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1.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 93, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID toes or chilblain-like skin lesions have been widely reported during COVID-19 pandemic. Most cases were described in patients with negative microbiological tests for SARS-CoV-2, therefore the possible relationship with SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as with the nowadays broadly available mRNA-based vaccination, has not been fully elucidated.  CASE PRESENTATION: We here describe the case of a 14-year-old male who developed chilblain-like skin eruptions during SARS-CoV-2 infection despite two mRNA-based vaccine doses and review the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of chilblain-like lesions as a cutaneous presentation of COVID-19 in children. CONCLUSIONS: Most children and adolescent with COVID toes have a mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our report aims to highlight the possible onset of these skin lesions in vaccinated children, if infection has occurred, and the potential use of systemic corticosteroids as a first line treatment. Additional evidence is required to better understand SARS-CoV-2 infection and cutaneous manifestations in children and determine the relationship between chilblain-like lesions and COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Skin Diseases , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Chilblains/diagnosis , Chilblains/etiology , Child , Humans , Male , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/complications
2.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 36(6): 790-796, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673165

ABSTRACT

Scalp dysesthesia is an abnormal sensation of the scalp in the absence of cutaneous disease. It is characterized by a burning and/or itching sensation and can be related to a variety of neurogenic or psychogenic causes. This condition is extremely bothersome and is also common- especially among the geriatric population, in women, in patients with diabetes mellitus, and patients with psychiatric history. However, despite its prevalence in many populations, there are limited data about its causes and characteristics. Given its limited cutaneous manifestations, it is also easily misdiagnosed and an underrecognized cause of scalp pruritus in the dermatological community. Therefore, education on scalp dysesthesia is paramount to helping physicians identify and provide appropriate treatment for these patients. This review focuses predominantly on the neurogenic causes (with a brief review of psychogenic itch) of scalp dysesthesia and the therapeutics that have been found to be effective for this condition. Neurogenic causes of scalp dysesthesia occur with damage to the central or peripheral pathways of itch sensation, resulting in modification and heightened sensitivity of nerves that result in abnormal sensations in the absence of or out of proportion to external stimuli. A comprehensive review of etiologies is provided here, ranging from lesions to the central nervous system caused by cervical spine disease, trigeminal trophic syndrome, tumor, stroke, and multiple sclerosis, to small-fiber neuropathies caused by diabetes, brow lifts, keloid, and burn scarring. Recently, there have also been reports of scalp dysesthesias associated with post-infectious COVID-19. Treatment options tailored toward disease severity and different causes of disease will also be discussed. By elucidating the different mechanisms and therapeutic treatments of scalp dysesthesia, we hope to provide clinicians with the tools to identify and treat this condition as well as encourage further research into its etiologies and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skin Diseases , Aged , Female , Humans , Paresthesia/etiology , Pruritus/etiology , Scalp , Skin Diseases/complications
6.
Drugs R D ; 21(3): 341-350, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261829

ABSTRACT

Large-scale vaccination strategies are currently being deployed against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-Cov-2). Whether systemic medication for skin diseases affects the efficacy of vaccination and whether temporary interruption or extension of the dosing interval is necessary is under debate. Most immunomodulating/immunosuppressive drugs only affect vaccine-induced immune responses to a limited or moderate extent, preserving sufficient immunity in most patients. Mycophenolate mofetil, Janus kinase inhibitors, and rituximab require a more cautious approach, and judicious timing of vaccination might be appropriate in patients receiving these treatments. It should be noted that, for most drugs except methotrexate, data on the length of the interruption period to restore vaccine-induced immune responses to normal levels are either very limited or absent. In these cases, only the drug half-life can be used as a practical guideline. In most patients, systemic medication can be continued through the vaccination process, although case-by-case decisions can be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Skin Diseases/complications , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , COVID-19 , Dermatologic Agents , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Skin Diseases/drug therapy
7.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 87(5): 603-610, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222345

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is implicated in the ongoing pandemic across the globe since December 2019. It was first notified by China from Wuhan on 31 December 2020 and transmission to healthcare workers was first reported on 20 January 2020. Human-to-human transmission is mainly by droplet infection. At present no effective vaccine is available. Our speciality needs to collectively address the urgent issue of risk of transmission in dermatology practice. A case series of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) from Wuhan described that 41.3% of their patients may have acquired the infection from the hospital. Of all the infected health care workers, 77.5% worked in general wards and departments. These data highlight the significant risk of nosocomial transmission of COVID-19 and also the higher risk in general wards and departments compared to the emergency room or intensive care unit. Dermatology patients are generally seen in clinics and in outpatient departments in hospitals. Patients wait together in the waiting area, intermingle and then are seen by the physician in their chamber. This can cause transmission of the pathogen among patients and from patient to physician. Social distancing, hand hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment are important for preventing the spread of infection and dermatology practices also have to incorporate these aspects. Telemedicine is becoming an important tool for the management of dermatology patients in these times. At-risk patients in dermatology also need to be given priority care. Protocols for the use of immunosuppressants and biologics in dermatology during the pandemic are being developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Dermatology/organization & administration , Skin Diseases/therapy , Ambulatory Care/methods , Ambulatory Care/organization & administration , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/transmission , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , India , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/complications , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Telemedicine/legislation & jurisprudence , Vaccination , Waiting Rooms
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 656362, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211814

ABSTRACT

Since March 2020, the outbreak of Sars-CoV-2 pandemic has changed medical practice and daily routine around the world. Huge efforts from pharmacological industries have led to the development of COVID-19 vaccines. In particular two mRNA vaccines, namely the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and the mRNA-1273 (Moderna), and a viral-vectored vaccine, i.e. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca), have recently been approved in Europe. Clinical trials on these vaccines have been published on the general population showing a high efficacy with minor adverse events. However, specific data about the efficacy and safety of these vaccines in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are still lacking. Moreover, the limited availability of these vaccines requires prioritizing some vulnerable categories of patients compared to others. In this position paper, we propose the point of view about the management of COVID-19 vaccination from Italian experts on IMIDs and the identification of high-risk groups according to the different diseases and their chronic therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune System Diseases/virology , Vaccination/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Europe , Expert Testimony , Glomerulonephritis/complications , Glomerulonephritis/immunology , Glomerulonephritis/virology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/virology , Lung Diseases/complications , Lung Diseases/immunology , Lung Diseases/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/virology , Skin Diseases/complications , Skin Diseases/immunology , Skin Diseases/virology , Uveitis/complications , Uveitis/immunology , Uveitis/virology
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066842

ABSTRACT

A previously healthy 40-year-old man was referred to our emergency department with pruritic skin lesions and dyspnoea. Laboratory investigation revealed hypereosinophilia. Further diagnostic work-up confirmed the diagnosis of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (iHES), a rare myeloproliferative disease with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. We describe a unique case with cardiac, pulmonary, hepatic and cutaneous involvement at time of presentation. This case accentuates the importance of an extensive multidisciplinary diagnostic work-up, since iHES is a condition with potential rapid progressive multiorgan failure which requires prompt analysis and treatment. In addition, this case emphasises the importance of being aware of tunnel vision, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, which might give rise to an increased risk of missing rare diagnoses. Our patient was treated with prednisolone, after which both his clinical condition and eosinophil concentrations markedly improved.


Subject(s)
Hypereosinophilic Syndrome/diagnosis , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome/pathology , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea/complications , Eosinophils/pathology , Humans , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome/complications , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome/drug therapy , Male , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/complications , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22288, 2020 09 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 has profoundly influenced people's lifestyles; these impacts have varied across subgroups of people. The pandemic-related impacts on the health outcomes of people with dermatological conditions are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to study the association of COVID-19 pandemic-related impacts with health-related quality of life in patients with skin diseases. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study among Chinese patients with skin diseases. A self-administered web-based questionnaire was distributed through social media. Demographic and clinical data and pandemic-related impacts (isolation status, income changes, and employment status) were collected. The main outcomes included perceived stress (Visual Analog Scale), symptoms of anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7) and depression (9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire), quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index), and health utility mapping based on the EQ-5D-3L descriptive system. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the associations. RESULTS: A total of 506 patients with skin diseases completed the survey. The mean age of the patients was 33.5 years (SD 14.0), and 217/506 patients (42.9%) were male. Among the 506 respondents, 128 (25.3%) were quarantined, 102 (20.2%) reported unemployment, and 317 (62.6%) reported decrease or loss of income since the pandemic. The pandemic-related impacts were significantly associated with impaired mental well-being and quality of life with different effects. Unemployment and complete loss of income were associated with the highest risks of adverse outcomes, with increases of 110% to 162% in the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and impaired quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Isolation, income loss, and unemployment are associated with impaired health-related quality of life in patients with skin diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quality of Life , Skin Diseases/complications , Unemployment/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Life Style , Logistic Models , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(6): 775-780, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-659114

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant uncertainty among physicians and patients about the safety of immunosuppressive medications used for the management of dermatologic conditions. We review available data on commonly used immunosuppressants and their effect on viral infections beyond COVID-19. Notably, the effect of some immunosuppressants on viruses related to SARS-CoV2, including SARS and MERS, has been previously investigated. In the absence of data on the effect of immunosuppressants on COVID-19, these data could be used to make clinical decisions on initiation and continuation of immunosuppressive medications during this pandemic. In summary, we recommend considering the discontinuation of oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors and prednisone; considering the delay of rituximab infusion; and suggesting the careful continuation of cyclosporine, mycophenolate, azathioprine, methotrexate, and biologics in patients currently benefitting from such treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Skin Diseases/complications
16.
Inflamm Res ; 69(8): 745-756, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-Cov-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus, a Betacoronavirus, composed of 16 non-structural proteins, with specific roles in replication of coronaviruses. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is not yet fully understood. The virus and host factors interplay among distinct outcomes of infected patients. METHODS: Using MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) in PubMed, authors searched for articles cotaining information on COVID-19 and the skin. RESULTS: The pathophysiology of the disease is multifactorial: association with innate immune response, hypercoagulability state, lung tissue damage, neurological and/or gastrointestinal tract involvement, monocytic/macrophage activation syndrome, culminating in exaggerated cytokine secretion, called "cytokine storm", which leads to worsening and death. These systemic conditions may be associated with cutaneous lesions, that have polymorphic aspects, where at histopathological level show involvement in different skin changes. These lesions may be associated with multisystemic manifestations that could occur due to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and transmembrane serine protease action, allowing the pulmonary infection and possibly skin manifestation. Several reports in literature show cutaneous lesions similar to chilblain, urticarial eruptions, diffuse or disseminated erythema, livedo racemosa, blue toe syndrome, retiform purpura, vesicle trunk, purpuric exanthema or exanthema with clinical aspects of symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) and others. CONCLUSIONS: This review describes the complexity of Covid-19, pathophysiological and clinical aspects, dermatological finding and other dermatological conditions associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Skin Diseases/complications , Skin Diseases/physiopathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Arterioles/pathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Capillaries/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Endothelium/pathology , Endothelium/virology , Humans , Immune System , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/virology , Treatment Outcome
20.
Australas J Dermatol ; 61(3): 210-216, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-208735

ABSTRACT

Patients on immunomodulators, including biologic agents and new small molecular inhibitors, for cutaneous disease, represent a potentially vulnerable population during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is currently insufficient evidence to determine whether patients on systemic immunomodulators are at increased risk of developing COVID-19 disease or more likely to have severe disease. As such, clinicians need to assess the benefit-to-risk ratio on a case-by-case basis. In patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 disease, all immunomodulators used for skin diseases should be immediately withheld, with the possible exception of systemic corticosteroid therapy, which needs to be weaned. In patients who develop symptoms or signs of an upper respiratory tract infection, but COVID-19 is not yet confirmed, consider dose reduction or temporarily cessation for 1-2 weeks. In otherwise well patients, immunomodulators and biologics should be continued. In all patients, and their immediate close contacts, the importance of preventative measures to minimise human-to-human transmission cannot be overemphasised.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Australia , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Humans , New Zealand , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/complications
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