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2.
Hautarzt ; 73(6): 434-441, 2022 Jun.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813630

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic disease induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that frequently presents with skin manifestations. The five most common skin lesions are pseudo-chilblain and maculopapular, urticarial, vesicular, and livedo/necrotizing skin lesions. These skin lesions are of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. For example, in children, typical skin lesions may indicate a life-threatening inflammatory syndrome, which rarely occurs after corona infection. Skin lesions have also been described after COVID-19 vaccination. These usually show an uncomplicated, self-limiting course and therefore do not represent a contraindication for completing the vaccination status in the vast majority of cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skin Diseases , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/etiology , Skin Diseases/pathology , Vaccination/adverse effects
3.
Hautarzt ; 73(4): 291-297, 2022 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The persistent global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can manifest on the skin in addition to the already known organ systems. Various clinical patterns of skin manifestations associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been described. In view of the associated morbidity and mortality, knowledge of cutaneous manifestations in the setting of COVID-19 may be helpful in early detection, risk stratification, diagnosis and treatment. Thus, we provide a summary of the various dermatologic findings associated with COVID-19, including clinical presentation, current pathophysiological concepts, and management, to support early diagnosis and treatment. GOAL: The current literature regarding skin lesions associated with COVID-19 and the most important aspects are analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed and Medline databases until February 28, 2021. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The classification of skin manifestations in the context of SARS-CoV­2 infection according to clinical dermatological patterns can help to identify patients with increased risk at an early stage and to treat them adequately to counteract a possibly more severe course of the disease as it occurs, e.g., in livedo. Thus, knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms can improve management of the disease and support possible countermeasures in coping with the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skin Diseases , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/pathology , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/etiology , Skin Diseases/therapy
4.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 89(3): 161-167, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726177

ABSTRACT

Cutaneous findings can be clues to diagnosis and infection severity in viral illnesses, including COVID-19. The authors provide an update on the diagnostic and prognostic value of the 5 most common cutaneous abnormalities associated with COVID-19 in adult patients: morbilliform rash, urticaria, vesicles, pseudo-chilblains, and vaso-occlusive lesions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , Skin Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Exanthema/pathology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/pathology , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/etiology
5.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 21(5): 1804-1808, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID pandemic has affected the human race both physically and mentally. Mask use remains the standard way of preventing the spread of this virus. The continuous mask use has led to the emergence of various dermatoses like acne, pigmentation, and seborrhea in mask contact areas. The present survey has been undertaken to describe the various dermatoses encountered in the medical fraternity especially doctors, who are frequently exposed to prolonged mask use. AIMS: To estimate the frequency of various cutaneous manifestations seen among doctors following mask use via web-based online questionnaire survey. METHODS: It was a cross-sectional web-based study conducted at a tertiary care teaching institute from June 2021 to August 2021. All the doctors of the hospital completing the questionnaire were included in the study with informed consent. RESULTS: A total of 178 participants completed the survey. The most common complaint was increased sweating (55.6%) followed by acne (34.3%) and oily skin (34.3%). Significant association was found between skin changes and duration (>6 h/day) of mask use, increasing number, and type of mask (N 95) used (p value <0.05). CONCLUSION: The knowledge of various mask-induced/aggravated dermatoses will help formulate proper precautionary protocols enhancing efficient mask usage for prolonged periods.


Subject(s)
Acne Vulgaris , COVID-19 , Physicians , Skin Diseases , Acne Vulgaris/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Internet , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/epidemiology , Skin Diseases/etiology , Tertiary Healthcare
8.
An Bras Dermatol ; 97(1): 75-88, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509458

ABSTRACT

This article will address the main aspects of skin manifestations associated with COVID-19, based on a review of the literature published to date. Since the beginning of the pandemic, more than 1,500 articles have been published on the subject. Regarding the pathophysiology, it is believed that the same mechanisms responsible for the disease in the main target organs also act in the skin, although they are not yet fully elucidated. The actual frequency of dermatological manifestations remains uncertain - it can range from 0.2% to 45%, being close to 6% in systematic reviews. Pioneering studies of large case series conducted in European countries and the USA provide the first information on the main skin manifestations associated with COVID-19 and propose classifications regarding their clinical presentation, pathophysiology, as well as their frequencies. Although there is yet no consensus, maculopapular eruptions are considered the most frequent presentations, followed by erythema pernio-like (EPL) lesions. Manifestations such as urticaria, vesicular conditions and livedo/purpura/necrosis are rare. The time of onset, severity, need for specific treatment and prognosis vary according to the clinical presentation pattern. The increasing histopathological description of skin conditions can contribute to the diagnosis, as well as to the understanding of the pathophysiology. Also, in the dermatological field, the relationship between COVID-19 and androgens has been increasingly studied. Despite all the generated knowledge, the actual biological meaning of skin manifestations remains uncertain. Therefore, the exclusion of the main differential diagnoses is essential for the correlation between skin manifestation and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skin Diseases , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/etiology , Systematic Reviews as Topic
9.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(2): 329-333, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491848

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) affects a small percentage of pediatric patients infected with COVID-19 and is characterized by fever, laboratory evidence of inflammation, multisystem involvement, and severe illness necessitating hospitalization. Skin findings are often present in these patients, and when initially compared with Kawasaki disease, they likely represent distinct phenomena and overall remain poorly characterized. In this retrospective review of 34 case reports and series, we identified cutaneous manifestations documented in 417 of 736 patients (57%) with MIS-C associated with COVID-19. "Rash" was the sole descriptor of skin findings in nearly half of patients. Case reports and smaller case series provided more detail, outlining a broad range of lesion morphologies (polymorphic, maculopapular, morbilliform, erythrodermic, urticarial, reticular, petechial, purpuric) in variable anatomic distribution. More thorough descriptions of dermatologic manifestations in patients with MIS-C are warranted to better characterize this syndrome, as they may lend important insight into pathogenic mechanisms of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Skin Diseases/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
10.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(2): 323-328, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491847

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a beta coronavirus with a characteristic S-glycoprotein spike on the cell surface. Initial reports did not include cutaneous manifestations as a feature of COVID-19; however, there is a growing repertoire of reports demonstrating an array of dermatologic manifestations on the skin in children and adults. Dermatologic afflictions have been summarized into different categories several times, with the most recent analysis identifying six clinical patterns: urticaria, maculopapular-morbilliform eruption, papulovesicular exanthem, chilblain-like acral pattern, livedo reticularis-livedo racemosa pattern, and purpuric vasculitic pattern. In children, the dermatologic features appear to occur before or concomitantly with other COVID-19 manifestations. Dermatologists play a key role in diagnosing patients with COVID-19 who may present for the first time unwittingly exhibiting early signs of COVID-19. We have reviewed the current evidence on the dermatologic impact of COVID-19 in both the adult and pediatric populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Skin Diseases/etiology , Adult , Child , Humans
11.
J Cutan Med Surg ; 26(2): 189-197, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477178

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) skin manifestations have been increasingly reported in medical literature. Recent discussions have identified a lack of images of skin of color (SOC) patients with COVID-19 related skin findings despite people with skin of color being disproportionately affected with the disease. There have been calls to prioritize the identification of COVID-19 skin manifestations in patients with SOC and disseminate these findings. The objective of this article is to review the existing literature on COVID-19 skin manifestations and, where possible, discuss how they may present differently in patients with SOC. Further research is needed to allow primary care physicians and dermatologists to be aware of and easily identify patients with cutaneous findings that may be secondary to COVID-19. Patients presenting with idiopathic dermatologic manifestations should be considered for COVID-19 testing and follow public health guidelines for self-isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skin Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/etiology , Skin Pigmentation
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5756-5767, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432444

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a significant health problem globally. The virus has spread widely and become a global pandemic. The pathophysiology for SARS-CoV-2 has not been explained clearly. It has been associated with several multiorgan symptoms, among which its dermatological manifestations are of great interest. Primarily, there has been no report of skin features among COVID-19 patients. Nevertheless, recently there have been several reports regarding COVID-19 patients who presented with cutaneous manifestations. In the current review, we focus on the various cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Skin Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dermatitis, Occupational/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/pathology , Dermatitis, Occupational/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Eruptions/diagnosis , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Drug Eruptions/pathology , Drug Eruptions/therapy , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/pathology , Skin Diseases/therapy
13.
An Bras Dermatol ; 96(6): 672-687, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415150

ABSTRACT

The skin, by reflecting internal processes, externalizes what happens inside the body in many diseases. Thus, the skin, as an organ, extrapolates its functions of protection, barrier and signals the existence of systemic diseases, expanding the importance of the dermatologist beyond the skin surface. Thus, the dermatologist investigates diagnostic hypotheses for conditions related to all systems and refers patients to the appropriate specialty. Combined with examination by a trained eye, the skin, due to its easy access, is still the ideal place for performing biopsies, which often clarify the diagnosis. This manuscript is the second part of the article on cutaneous manifestations of systemic diseases. In the first part, the cutaneous manifestations of the main rheumatologic and granulomatous diseases were described, and vascular manifestations were also addressed. In the present article, it will be discussed how metabolic, cardiovascular, kidney, and gastrointestinal diseases can manifest themselves in the integumentary system. Malignant diseases and their cutaneous implications, will also be discussed. Pruritus and its clinical cutaneous correspondence will be discussed. Finally, an update on cutaneous signs of SARS-CoV2 coronavirus infection will be presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skin Diseases , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/etiology
14.
An Bras Dermatol ; 96(6): 655-671, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415149

ABSTRACT

The skin demonstrates what is happening in the body in many diseases, as it reflects some internal processes on the surface. In this sense, skin as an organ, goes beyond its protective and barrier functions, as it provides clues for the identification of some systemic diseases. The dermatologist then raises diagnostic hypotheses for conditions related to all systems and refers them to the appropriate specialty. With easy access to examination by trained eyes and biopsies, the skin can present specific or non specific alterations on histopathology. In the first case this combination establishes the diagnosis of the disease itself. Non specific manifestations can occur in a variety of contexts and then histopathology is not specific of a particular disease. This article is divided into two parts that will cover large groups of diseases. In this first part, cutaneous manifestations of the main rheumatologic diseases are described, which are the ones with the greatest interface with dermatology. The authors also talk about vascular manifestations and granulomatous diseases. In the second part, endocrinological, hematological, oncological, cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal diseases, pruritus and its causes are discussed, and finally, the dermatological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection. The authors' intention is that, by using direct and easily accessible language, aim to provide practical material for consultation and improvement to all dermatologists who recognize the importance of a comprehensive assessment of their patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Collagen Diseases , Skin Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/etiology
15.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 68(2): 112-116, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395705

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the most frequent dermatological conditions observed in COVID-19 patients and to determine whether their presence could be used to establish an early diagnosis or to predict the progression of the infection. METHODS: There was a review in PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE of all the articles that had been published between January 1st and November 1st, 2020, with the search terms focused on "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19" and "Skin diseases". RESULTS: Eighty three studies met the inclusion criteria. Skin lesions have been reported in 0.2 % of the patients. The most frequently reported dermatoses were: maculopapular/ morbilliform rashes, urticaria and angioedema, chilblain-like acral pattern, and vesicular lesions. Among researchers, there are differences of opinion about a possible diagnostic or prognostic value of the skin diseases that are associated to the infection. CONCLUSIONS: It is advisable to consider the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients who call the doctor for skin lesions, urticaria, or angioedema, with or without other symptoms of the infection, especially if there is a previous history of recent exposure to other infected subjects.


Objetivos: Describir las afecciones dermatológicas más frecuentes en los pacientes con la COVID-19 y precisar si su presencia puede ser utilizada para establecer un diagnóstico temprano o para predecir la evolución de la infección. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión en PubMed/MEDLINE y EMBASE de todos los artículos publicados entre enero 1 y noviembre 1 de 2020, con los términos de la búsqueda centrados en "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19" y "Enfermedades cutáneas". Resultados: Cumplieron los criterios de inclusión 83 estudios. Lesiones de la piel han sido reportadas en 0.2 % de los pacientes. Las erupciones maculopapulares/morbiliformes, la urticaria y el angioedema, el patrón acral parecido a sabañones y las lesiones vesiculares fueron las dermatosis más frecuentemente informadas. Existen diferencias de opinión entre los investigadores, acerca de un posible valor diagnóstico o pronóstico de las afecciones cutáneas asociadas con la infección. Conclusiones: Es recomendable considerar el diagnóstico de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en pacientes que consultan por presentar lesiones cutáneas, urticaria o angioedema con o sin otros síntomas de la infección y en especial si existe algún antecedente de exposición reciente a otros sujetos infectados.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/etiology , Angioedema/etiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Urticaria/diagnosis , Urticaria/drug therapy , Urticaria/etiology
18.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 85(2): 301-310, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379127

ABSTRACT

The skin often provides initial clues of hypercoagulability with features such as livedo reticularis, livedo racemosa, retiform purpura, necrosis, and ulcerations. Because these cutaneous manifestations are nonspecific, laboratory testing is often needed to evaluate for underlying causes of hypercoagulability. Importantly, these disorders are reported to be the most common mimicker, resulting in an erroneous diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum. Understanding inherent properties of, and indications for, available tests is necessary for appropriate ordering and interpretation of results. Additionally, ordering of these tests in an indiscriminate manner may lead to inaccurate results, complicating the interpretation and approach to management. This second article in this continuing medical education series summarizes information on methodology, test characteristics, and limitations of several in vitro laboratory tests used for the work up of hypercoagulability and vasculopathic disease as it pertains to dermatologic disease.


Subject(s)
Skin Diseases/blood , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , Skin Diseases/etiology , Thrombophilia/complications
19.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 35(9): 1742-1743, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367331
20.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360720

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has completely disrupted the health systems of the entire planet. From the earliest months, it became increasingly clear that in addition to affecting the upper airways and lungs, there were other organs that could be affected. Among these, the skin became a real "sentinel signal" to be able to even suspect COVID-19. Background: this study deals with a little-explored issue for now: the study of skin immunopathology in SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects ascertained using the most reliable methods available. Methods: we used skin biopsy samples from SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients, studying morphology (Hematoxylin-Eosin), T lymphocyte population (CD4 and CD8), three markers such as HMGB-1, TIM-3 and HO-1 by immunohistochemistry. Results: although the presence of the CD4 and CD8 T population did not differ statistically significantly, we found greater activation and release of HMGB-1 in skin samples from SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, greater immunolabeling for TIM-3 at the level of CD4 and CD8 and a reduced expression of Heme oxygenase 1. Conclusions: these results support the possibility that there is immune deregulation in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients who develop skin manifestations of various kinds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/metabolism , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Skin Diseases/metabolism , Skin/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Skin/pathology , Skin Diseases/etiology , Skin Diseases/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
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