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1.
Clin Imaging ; 85: 78-82, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708841

ABSTRACT

Metastatic melanoma of the breast is rare, and demonstrates nonspecific imaging findings which may overlap with both benign and malignant pathology.1-3 Immunohistochemical stains are important to confirm the diagnosis, particularly combining S100, a sensitive marker for melanoma, with more specific tumor markers such as Melan-A and HMB-45, and lack of cytokeratin staining.4-7 We present a case of a 64-year-old female who presented for diagnostic imaging of a palpable abnormality in her right breast, with medical history notable for previously excised cutaneous melanoma, recent COVID-19 vaccination, and significant family history of breast cancer. Diagnostic mammogram of the right breast demonstrated a circumscribed mass in the lower inner quadrant corresponding to the area of palpable concern, as well as an additional non-palpable circumscribed mass in the lower inner quadrant. Targeted right breast ultrasound demonstrated corresponding circumscribed cystic versus solid masses as well as a morphologically abnormal right axillary lymph node. Pathologic results after tissue sampling of the two right breast masses and right axillary lymph node all yielded metastatic melanoma.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Melanoma , Skin Neoplasms , Axilla/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Melanoma/pathology , Middle Aged , Skin Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Skin Neoplasms/pathology
2.
Hautarzt ; 73(3): 212-215, 2022 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The advantages and disadvantages of the nationwide skin cancer screening which was introduced in 2008 are regularly discussed. OBJECTIVES: Do missed skin cancer screenings change the tumor depths? METHODS: Evaluation and analysis of office data from the second quarters of 2019, 2020 and 2021 were compared using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Welch's F test. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the tumor thickness in squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, while there was only a tendency due to the small amount of data available for malignant melanoma. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the analysis emphasize the importance of the skin cancer screening as a method of early detection and reduction of mutilating operations and expensive immunotherapies by the prompt detection of malignant tumors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Basal Cell , Dermatology , Skin Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/diagnosis , Dermatology/methods , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology
6.
Curr Probl Dermatol ; 55: 329-338, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541964

ABSTRACT

While UV radiation is a skin carcinogen, this should not obscure the growing evidence that sunlight has significant health benefits, including impacts on cardiovascular and metabolic health. Epidemiological and mechanistic evidences for the importance of different wavelengths of sunlight, including blue light and UV radiation, are presented.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Skin/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Vitamin D/biosynthesis , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/radiation effects , Risk Assessment , Skin/metabolism , Skin/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/etiology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control
7.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 85(6): 1395-1404, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525830

ABSTRACT

The majority of infantile hemangiomas (IH) can be managed conservatively, but for those requiring active treatment, management has been revolutionized in the last decade by the discovery of propranolol. Patients that may require active intervention should receive specialist review, ideally before 5 weeks of age to mitigate the risk of sequelae. Propranolol can commence for most infants in the outpatient setting and the most frequently employed dosing regimen is 1 mg/kg twice daily. In the future, ß-blockers with a more-selective mechanism of action, such as atenolol, show some promise. In recalcitrant lesions, systemic corticosteroids or sirolimus may be considered. For small, superficial IHs, topical timolol maleate or pulsed dye laser may be considered. Where the IH involutes with cutaneous sequelae, a range of interventions have been reported, including surgery, laser, and embolization. IHs have a well-described clinical trajectory and are readily diagnosed and managed via telemedicine. Algorithms have been constructed to stratify those patients who can be managed remotely from those who warrant in-person review during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Hemangioma, Capillary/drug therapy , Nevus/drug therapy , Propranolol/therapeutic use , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Hemangioma, Capillary/pathology , Humans , Infant , Nevus/pathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Timolol/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
8.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 47(3): 578-580, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450538

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic required people to confine themselves to their homes where possible, and disrupted normal hospital activities. We examine whether this lockdown generated changes in the size of the tumours. We compared the dimensions of the surgically removed malignant skin tumours from the first 150 patients treated after the confinement ended in Spain (22 May 2020) with those of the last 150 patients to receive such treatment before the confinement began (13 March 2020). Data on tumour surface area were collected from pathology reports. Overall, no significant difference was seen in the tumour sizes. However, among men, the tumours removed after confinement were significantly larger (P < 0.05). Controversy exists over how the reduction in the number of tumours diagnosed during lockdowns might have influenced the characteristics of tumours. In this study, no overall difference was seen in the size of the tumours removed, although those removed from men after confinement were larger.


Subject(s)
Quarantine , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Aged , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Female , Humans , Male , Melanoma/pathology , Melanoma/surgery , Pandemics
9.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 50(1): E37-E41, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449919

ABSTRACT

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, highly aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, associated with immunosuppression, UV light exposure, and the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Cases of metastatic MCC diagnosed in body fluid cytology are extremely rare; only five cases have been reported previously in the English literature. We present a case of a 65-year-old male with acute respiratory failure and an enlarged right pleural effusion. He had two hospitalizations for COVID-19 pneumonia 2 months prior, for which he received steroid treatment and tocilizumab. Emergent thoracentesis was done, with pleural fluid sent for cytologic evaluation. Both the Papanicolaou stained ThinPrep slide and cell block demonstrated clusters of predominantly small to medium sized blue round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, scant cytoplasm and fine chromatin, in a background of rare mesothelial cells, macrophages and numerous lymphocytes. Tumor cells were positive for CD56, chromogranin, synaptophysin, SAT2B, MCPyV, and CK20 in perinuclear dot like pattern, while negative for TTF-1 and CD45 immunostains. Ki67 proliferative index was approximately 40%. The patient had a history of MCC of the right ulnar forearm 4 years before the current presentation, which was unknown to us at the time of cytologic evaluation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the sixth case of metastatic MCC diagnosed by fluid cytology and the first reported in a patient receiving immunosuppressive treatment for COVID-19. Further reporting of such cases may increase awareness, especially when prior history is not readily available, such as in our case.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Merkel Cell , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Merkel Cell/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Merkel Cell/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Effusion, Malignant/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion, Malignant/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Neoplasms/pathology
10.
Eur J Cancer ; 154: 167-174, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316471

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the lives of people around the world. Fortunately, sufficient vaccines are now available. Local reactions with ipsilateral lymphadenopathy are among the most common side effects. We investigated the impact of lymphadenopathy after COVID-19 vaccination on the value of ultrasound in tumour patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with melanoma or Merkel cell carcinoma were included who underwent lymph node excision and received COVID-19 vaccination within 6 weeks before surgery. The consistency of the preoperative ultrasound findings with the histopathologic findings was investigated. RESULTS: Eight patients were included (two Merkel cell carcinoma and six melanoma patients) who underwent lymph node excision between 16th April 2021 and 19th May 2021 and had previously received COVID-19 vaccination. In three of the eight patients (one Merkel cell carcinoma and two melanoma patients), lymph node metastases were erroneously diagnosed preoperatively during tumour follow-up with physical examination, ultrasound, and or fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). In these three patients, the suspected lymph node metastases were located in the left axilla after COVID-19 vaccination in the left upper arm, which resulted in selective lymph node removal in two patients and complete lymphadenectomy in one patient. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine-associated lymphadenopathy is expected to be observed much more frequently in the near future because of increasing vaccination rates. This cause of lymphadenopathy, which may in ultrasound as well as in FDG PET/CT resemble lymph node metastases, must be considered, especially in oncologic patients undergoing tumour follow-up. In addition, COVID-19 vaccination should be given as far away as possible from an underlying primary on the contralateral side to avoid oncologic misdiagnosis followed by malpractice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carcinoma, Merkel Cell/secondary , Lymph Nodes/drug effects , Lymphadenopathy/chemically induced , Melanoma/secondary , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Female , Germany , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography
13.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 74(10): 2776-2820, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252517

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Axillary sentinel node biopsy for melanoma is routinely performed under general anaesthesia. Emerging evidence has shown general anaesthetics are associated with increased mortality in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the interest of patient safety, we have designed a series of bespoke axillary regional blocks enabling surgeons to remove nodes up to and including level III without the need for a general anaesthetic. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of performing axillary sentinel node biopsy under such blocks. METHODS: Approval was granted by the Joint Study Review Committee on behalf of the Research and Ethics Department. Ten consecutive patients having axillary sentinel node biopsy for melanoma were included in this prospective study. Patients completed a Quality of Recovery-15 (QoR15) questionnaire preoperatively and 24 h postoperatively. DISCUSSION: One patient had a positive sentinel node, the remining were negative. A significant reduction in time spent in hospital post-operatively (p = 0.0008) was observed. QoR15 patient reported outcome measures demonstrated high levels of satisfaction evidenced by lack of statistical difference between pre and post-operative scores (p = 0.0118). 80% of patients were happy to have a regional block and 90% were happy to attend hospital during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: ASNB under regional block is safe, negates risks associated with performing GAs during the COVID-19 pandemic and facilitates quicker theatre turnover and discharge from hospital. Collaboration between anaesthetic and surgical teams has enabled this change in practice. There is a learning curve with both patient selection, education and development of technique.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Melanoma/secondary , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/methods , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Axilla , Comorbidity , Global Health , Humans , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymphatic Metastasis , Melanoma/diagnosis , Melanoma/epidemiology , Pandemics , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(22)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232098

ABSTRACT

Comprehensive and accurate comparisons of transcriptomic distributions of cells from samples taken from two different biological states, such as healthy versus diseased individuals, are an emerging challenge in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis. Current methods for detecting differentially abundant (DA) subpopulations between samples rely heavily on initial clustering of all cells in both samples. Often, this clustering step is inadequate since the DA subpopulations may not align with a clear cluster structure, and important differences between the two biological states can be missed. Here, we introduce DA-seq, a targeted approach for identifying DA subpopulations not restricted to clusters. DA-seq is a multiscale method that quantifies a local DA measure for each cell, which is computed from its k nearest neighboring cells across a range of k values. Based on this measure, DA-seq delineates contiguous significant DA subpopulations in the transcriptomic space. We apply DA-seq to several scRNA-seq datasets and highlight its improved ability to detect differences between distinct phenotypes in severe versus mildly ill COVID-19 patients, melanomas subjected to immune checkpoint therapy comparing responders to nonresponders, embryonic development at two time points, and young versus aging brain tissue. DA-seq enabled us to detect differences between these phenotypes. Importantly, we find that DA-seq not only recovers the DA cell types as discovered in the original studies but also reveals additional DA subpopulations that were not described before. Analysis of these subpopulations yields biological insights that would otherwise be undetected using conventional computational approaches.


Subject(s)
Aging/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Lineage/genetics , Melanoma/genetics , RNA, Small Cytoplasmic/genetics , Skin Neoplasms/genetics , Aging/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , Brain/cytology , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Lineage/immunology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Datasets as Topic , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/virology , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Melanoma/immunology , Melanoma/pathology , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/virology , Phenotype , RNA, Small Cytoplasmic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Skin Neoplasms/immunology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Transcriptome
16.
Anticancer Drugs ; 32(5): 589-591, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082921

ABSTRACT

Encorafenib (Braftovi) is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma with a BRAF V600 mutation, in combination with binimetinib (Mektovi). According to the product label of encorafenib, there are no specific treatment recommendations in case of an overdose. We report on a 63-year-old man who ingested a double dose (900 mg) of encorafenib for 16 days. He developed overall minor chronic overdose symptoms such as nausea and vomiting grade 1 and muscle pain. Based on the most occurring adverse events of encorafenib, liver values, kidney function parameters and QTc interval were measured. Kidney function parameters were normal, whereas liver values were slightly increased (grade 1) and QTc slightly prolonged. The plasma concentration 3 h after the last dose was 2110 ng/mL. We describe the course of a case with a chronic overdose during 16 days of the double dose of encorafenib as well as the followed approach, which could be taken into account when observing an encorafenib overdose. Providing information in times of Covid-19 is challenging, but remains necessary for good clinical care.


Subject(s)
Carbamates , Drug Overdose , Liver Function Tests/methods , Long QT Syndrome , Medication Therapy Management/standards , Melanoma , Skin Neoplasms , Sulfonamides , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/blood , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles/administration & dosage , Benzimidazoles/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbamates/administration & dosage , Carbamates/adverse effects , Carbamates/blood , Communicable Disease Control , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Monitoring/methods , Drug Overdose/blood , Drug Overdose/diagnosis , Drug Overdose/etiology , Drug Overdose/physiopathology , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Male , Melanoma/drug therapy , Melanoma/genetics , Melanoma/pathology , Middle Aged , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/antagonists & inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Skin Neoplasms/genetics , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Sulfonamides/blood , Vomiting/chemically induced , Vomiting/diagnosis
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