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3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(4): 504-507, 2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983835

ABSTRACT

A novel STING agonist, CDGSF, ipsilaterally modified with phosphorothioate and fluorine, was synthesized. The phosphorothioate in CDGSF might be a site for covalent conjugation. Injection of CDGSF generated an immunogenic ("hot") tumor microenvironment to suppress melanoma, more efficiently than dithio CDG. In particular, immunization with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein using CDGSF as an adjuvant elicited an exceptionally high antibody titer and a robust T cell response, overcoming the drawbacks of aluminum hydroxide. These results highlighted the therapeutic potential of CDGSF for cancer immunotherapy and the adjuvant potential of the STING agonist in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine for the first time.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Melanoma, Experimental/drug therapy , Membrane Proteins/agonists , Nucleotides, Cyclic/administration & dosage , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemical synthesis , Aluminum Hydroxide/administration & dosage , Aluminum Hydroxide/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Melanoma, Experimental/immunology , Melanoma, Experimental/mortality , Melanoma, Experimental/pathology , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Mice , Nucleotides, Cyclic/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Skin Neoplasms/immunology , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Survival Analysis , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Tumor Burden/drug effects , Tumor Microenvironment/drug effects , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology , Vaccination/methods
6.
Actas Dermosifiliogr (Engl Ed) ; 111(8): 629-638, 2020 Oct.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spain is in a situation of indefinite lockdown due to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. One of the consequences of this lockdown is delays in medical and surgical procedures for common diseases. The aim of this study was to model the impact on survival of tumor growth caused by such delays in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study. We constructed an exponential growth model for both SCC and melanoma to estimate tumor growth between patient-reported onset and surgical excision at different time points. RESULTS: Data from 200 patients with SCC of the head and neck and 1000 patients with cutaneous melanoma were included. An exponential growth curve was calculated for each tumor type and we estimated tumor size after 1, 2, and 3 months of potential surgical delay. The proportion of patients with T3 SCC (diameter >4cm or thickness >6 mm) increased from 41.5% (83 patients) in the initial study group to an estimated 58.5%, 70.5%, and 72% after 1, 2, and 3 months of delay. Disease-specific survival at 2, 5, and 10 years in patients whose surgery was delayed by 3 months decreased by 6.2%, 8.2%, and 5.2%, respectively. The proportion of patients with ultrathick melanoma (>6 mm) increased from 6.9% in the initial study group to 21.9%, 30.2%, and 30.2% at 1, 2, and 3 months. Five- and 10-year disease-specific survival both decreased by 14.4% in patients treated after a potential delay of 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of adequate diagnosis and treatment of SCC and melanoma in the current lockdown situation in Spain, we can expect to see to a considerable increase in large and thick SCCs and melanomas. Efforts must be taken to encourage self-examination and facilitate access to dermatologists in order to prevent further delays.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Melanoma/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Burden , Age Factors , Algorithms , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/mortality , Delayed Diagnosis/adverse effects , Delayed Diagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Female , Head and Neck Neoplasms/mortality , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Melanoma/mortality , Pandemics , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment
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