuals with COVID-19 take long time to reach active sitting position in ICU, with males requiring longer rehabilitation than females.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sitting Position
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(44): e27529, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570142

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: It is recommended to use visual laryngoscope for tracheal intubation in a Corona Virus Disease 2019 patient to keep the operator farther from the patient. How the position of the operator affects the distance in this setting is not ascertained. This manikin study compares the distances between the operator and the model and the intubation conditions when the operator is in sitting position and standing position, respectively.Thirty one anesthesiologists with minimum 3-years' work experiences participated in the study. The participant's posture was photographed when he performed tracheal intubation using UE visual laryngoscope in standing and sitting position, respectively. The shortest distance between the model's upper central incisor and operator's face screen (UF), the horizontal distance between the model's upper central incisor and the operator's face screen, the angle between the UF line and the vertical line of the model's upper central incisor were measured. The success rate of intubation, the duration of intubation procedure, the first-attempt success rate, the Cormack-Lehane grade, and operator comfort score were also recorded.When the operator performed the procedure in sitting position, the horizontal distance between the model's upper central incisor and the operator's face screen distance was significantly longer (9.5 [0.0-17.2] vs 24.3 [10.3-33.0], P ≤ .001) and the angle between the UF line and the vertical line of the model's upper central incisor angle was significantly larger (45.2 [16.3-75.5] vs 17.7 [0.0-38.9], P ≤ .001). There was no significant difference in UF distance when the operator changed the position. Cormack-Lehane grade was significantly improved when it was assessed using visual laryngoscope. Cormack-Lehane grade was not significantly different when the operator assessed it in sitting and standing position, respectively. No significant differences were found in the success rate, duration for intubation, first-attempt success rate, and operator comfort score.The operator is kept farther from the patient when he performs intubation procedure in sitting position. Meanwhile, it does not make the procedure more difficult or uncomfortable for the operator, though all the participants prefer to standing position.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopes , Sitting Position , Standing Position , Humans , Laryngoscopy , Male , Manikins , Patient Positioning
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2082, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the health risks of sedentary working environments become more clear, greater emphasis on the implementation of walking interventions to reduce sitting time is needed. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigate the role of treadmill-desk interventions on energy expenditure, sitting time, and cardiometabolic health in adults with sedentary occupations. METHODS: Relevant studies published in English were identified using CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases up to December 2020. Random effects meta-analysis models were used to pool study results. RESULTS: Thirteen relevant studies (six workplaces and seven laboratories) were found with a total of 351 participants. Pooled analysis of laboratory studies showed a significant increase in energy expenditure (105.23 kcal per hour, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 90.41 to 120.4), as well as metabolic rate (5.0 mL/kg/min, 95% CI: 3.35 to 6.64), among treadmill desk users compared to sitting conditions. No evidence of significant differences in blood pressure were found. In workplace studies, we observed a significant reduction in sitting time over a 24-h period (- 1.73 min per hour, 95% CI: - 3.3 to - 0.17) among users of treadmill desks, compared to a conventional desk. However, there were no evidence of statistically significant changes in other metabolic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Treadmill desks offer a feasible and effective intervention to increase energy expenditure and metabolic rate and reduce sitting time while performing work-related tasks. Future studies are needed to increase generalizability to different workplace settings and further evaluate their impact on cardiometabolic health.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Occupational Health , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Sitting Position , Walking , Workplace
10.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260332, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526704

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Traditional measures of muscular strength require in-person visits, making administration in large epidemiologic cohorts difficult. This has left gaps in the literature regarding relationships between strength and long-term health outcomes. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and validity of a video-led, self-administered 30-second sit-to-stand (STS) test in a sub-cohort of the U.S.-based Cancer Prevention Study-3. METHODS: A video was created to guide participants through the STS test. Participants submitted self-reported scores (n = 1851), and optional video recordings of tests (n = 134). Two reviewers scored all video tests. Means and standard deviations (SD) were calculated for self-reported and video-observed scores. Mean differences (95% confidence intervals (CI)) and Spearman correlation coefficients between self-reported and observed scores were calculated, stratifying by demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Participants who uploaded a video reported 14.1 (SD = 3.5) stands, which was not significantly different from the number of stands achieved by the full cohort (13.9 (SD = 4.2), P-difference = 0.39). Self-reported and video-observed scores were highly correlated (ρ = 0.97, mean difference = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.5). There were no significant differences in correlations by sociodemographic factors (all P-differences ≥0.42). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the self-administered, video-guided STS test may be appropriate for participants of varying ages, body sizes, and activity levels, and is feasible for implementation within large, longitudinal studies. This video-guided test would also be useful for remote adaptation of the STS test during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Movement , Neurologic Examination/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Fitness , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sitting Position , Standing Position
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438599

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the effect of the first English national COVID-19 lockdown on physical activity (PA), sitting time, eating behaviours and body mass in an adult cohort. This was further examined to determine whether conforming to recommended guidelines on PA and sedentary behaviour was improved. Based on an online survey (n = 818) incorporating the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF), self-reported body mass change showed that in 32.2% of participants body mass increased, with 39.1% reporting an increase in food intake. Never exercising at the gym or undertaking an exercise class (online or live), increased by 50.8% during lockdown, with 53.5% changing from exercising frequently to never exercising, suggesting a lack of engagement with online and home workouts. However, outdoor running and cycling >2 times/week increased by 38% during lockdown. Walking at least 30 min continuously on >2 occasions/week increased by 70% during lockdown with minimum 10-min walks on 7 days per week increasing by 23%. The lockdown had a negative impact on sitting time (>8 h a day), which increased by 43.6% on weekdays and 121% at weekends. Furthermore, sitting <4 h/day decreased during lockdown (46.5% and 25.6% for weekdays and weekends, respectively). Those citing tiredness or lack of time as a barrier to exercise reduced by 16% and 60%, respectively, from pre-lockdown to during lockdown. More of the sedentary group met the Public Health England PA recommendations, however most participants still did not meet the UK Government guidelines for PA. Improvements in health per additional minutes of physical activity will be proportionately greater in those previously doing <30 min/week, the area where most improvements were found although, conversely sitting time was greatly increased. This study may assist in informing whether future lifestyle changes could improve the health of the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sitting Position , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390610

ABSTRACT

Measures implemented to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2 have resulted in a decrease in physical activity (PA) while sedentary behaviour increased. The aim of the present study was to explore associations between PA and mental health in Austria during COVID-19 social restrictions. In this web-based cross-sectional study (April-May 2020) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sitting time, and time spent outdoors were self-reported before and during self-isolation. Mental well-being was assessed with the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, and the Beck depression and anxiety inventories. The majority of the participants (n = 652) were female (72.4%), with a mean age of 36.0 years and a standard deviation (SD) of 14.4. Moreover, 76.5% took part in ≥30 min/day of MVPA, 53.5% sat ≥10 h/day, and 66.1% spent ≥60 min/day outdoors during self-isolation. Thirty-eight point five percent reported high mental well-being, 40.5% reported depressive symptoms, and 33.9% anxiety symptoms. Participating in higher levels of MVPA was associated with higher mental well-being (odds ratio = OR: 3.92; 95% confidence interval = 95%CI: 1.51-10.15), less depressive symptoms (OR: 0.44; 95%CI: 0.29-0.66) and anxiety symptoms (OR = 0.62; 95%CI: 0.41-0.94), and less loneliness (OR: 0.46; 95%CI: 0.31-0.69). Participants sitting <10 h/day had higher odds of mental well-being (OR: 3.58; 95%CI: 1.13-11.35). Comparable results were found for spending ≥60 min/day outdoors. Maintaining one's MVPA levels was associated with higher mental well-being (OR = 8.61, 95%CI: 2.68-27.62). In conclusion, results show a positive association between PA, time spent outdoors and mental well-being during COVID-19 social restrictions. Interventions aiming to increase PA might mitigate negative effects of such restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sitting Position , Adult , Austria , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 149970, 2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372587

ABSTRACT

Particle concentration in a sitting person's breathing zone can be influenced by human movement around the person, and the transient and continuous effects may differ. In this study, a set of full-scale experiments was conducted to sample the nanoparticle concentration in the breathing zone of a sitting thermal breathing manikin (STBM). The transient fluctuation of the nanoparticle concentration was recorded continuously and analyzed. The results showed that when a manikin moved (at 1 m/s) past the STBM, the nanoparticle concentration in the STBM's breathing zone decreased and reached its lowest after the standing manikin had passed, decreasing 37.6 (±5.7) % compared with the peak value. The average concentration in the STBM's breathing zone during influence periods was 5.18 (±0.99) % less than that during non-influence Periods (NP). This finding reflected the fact that the transient inhalation (over several seconds) of the STBM may be reduced by manikin movement. On the other hand, the exposure of the STBM increased 2.88 (±1.24) % when there was a continuously moving manikin compared with the stable state in a 10-min observation. This finding may be explained by the fuller mix of indoor air and nanoparticles caused by manikin movement, as well as the increase of nanoparticle suspension time. The difference in the transient and continuous effects of the manikin movement on the STBM's exposure shows the importance of considering these effects separately in different scenarios.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , Nanoparticles , Humans , Manikins , Movement , Respiration , Sitting Position
14.
Appl Ergon ; 97: 103551, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351547

ABSTRACT

High levels of occupational sitting is an emerging health concern. As working from home has become a common practice as a result of COVID-19, it is imperative to validate an appropriate self-report measure to assess sitting in this setting. This secondary analysis study aimed to validate the occupational sitting and physical activity questionnaire (OSPAQ) against an activPAL4™ in full-time home-based 'office' workers (n = 148; mean age = 44.90). Participants completed a modified version of the OSPAQ and wore an activPAL4™ for a full work week. The findings suggest that the modified OSPAQ has fair levels of validity in terms of correlation for sitting and standing (ρ = 0.35-0.43, all p < 0.05) and agreement (bias = 2-12%) at the group level; however, estimates were poor at an individual level, as suggested by wide limits of agreement (±22-30%). Overall, the OSPAQ showed to be an easily administered and valid questionnaire to measure group level sitting and standing in this sample of adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , Adult , Exercise , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Sitting Position , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace
15.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12258, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340229

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the corresponding government state of emergency have dramatically changed our workstyle, particularly through implementing teleworking and social distancing. We investigated the degree to which people's work performance is affected and the association between sedentary behavior under the state of emergency and worsened work performance during the COVID-19 pandemic, as previous studies have suggested that sedentary behavior decreases work performance. METHODS: We used data from the Japan "COVID-19 and Society" Internet Survey (JACSIS) study, a cross-sectional, web-based, self-reported questionnaire survey. The main outcome was change in work performance after the COVID-19 pandemic compared with that before the pandemic. We analyzed the association between the change in work performance and sitting duration under the state of emergency, adjusted for work-related stress, participants' demographics, socio-economic status, health-related characteristics, and personality. RESULTS: The change of work environment from the pandemic decreased work performance in 15% of workers, which was 3.6 times greater than the number of workers reporting increased performance in 14 648 workers (6134 women and 8514 men). Although telework both improved and worsened performance (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0, 1.6-2.5 and 1.7, 1.5-1.9, respectively), sitting for long periods after the state of emergency was significantly associated only with worsened performance (OR, 95% CI = 1.8, 1.5-2.2) in a dose-response manner. CONCLUSION: Sitting duration is likely a risk barometer of worsened work performance under uncertain working situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sedentary Behavior , Sitting Position , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Young Adult
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(20)2020 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308405

ABSTRACT

The present paper describes a system for older people to self-administer the 30-s chair stand test (CST) at home without supervision. The system comprises a low-cost sensor to count sit-to-stand (SiSt) transitions, and an Android application to guide older people through the procedure. Two observational studies were conducted to test (i) the sensor in a supervised environment (n = 7; m = 83.29 years old, sd = 4.19; 5 female), and (ii) the complete system in an unsupervised one (n = 7; age 64-74 years old; 3 female). The participants in the supervised test were asked to perform a 30-s CST with the sensor, while a member of the research team manually counted valid transitions. Automatic and manual counts were perfectly correlated (Pearson's r = 1, p = 0.00). Even though the sample was small, none of the signals around the critical score were affected by harmful noise; p (harmless noise) = 1, 95% CI = (0.98, 1). The participants in the unsupervised test used the system in their homes for a month. None of them dropped out, and they reported it to be easy to use, comfortable, and easy to understand. Thus, the system is suitable to be used by older adults in their homes without professional supervision.


Subject(s)
Exercise Test , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sitting Position , Standing Position
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(7): 1146-1154, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293295

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that fidgeting augments metabolic demand and increases blood flow to the moving limbs, whereas prolonged sitting suppresses these factors and exacerbates postprandial glucose excursions. Therefore, the hypothesis of this study was that leg fidgeting during prolonged sitting would improve postprandial glycemic control. METHODS: Adults with obesity (n = 20) participated in a randomized crossover trial in which blood glucose and insulin concentrations were measured during a 3-hour sitting period following the ingestion of a glucose load (75 g). During sitting, participants either remained stationary or intermittently fidgeted both legs (2.5 minutes off and 2.5 minutes on). Accelerometer counts, oxygen consumption, and popliteal-artery blood flow were also measured during the sitting period. RESULTS: As expected, fidgeting increased accelerometer counts (P < 0.01), oxygen consumption (P < 0.01), and blood flow through the popliteal artery (P < 0.05). Notably, fidgeting lowered both glucose (P < 0.01) and insulin (P < 0.05) total area under the curve (AUC) and glucose incremental AUC (P < 0.05). Additionally, there was a strong negative correlation between fidgeting-induced increases in blood flow and reduced postprandial glucose AUC within the first hour (r = -0.569, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Leg fidgeting is a simple, light-intensity physical activity that enhances limb blood flow and can be incorporated during prolonged sitting to improve postprandial glycemic control in people with obesity.


Subject(s)
Leg , Sitting Position , Adult , Blood Glucose , Cross-Over Studies , Glycemic Control , Humans , Insulin , Obesity , Postprandial Period , Sedentary Behavior
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e26240, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258820

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: There have been a few reports on the early rehabilitation of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and none on the effectiveness and adverse events of early mobilization for mechanical ventilation patients (other than COVID-19) during deep sedation. This report indicates that sitting without adverse events is possible in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia during deep sedation with muscle relaxation. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 65-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus, lacunar infarction, and Parkinson's disease was admitted to a local hospital for pneumonia due to COVID-19. After admission, the patient was managed on a ventilator under deep sedation with muscle relaxants and sedatives. Twelve days after admission, the patient was transferred to our hospital due to his worsening respiratory status. DIAGNOSIS: Pneumonia due to COVID-19 was diagnosed using a polymerase chain reaction-dependent method. INTERVENTIONS: The day following transfer, a physical therapist started passive range of motion training and sitting. OUTCOMES: The period spanning his initial rehabilitation to muscle relaxant medication interruption was 9 days, and he underwent 7 rehabilitation sessions. The patient was unable to sit during only one of the 7 sessions due to pre-rehabilitation hypoxemia. In 5 of the 6 sitting sessions, PaO2/FiO2 transiently decreased but recovered by the time of subsequent blood sampling. The patient's PaCO2 decreased during all sessions. His blood pressure did not drastically decrease in any sitting session, except the first. Sputum excretion via sputum suction increased during sitting, and peak inspiratory pressure did not change. LESSONS: The patient eventually died of pneumonia due to COVID-19. However, sitting during deep sedation with muscle relaxants did not cause any serious adverse events nor did it appear to cause obvious negative respiratory effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Deep Sedation/methods , Early Ambulation/methods , Sitting Position , Aged , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/adverse effects , Male , Neuromuscular Agents/administration & dosage , Neuromuscular Agents/adverse effects , Range of Motion, Articular , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1008, 2021 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Encounters with rats in urban areas increase risk of human exposure to rat-associated zoonotic pathogens and act as a stressor associated with psychological distress. The frequency and nature of human-rat encounters may be altered by social distancing policies to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, restaurant closures may reduce food availability for rats and promote rat activity in nearby residential areas, thus increasing public health risks during a period of public health crisis. In this study, we aimed to identify factors associated with increased perceived exposure to rats during a stay-at-home order, describe residents' encounters with rats relevant to their health and well-being, and identify factors associated with increased use of rodent control. METHODS: Urban residents in Chicago, a large city with growing concerns about rats and health disparities, completed an online questionnaire including fixed response and open-ended questions during the spring 2020 stay-at-home order. Analyses included ordinal multivariate regression, spatial analysis, and thematic analysis for open-ended responses. RESULTS: Overall, 21% of respondents (n = 835) reported an increase in rat sightings around their homes during the stay-at-home order and increased rat sightings was positively associated with proximity to restaurants, low-rise apartment buildings, and rat feces in the home (p ≤ 0.01). Many respondents described feeling unsafe using their patio or yard, and afraid of rats entering their home or spreading disease. Greater engagement with rodent control was associated with property ownership, information about rat control, and areas with lower incomes (p ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: More frequent rat encounters may be an unanticipated public health concern during periods of social distancing, especially in restaurant-dense areas or in low-rise apartment buildings. Rat presence may also limit residents' ability to enjoy nearby outdoor spaces, which otherwise might buffer stress experienced during a stay-at-home order. Proactive rat control may be needed to mitigate rat-associated health risks during future stay-at-home orders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sitting Position , Animals , Chicago , Humans , Pandemics , Rats , SARS-CoV-2
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