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1.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 48(12): 52-56, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143945

ABSTRACT

The pneumonia vaccine is the best way to prevent pneumococcal disease and the high cost of readmission for patients and payors. The readmission rate at a skilled nursing facility (SNF) for a patient with a diagnosis of pneumonia was 24%, whereas the vaccination rate at the SNF was only 28%. This finding is significant because patients aged ≥65 years have a 35% reduction in pneumonia influenzas and all-cause mortality with appropriate pneumococcal vaccination. The current initiative sought to increase the pneumococcal vaccine rate at a SNF through implementation of a structured vaccine initiative. After implementation of a pneumococcal vaccination bundle, vaccine uptake increased from 28% to 66%. The success of the pneumococcal vaccination bundle showed that a focused effort using context-specific, evidence-based interventions can increase vaccine uptake. Adapting an evidence-based bundle to fit the needs of the user's context is an important component to the success of vaccination initiatives. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 48(12), 52-56.].


Subject(s)
Geriatric Nursing , Pneumococcal Infections , Humans , Aged , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Vaccination , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control
3.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(11): e399-e404, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116574

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of COVID-19 surges on hospital outcomes, particularly among non-COVID-19 patients. STUDY DESIGN: An interrupted time series design. METHODS: Using data from a large insurance claims clearinghouse, the study estimates the impact of the onset of the pandemic and the share of hospital COVID-19 patients on the likelihood of (1) in-hospital death, (2) in-hospital death or discharge to hospice, (3) discharge to other hospitals, (4) discharge to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), and (5) discharge to home care. RESULTS: The odds of in-hospital death were about 1.7 times that before the onset of the pandemic among all patients and 1.2 times that among non-COVID-19 patients. Increased share of COVID-19 patients was associated with higher odds of in-hospital death among all patients and non-COVID-19 patients. The effects were more pronounced among patients 45 years and older and those with septicemia or pneumonia, and they were also stronger during the months in which COVID-19 cases surged. Although no sizable changes were found in the odds of discharge to other hospitals or SNFs, transfers to home care grew during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The negative impact of the pandemic on mortality among non-COVID-19 patients confirms existing concerns about patient care. No evidence suggests large-scale changes in practices regarding discharge/transfer to other facilities. The findings shed light on future efforts to monitor and improve inpatient care as the pandemic evolves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicare , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Patient Discharge , Hospitals , Patient Readmission
4.
JAMA ; 328(10): 941-950, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047346

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the US federal government required that skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) close to visitors and eliminate communal activities. Although these policies were intended to protect residents, they may have had unintended negative effects. Objective: To assess health outcomes among SNFs with and without known COVID-19 cases. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective observational study used US Medicare claims and Minimum Data Set 3.0 for January through November in each year beginning in 2018 and ending in 2020 including 15 477 US SNFs with 2 985 864 resident-years. Exposures: January through November of calendar years 2018, 2019, and 2020. COVID-19 diagnoses were used to assign SNFs into 2 mutually exclusive groups with varying membership by month in 2020: active COVID-19 (≥1 COVID-19 diagnosis in the current or past month) or no-known COVID-19 (no observed diagnosis by that month). Main Outcomes and Measures: Monthly rates of mortality, hospitalization, emergency department (ED) visits, and monthly changes in activities of daily living (ADLs), body weight, and depressive symptoms. Each SNF in 2018 and 2019 served as its own control for 2020. Results: In 2018-2019, mean monthly mortality was 2.2%, hospitalization 3.0%, and ED visit rate 2.9% overall. In 2020, among active COVID-19 SNFs compared with their own 2018-2019 baseline, mortality increased by 1.60% (95% CI, 1.58% to 1.62%), hospitalizations decreased by 0.10% (95% CI, -0.12% to -0.09%), and ED visit rates decreased by 0.57% (95% CI, -0.59% to -0.55%). Among no-known COVID-19 SNFs, mortality decreased by 0.15% (95% CI, -0.16% to -0.13%), hospitalizations by 0.83% (95% CI, -0.85% to -0.81%), and ED visits by 0.79% (95% CI, -0.81% to -0.77%). All changes were statistically significant. In 2018-2019, across all SNFs, residents required assistance with an additional 0.89 ADLs between January and November, and lost 1.9 lb; 27.1% had worsened depressive symptoms. In 2020, residents in active COVID-19 SNFs required assistance with an additional 0.36 ADLs (95% CI, 0.34 to 0.38), lost 3.1 lb (95% CI, -3.2 to -3.0 lb) more weight, and were 4.4% (95% CI, 4.1% to 4.7%) more likely to have worsened depressive symptoms, all statistically significant changes. In 2020, residents in no-known COVID-19 SNFs had no significant change in ADLs (-0.06 [95% CI, -0.12 to 0.01]), but lost 1.8 lb (95% CI, -2.1 to -1.5 lb) more weight and were 3.2% more likely (95% CI, 2.3% to 4.1%) to have worsened depressive symptoms, both statistically significant changes. Conclusions and Relevance: Among skilled nursing facilities in the US during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic and prior to the availability of COVID-19 vaccination, mortality and functional decline significantly increased at facilities with active COVID-19 cases compared with the prepandemic period, while a modest statistically significant decrease in mortality was observed at facilities that had never had a known COVID-19 case. Weight loss and depressive symptoms significantly increased in skilled nursing facilities in the first year of the pandemic, regardless of COVID-19 status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy , Humans , Medicare/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Skilled Nursing Facilities/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
5.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 203, 2022 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) have been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic with serious consequences for the residents. Some LTCFs performed better than others, experiencing lower case and death rates due to COVID-19. A comprehensive understanding of the factors that have affected the transmission of COVID-19 in LTCFs is lacking, as no published studies have applied a multidimensional conceptual framework to evaluate the performance of LTCFs during the pandemic. Much research has focused on infection prevention and control strategies or specific disease outcomes (e.g., death rates). To address these gaps, our scoping review will identify and analyze the performance factors that have influenced the management of COVID-19 in LTCFs by adopting a multidimensional conceptual framework. METHODS: We will query the CINAHL, MEDLINE (Ovid), CAIRN, Science Direct, and Web of Science databases for peer-reviewed articles written in English or French and published between January 1, 2020 and December 31, 2021. We will include articles that focus on the specified context (COVID-19), population (LTCFs), interest (facilitators and barriers to performance of LTCFs), and outcomes (dimensions of performance according to a modified version of the Ministère de la santé et des services sociaux du Québec conceptual framework). Each article will be screened by at least two co-authors independently followed by data extraction of the included articles by one co-author and a review by the principal investigator. RESULTS: We will present the results both narratively and with visual aids (e.g., flowcharts, tables, conceptual maps). DISCUSSION: Our scoping review will provide a comprehensive understanding of the factors that have affected the performance of LTCFs during the COVID-19 pandemic. This knowledge can help inform the development of more effective infection prevention and control measures for future pandemics and outbreaks. The results of our review may lead to improvements in the care and safety of LTCF residents and staff. SCOPING REVIEW REGISTRATION: Research Registry researchregistry7026.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Facilities , Humans , Long-Term Care/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Review Literature as Topic , Skilled Nursing Facilities
6.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(10): 1110-1117, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) Healthcare Safety Unit (HCSU) conducts remote infection control assessments (tele-ICARs) in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) to evaluate COVID-19 infection prevention and control (IPC) knowledge and practices using a standardized assessment tool. Tele-ICARs are used to gauge different IPC measures specific to SARS-CoV-2 and are either proactive--conducted prior to identified cases--or responsive to an outbreak, which is defined as a new SARS-CoV-2 infection in any staff or any facility-onset infection in a resident. State and local partners use findings from the assessments to aid LTCFs by providing targeted and timely resources and support to mitigate identified gaps. METHODS: Data from tele-ICARs conducted between March 1 and October 30, 2020 were analyzed to assess major gaps across LTCF types. A major gap was defined as 10% or more of facilities not satisfying a specific IPC measure, excluding missing data. Gaps were also assessed by tele-ICAR type: proactive or responsive. Fisher's exact tests and univariate logistic regression were used to characterize significant associations between major IPC gaps and LTCF or tele-ICAR type. RESULTS: DSHS conducted tele-ICARs in 438 LTCFs in Texas during 8 months; 191 were nursing homes/skilled nursing facilities (NH/SNFs), 206 were assisted living facilities (ALFs) and 41 were other settings. Of the assessments, 264 were proactive and 174 responsive. Major gaps identified were: (1) 22% did not have a preference for alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) over soap and water; (2) 18.1% were not aware of the contact time for disinfectants in use; (3) 17.9% had not stopped resident communal dining; (4) 16.8% did not audit hand hygiene and PPE compliance; and (5) 11.8% had not stopped inter-facility group activities and extra-facility field trips. When restricting analyses to proactive tele-ICARs, one additional gap was identified: 11.1% of facilities lacked a dedicated space to care for or cohort residents with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Significantly more ALFs than NH/SNFs had not suspended resident communal dining (P < .001) nor identified a dedicated space to cohort residents with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (P < .001). Significantly more LTCFs that received a responsive ICAR compared to a proactive ICAR reported a preference for ABHS over soap and water (P = .008) and reported suspending communal dining (P < .001) and group activities (P < .001). Also, significantly more LTCFs that received a responsive ICAR compared to a proactive ICAR had identified a dedicated space to cohort residents with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 (P = .009). CONCLUSIONS: Increased facility education and awareness of federal and state guidelines for group activities and communal dining is warranted in Texas, emphasizing the importance of social distancing for preventing the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in LTCFs, particularly ALFs. CDC recommendations for ABHS versus hand washing should be emphasized, as well as the importance of monitoring and auditing HCP hand hygiene and PPE compliance. Facilities may benefit from additional education and resources about disinfection, to ensure proper selection of disinfectants and understanding of the contact time required for efficacy. Analysis by tele-ICAR type suggests facilities may benefit from identifying space for dedicated COVID-19 units in advance of an outbreak in their facility. Conducting tele-ICARs in LTCFs enables public health agencies to provide direct and individualized feedback to facilities and identify state-wide opportunities for effective interventions in response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Hand Sanitizers , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control , Iron-Dextran Complex , Long-Term Care , Nursing Homes , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Soaps , Texas/epidemiology , Water
7.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 23(9): 1499-1502, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007807

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Major life changes can trigger a traumatic stress response in older adults causing trauma symptoms to resurface. In 2019, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services released the requirement, without specific guidance, for trauma-informed care (TIC) as part of person-centered care in long-term care. DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 722 new admissions at one nursing home in metro Atlanta between November 2019 and July 2021. METHODS: We developed a "TRAUMA" framework for TIC screening based on Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration resources. The admissions nurse conducted TIC screening within 48 hours of new admissions, including reported trauma and necessary modifications to care plans. Demographic information was derived from electronic records. Analysis included independent sample t-tests, binary logistic regression, and χ2 tests. All data were analyzed using SPSS v. 28. RESULTS: Of 722 new admissions, 45 (6.2%) indicated experiencing trauma. There was no significant association with being Black or non-White and experiencing trauma, but there was a significant association with being female and experiencing trauma (χ2 (1) = 5.206, P = .022). Only men reported child physical abuse and war trauma and only women reported adult sexual assault, child sexual assault, adult domestic violence, school or community violence, adult nonintimate partner violence, and other trauma. There was a small, significant negative association of age and trauma (ß = -0.037; SE = 0.11; P < .001). The most-reported trauma category was medical trauma, including COVID-related trauma. More than half (51%) requested spiritual intervention and only 2 requested medical intervention with medication as initial interventions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our experience suggests that knowing the patient and their trauma history allowed the admissions nurse and interdisciplinary care team to modify the person-centered care plan to best meet the patient's needs. Our results also emphasize the need for using universal trauma precautions in all interactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nursing Homes , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Medicare , Skilled Nursing Facilities , United States/epidemiology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997639

ABSTRACT

This paper addresses the broad topic of what older people think about nursing homes in Portugal. In the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic and considering the tragic events taking place in nursing homes, the challenge of reimagining the sector involves not only improving procedures and models of care, making sure they meet what citizens consider adequate, but also rehabilitating the image people have about nursing homes and rebuilding trust. Current and future decisions about how one meets LTC needs is influenced by the extent to which individuals see the alternatives as adequate. The paper presents evidence collected from a qualitative study run just before the COVID-19 pandemic began, with a sample of 45 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 plus, in Portugal. Opinions and views about nursing homes were collected and the results point to enduring negative aspects that are considered at odds with what constitutes adequate care. The paper discusses in length what those aspects are and concludes that future reforms of the nursing homes sector in Portugal need to consider what current and future users think and feel about that specific type of service. Debates in Portugal tend to be more focused on discussions about expanding the sector and less on aspects of quality of care. Views and opinions of interviewed participants, however, suggest that people may be more worried about quality of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Nursing Homes , Portugal , Skilled Nursing Facilities
10.
Am J Nurs ; 122(7): 16, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919101

ABSTRACT

The actions come in response to pandemic visitation restrictions.


Subject(s)
Long-Term Care , Pandemics , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Skilled Nursing Facilities
11.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 23(11): 1765-1771, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926600

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Patient Driven Payment Model (PDPM) was implemented in October 2019 to reimburse skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) based on Medicare patients' clinical and functional characteristics rather than the volume of services provided. This study aimed to examine the changes in therapy utilization and quality of care under PDPM. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental design. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: In total, 35,540 short stays by 27,967 unique patients in 121 Oregon SNFs. METHODS: Using Minimum Data Set data from January 2019 to February 2020, we compared therapy utilization and quality of care for Medicare short stays before and after PDPM implementation to non-Medicare short stays. RESULTS: The number of minutes of individual occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT) per week for Medicare stays decreased by 19.3% (P < .001) and 19.0% (P < .001), respectively, in the first 5 months of PDPM implementation (before the COVID-19 pandemic). The number of group OT and PT minutes increased by 1.67 (P < .001) and 1.77 (P < .001) minutes, respectively. The magnitude of PDPM effects varied widely across stays with different diagnoses. PDPM implementation was not associated with statistically significant changes in length of SNF stay (P = .549), discharge to the community (P = .208), or readmission to the SNF within 30 days (P = .684). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: SNFs responded to PDPM with a significant reduction in individual OT and PT utilization and a smaller increase in group OT and PT utilization. No changes were observed in length of SNF stay, rates of discharge to the community, or readmission to the SNF in the first 5 months of PDPM implementation. Further research should examine the relative effects of individual and group therapy and their impact on the quality of SNF care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skilled Nursing Facilities , United States , Humans , Pandemics , Medicare , Subacute Care , Patient Discharge , Patient Readmission
12.
14.
Res Gerontol Nurs ; 15(4): 172-178, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903575

ABSTRACT

Preventing acute care transfers from skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) is a challenge secondary to residents' associated debilitated status and comorbidities. Acute care transfers often result in serious complications and unnecessary health care expenditure. Literature implies that approximately two thirds of these acute care transfers could be prevented using proactive interventions. The purpose of the current study was to identify the predictors of acute care transfers for SNF residents in developing relevant prevention strategies. A retrospective chart review using multivariate logistic regression analysis showed increased odds of SNF hospitalization was significantly associated with impaired cognition, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic kidney disease, whereas decreased odds of hospitalization was identified among non-Hispanic White residents. Study recommendations include prompt assessment of comorbid symptomatology among SNF residents for the timely management and prevention of unnecessary acute care transfers. [Research in Gerontological Nursing, 15(4), 172-178.].


Subject(s)
Hospitalization , Medical Overuse , Patient Transfer , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Medical Overuse/prevention & control , Medical Overuse/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge , Patient Transfer/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Skilled Nursing Facilities/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(8): 1734-1736, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902891

ABSTRACT

We estimated real-world vaccine effectiveness among skilled nursing facility healthcare personnel who were regularly tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection in California, USA, during January‒March 2021. Vaccine effectiveness for fully vaccinated healthcare personnel was 73.3% (95% CI 57.5%-83.3%). We observed high real-world vaccine effectiveness in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Vaccine Efficacy
18.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 23(8): 1279-1282, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895135

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antigen tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are sometimes discordant. We evaluated the discordance between antigen and PCR tests sampled in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) to assess the relationship of symptom presence, timing between tests, and the presence of a facility outbreak. DESIGN: Observational study using electronic health record data. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Residents of 306 SNFs in 23 states, operated by 1 company. METHODS: We identified all rapid antigen and PCR tests conducted in study SNFs as of January 10, 2021, and classified whether symptoms were present and whether the facility was in outbreak at time of testing. We calculated the proportions of antigen tests with discordant follow-up PCR results conducted no more than 2 days after the antigen test. RESULTS: Of the 171,280 antigen tests in 34,437 SNF residents, 20,991 (12.3%) were followed by a PCR test within 2 days. A total of 1324 negative antigen tests were followed by a positive PCR result, representing 0.8% of all antigen tests and 6.3% of repeated antigen tests; while 337 positive antigen tests were followed by a negative PCR result, representing 0.2% of all antigen tests and 1.6% of repeated antigen tests. Discordance more often occurred when residents were symptomatic at time of antigen testing, during known facility outbreaks, and when the antigen test was compared with a PCR test done within 2 days vs 1 day. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Overall, discordance between SARS-CoV-2 antigen and PCR tests was low. Discordance was more common when the individual was symptomatic at time of antigen testing and during facility outbreaks. This suggests that a testing strategy which couples widespread use of antigen tests with clinical thresholds to conduct follow-up confirmatory PCR testing appears to perform well in SNFs, where timely and accurate SARS-CoV-2 case identification are critical.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Skilled Nursing Facilities
19.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 23(9): 1442-1447, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885878

ABSTRACT

Nursing home (NH) providers would benefit from adopting evidence-based measures for gathering and utilizing resident preference information in their daily care activities. However, providers face barriers when implementing assessment tools used to promote person-centered care (PCC). Although Agile methodology is not commonly used in NH settings, this case study shows how it can be used to achieve the goal of delivering preference-based, PCC, within a large NH. We present a road map for breaking down care processes, prioritizing, and implementing iterative plan, do, study, act cycles using Agile methodology to enhance group collaboration on quality improvement cycles, to achieve our goal of providing preference-based PCC. We first determined if care plans reflected each resident's important preferences, developed a method for tracking whether residents attended activities that matched their preferences, and determined if residents were satisfied that their preferences were being met. These efforts had positive effects throughout the NH particularly when COVID-19 limited visitors and significantly modified staff workflow. Specifically, Agile processes helped staff to know how to honor preferences during quarantines which necessitated a shift to individualized (and not group) approaches for meeting preferences for social contact, comfort, and belonging. The ready availability of preference-based reporting was critical to quickly informing new staff on how to meet residents' most important preferences. Based on lessons learned, we describe a developmental approach that other providers can consider for adoption. Implications of this work are discussed in terms of the need for provider training in Agile methodologies to support iterative improvements, the need for policies that reimburse providers for their efforts, and additional research around workflow processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient-Centered Care , Humans , Nursing Homes , Patient-Centered Care/methods , Self Care , Skilled Nursing Facilities
20.
Nurs Open ; 9(5): 2506-2517, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877663

ABSTRACT

AIM: To examine the response of long-term care (LTC) residential facilities to the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide, and the antecedents and outcomes of this response. DESIGN: A protocol of a cross-sectional survey. METHODS: Two online questionnaires will be used to collect data from LTC residential facilities' managers and staff worldwide. Collected data include participants' socio-demographic characteristics, facility-related characteristics, facility response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and possible influences of the pandemic on staff, residents, and residents' families. Data collection has started in April 2021. Data analyses will be conducted on the pooled sample and stratified by the type of facility, participants, or country if required. Multi-level regression analysis will be considered to account for participants' data clustering in countries and facilities. RESULTS: The data collection is ongoing. The findings would guide policy-makers and healthcare organizations to reform their protocols for the best interest of facilities, staff, residents, and residents' families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Long-Term Care , Skilled Nursing Facilities
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