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3.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 36(11): 1947-1968, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879058

ABSTRACT

Although vaccination is widely accepted as an effective method of preventing and controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, many people are concerned about possible cutaneous side-effects, which can delay or prevent them from being vaccinated. The objectives of this systematic review were to assess the global prevalence and clinical manifestations of cutaneous adverse reactions following COVID-19 vaccination. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for articles published from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2021, and reference lists for each selected article were screened. Case reports, case series, observational studies and randomized controlled trials that provided information on cutaneous adverse reactions following COVID-19 vaccines were included. A total of 300 studies were included in a systematic review of which 32 studies with 946 366 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of cutaneous manifestations following COVID-19 vaccination was 3.8% (95% CI, 2.7%-5.3%). COVID-19 vaccines based on the mRNA platform had a higher prevalence than other platforms at 6.9% (95% CI, 3.8%-12.3%). Various cutaneous manifestations have been reported from injection site reactions, which were the most common (72.16%) to uncommon adverse reactions such as delayed inflammatory reactions to tissue filler (0.07%) and flares of pre-existing dermatoses (0.07%). Severe cutaneous reactions such as anaphylaxis have also been reported, but in rare cases (0.05%). In conclusion, cutaneous adverse reactions are common, especially in those receiving mRNA vaccines. Most reactions are mild and are not contraindications to subsequent vaccination except for anaphylaxis, which rarely occurs. COVID-19 vaccination may also be associated with flares of pre-existing dermatoses and delayed inflammatory reactions to tissue filler. Patients with a history of allergies, pre-existing skin conditions or scheduled for filler injections should receive additional precounselling and monitoring. A better understanding of potential side-effects may strengthen public confidence in those wary of new vaccine technologies.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Skin Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , RNA, Messenger , Skin Diseases/chemically induced , Skin Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines
6.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 86(1): 113-121, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous reactions after COVID-19 vaccination have been commonly reported; however, histopathologic features and clinical correlations have not been well characterized. METHODS: We evaluated for a history of skin biopsy all reports of reactions associated with COVID-19 vaccination identified in an international registry. When histopathology reports were available, we categorized them by reaction patterns. RESULTS: Of 803 vaccine reactions reported, 58 (7%) cases had biopsy reports available for review. The most common histopathologic reaction pattern was spongiotic dermatitis, which clinically ranged from robust papules with overlying crust, to pityriasis rosea-like eruptions, to pink papules with fine scale. We propose the acronym "V-REPP" (vaccine-related eruption of papules and plaques) for this spectrum. Other clinical patterns included bullous pemphigoid-like (n = 12), dermal hypersensitivity (n = 4), herpes zoster (n = 4), lichen planus-like (n = 4), pernio (n = 3), urticarial (n = 2), neutrophilic dermatosis (n = 2), leukocytoclastic vasculitis (n = 2), morbilliform (n = 2), delayed large local reactions (n = 2), erythromelalgia (n = 1), and other (n = 5). LIMITATIONS: Cases in which histopathology was available represented a minority of registry entries. Analysis of registry data cannot measure incidence. CONCLUSION: Clinical and histopathologic correlation allowed for categorization of cutaneous reactions to the COVID-19 vaccine. We propose defining a subset of vaccine-related eruption of papules and plaques, as well as 12 other patterns, following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Exanthema , Skin Diseases/chemically induced , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exanthema/chemically induced , Humans , Registries
7.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 63(1): e1-e3, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296012

ABSTRACT

The use of hand sanitisers is common practice to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the safety thereof requires consideration as this may be hazardous in children. Recent studies have shown that the misuse and increased unsupervised availability of alcohol-based hand sanitisers may result in adverse events in children such as skin irritation, dryness, cracking and peeling. Unintentional or intentional ingestion of hand sanitisers in children under the age of 12 years may occur because of the colour, smell and flavour added to it. Consumption of alcohol in children may result in hypoglycaemia, apnoea and acidosis. This allows the invasion of other bacterial and viral infections. Children may also rub their eyes with sanitised hands and cause ocular injury. Therefore, the use of hand sanitisers in general needs to be revised in both children and adults. Other interventions on lowering the risk of adverse events because of misuse of hand sanitiser should be practised more often. These include promoting washing of hands over sanitisers where possible, training children on how to use hand sanitisers and creating awareness of the dangers if ingested or in contact with the eyes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Hand Sanitizers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child Health , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Drug Misuse/adverse effects , Drug Misuse/prevention & control , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/prevention & control , Eye Diseases/chemically induced , Eye Diseases/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , Hand Sanitizers/toxicity , Humans , Risk Adjustment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Skin Diseases/chemically induced , Skin Diseases/prevention & control
10.
Dermatol Ther ; 34(1): e14662, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024189

ABSTRACT

Most of drugs could have certain mucocutaneous reactions and COVID-19 drugs are not an exception that we focused. We systematically reviewed databases until August 15, 2020 and among initial 851 articles, 30 articles entered this study (20 case reports, 4 cohorts, and 6 controlled clinical trials). The types of reactions included AGEP, morbiliform drug eruptions, vasculitis, DRESS syndrome, urticarial vasculitis, and so on. The treatments have been used before side effects occur, included: antimalarial, anti-viral, antibiotics, tocilizumab, enoxaparin and and so on. In pandemic, we found 0.004% to 4.15% of definite drug-induced mucocutaneous reactions. The interval between drug usage and the eruption varied about few hours to 1 month; tightly dependent to the type of drug and hydroxychloroqine seems to be the drug with highest mean interval. Antivirals, antimalarials, azithromycin, and tocilizumab are most responsive drugs for adverse drug reactions, but antivirals especially in combination with antimalarial drugs are in the first step. Types of skin reactions are usually morbilliform/exanthematous maculopapular rashes or urticarial eruptions, which mostly may manage by steroids during few days. In the setting of HCQ, specific reactions like AGEP should be considered. Lopinavir/ritonavir is the most prevalent used drug among antivirals with the highest skin adverse reaction; ribarivin and remdisivir also could induce cutaneous drug reactions but favipiravir has no or less adverse effects. Logically the rate of dermatologic adverse effects among anivirals may relate to their frequency of usage. Rarely, potentially life-threatening reactions may occur. Better management strategies could achieve by knowing more about drug-induced mucocutaneous presentations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Skin Diseases/chemically induced , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(4): e13476, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944657

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disease is a highly contagious and particularly popular problem in all countries. A variety of repurposed drugs and investigational drugs such as remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, lopinavir, interferon-beta, and other potential drugs have been studied for COVID19 treatment. We reviewed the potential dermatological side-effects of these drugs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Skin Diseases/chemically induced , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/epidemiology
12.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 59(1): 12-23, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-786943

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: While chloroquine, a derivative of quinine, has been used as an antimalarial for 70 years, hydroxychloroquine is now used to treat conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In 2020, hydroxychloroquine (and to a lesser extent chloroquine) also received attention as a possible treatment for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). During investigation for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2, concerns for serious adverse events arose. OBJECTIVE: We review the toxicity associated with hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine use both short-term and long-term and in overdose. METHODS: Medline (via OVID) was searched from its inception through June 7 2020 using the following as either MeSH or keyword terms: ("Chloroquine/" or "Hydroxychloroquine/") AND ("Adverse Drug Event/" or "Toxicities, Drug/" or "Toxic.mp." or "Toxicity.mp." or "Overdose.mp."). We limited resultant articles to those published in English and reporting on Human subjects. This search yielded 330 articles, of which 57 were included. Articles were excluded due to lack of relevance, not reporting desired outcomes, or being duplicative in their content. Twenty-five additional articles were identified through screening references of included articles. To identify toxicities in individuals treated with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with COVID-19, we searched PubMed on June 10th, 2020: ("Chloroquine" or "Hydroxychloroquine") AND ("Coronavirus" or "COVID-19" or "SARS-CoV-2"). This search resulted in 638 articles. We reviewed articles for reporting of adverse events or toxicities. Most citations were excluded because they did not include original investigations or extrapolated data from subjects that did not have COVID-19; 34 citations were relevant. For the drug-interactions section, relevant classes and agents were identified through a screen of the https://www.covid19-druginteractions.org/ website. We then conducted targeted searches of PubMed up to June 7th 2020 combining "chloroquine" and "hydroxychloroquine" with terms for specific drug classes and drugs identified from the drug-interaction site as potentially relevant. We found 29 relevant articles. TOXICITY WITH SHORT-TERM USE: Gastrointestinal: Gastrointestinal toxicities are the most common to occur following initiation of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea account for most reported intolerances. Glucose abnormalities: Alterations in blood glucose concentrations may occur with hydroxychloroquine but are rare with standard therapeutic use. Cardiotoxicity: Short-term use can produce conduction abnormalities. Evidence from COVID-19 treatment suggests QT/QTc prolongation is of concern, particularly when used in combination with azithromycin, although disagreement exists across studies. Dermatologic: Drug eruptions or rashes, followed by cutaneous hyperpigmentation, pruritis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, may occur within days to weeks of exposure but usually resolve with the discontinuation of therapy. Neuropsychiatric: Reported symptoms include confusion, disorientation, and hallucination within 24-48 h of drug initiation. Other toxicities: Hemolysis and anemia may occur in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Chloroquine treatment of COVID-19 was associated with elevation in creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB activities with more events in the higher-dose group. TOXICITY WITH LONG-TERM USE: Retinopathy: Retinopathy is the major dose-limiting toxicity associated with long-term use; the risk is higher with increasing age, dose, and duration of usage. Cardiotoxicity: Long-term use has been associated with conduction abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, and valvular disorders. Neurotoxicity: Rarely myositis and muscle weakness, extremity weakness, and pseudoparkinsonism have been reported. TOXICITY IN OVERDOSE: Symptoms in overdose manifest rapidly (minutes to hours) and cardiotoxicity such as cardiovascular shock and collapse are most prominent. Neurotoxic effects such as psychosis and seizure may also occur. CONCLUSIONS: Hydroxychloroquine is a generally well-tolerated medication. Short-term (days to weeks) toxicity includes gastrointestinal effects and rarely glucose abnormalities, dermatologic reactions, and neuropsychiatric events. Cardiotoxicity became of increased concern with its use in COVID-19 patients. Long-term (years) toxicities include retinopathy, neuromyotoxicity, and cardiotoxicity (conduction abnormalities, cardiomyopathy). Deaths from overdoses most often result from cardiovascular collapse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/toxicity , Drug Overdose/etiology , Hydroxychloroquine/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cardiotoxicity , Gastrointestinal Diseases/chemically induced , Humans , Psychoses, Substance-Induced/etiology , Retinal Diseases/chemically induced , Skin Diseases/chemically induced
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