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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847342

ABSTRACT

Elucidating transcriptome in the peripheral edge of the lesional (PE) skin could provide a better understanding of the molecules or signalings that intensify inflammation in the PE skin. Full-thickness biopsies of PE skin and uninvolved (UN) skin were obtained from psoriasis patients for RNA-seq. Several potential differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the PE skin compared to those in the UN skin were identified. These DEGs enhanced functions such as angiogenesis, growth of epithelial tissue, chemotaxis and homing of cells, growth of connective tissues, and degranulation of myeloid cells beneath the PE skin. Moreover, the canonical pathways of IL-17A, IL-6, and IL-22 signaling were enriched by the DEGs. Finally, we proposed that inflammation in the PE skin might be driven by the IL-36/TLR9 axis or IL-6/Th17 axis and potentiated by IL-36α, IL-36γ, IL-17C, IL-8, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, S100A15, SERPINB4, and hBD-2. Along with IL-36α, IL-17C, and IκBζ, ROCK2 could be an equally important factor in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, which may involve self-sustaining circuits between innate and adaptive immune responses via regulation of IL-36α and IL-36γ expression. Our finding provides new insight into signaling pathways in PE skin, which could lead to the discovery of new psoriasis targets.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling , Psoriasis , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Keratinocytes/metabolism , Psoriasis/genetics , Psoriasis/metabolism , Skin/metabolism , Transcriptome
2.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 42(2): 49-61, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692282

ABSTRACT

The interleukin (IL)-1 superfamily of cytokines comprises 11 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which play essential roles during the immune response. Several pathogenic pathways are initiated by IL-1RL2 (interleukin 1 receptor-like 2) signaling, also known as IL-36R, in the skin, lungs, and gut. IL-36 cytokines promote the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, upregulation of antimicrobial peptides, proliferation mediators, and adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. In addition, the IL-36-IL-1RL2 axis has an essential role against viral infections, including a potential role in COVID-19 pathology. The evidence presented in this review highlights the importance of the axis IL-36-IL-1RL2 in the development of several inflammation-related diseases and the healing process. It suggests that IL-1RL2 ligands have specific roles depending on the tissue or cell source. However, there is still much to discover about this cytokine family, their functions in other organs, and how they accomplish a dual effect in inflammation and healing.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/physiopathology , Receptors, Interleukin-1/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Cytokines/physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interleukin-1/physiology , Interleukins/classification , Intestines/metabolism , Intestines/pathology , Ligands , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protein Domains , Receptors, Interleukin/classification , Receptors, Interleukin-1/agonists , Receptors, Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-1/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Skin/metabolism , Skin/pathology
3.
Nature ; 603(7899): 145-151, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631700

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, which is caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, is characterized by lung pathology and extrapulmonary complications1,2. Type I interferons (IFNs) have an essential role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 (refs 3-5). Although rapid induction of type I IFNs limits virus propagation, a sustained increase in the levels of type I IFNs in the late phase of the infection is associated with aberrant inflammation and poor clinical outcome5-17. Here we show that the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway, which controls immunity to cytosolic DNA, is a critical driver of aberrant type I IFN responses in COVID-19 (ref. 18). Profiling COVID-19 skin manifestations, we uncover a STING-dependent type I IFN signature that is primarily mediated by macrophages adjacent to areas of endothelial cell damage. Moreover, cGAS-STING activity was detected in lung samples from patients with COVID-19 with prominent tissue destruction, and was associated with type I IFN responses. A lung-on-chip model revealed that, in addition to macrophages, infection with SARS-CoV-2 activates cGAS-STING signalling in endothelial cells through mitochondrial DNA release, which leads to cell death and type I IFN production. In mice, pharmacological inhibition of STING reduces severe lung inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2 and improves disease outcome. Collectively, our study establishes a mechanistic basis of pathological type I IFN responses in COVID-19 and reveals a principle for the development of host-directed therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , DNA, Mitochondrial/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Progression , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macrophages/immunology , Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/metabolism , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Skin/immunology , Skin/metabolism , Skin/pathology
4.
Curr Probl Dermatol ; 55: 329-338, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541964

ABSTRACT

While UV radiation is a skin carcinogen, this should not obscure the growing evidence that sunlight has significant health benefits, including impacts on cardiovascular and metabolic health. Epidemiological and mechanistic evidences for the importance of different wavelengths of sunlight, including blue light and UV radiation, are presented.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Skin/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Vitamin D/biosynthesis , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/radiation effects , Risk Assessment , Skin/metabolism , Skin/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/etiology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(45)2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475573

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other pathogens with pandemic potential requires safe, protective, inexpensive, and easily accessible vaccines that can be developed and manufactured rapidly at a large scale. DNA vaccines can achieve these criteria, but induction of strong immune responses has often required bulky, expensive electroporation devices. Here, we report an ultra-low-cost (<1 USD), handheld (<50 g) electroporation system utilizing a microneedle electrode array ("ePatch") for DNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The low cost and small size are achieved by combining a thumb-operated piezoelectric pulser derived from a common household stove lighter that emits microsecond, bipolar, oscillatory electric pulses and a microneedle electrode array that targets delivery of high electric field strength pulses to the skin's epidermis. Antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 induced by this electroporation system in mice were strong and enabled at least 10-fold dose sparing compared to conventional intramuscular or intradermal injection of the DNA vaccine. Vaccination was well tolerated with mild, transient effects on the skin. This ePatch system is easily portable, without any battery or other power source supply, offering an attractive, inexpensive approach for rapid and accessible DNA vaccination to combat COVID-19, as well as other epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Electroporation/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Costs and Cost Analysis , Electroporation/economics , Electroporation/methods , Equipment Design , Female , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microelectrodes , Needles , Pandemics/prevention & control , Proof of Concept Study , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Skin/immunology , Skin/metabolism , Transfection , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/instrumentation , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology
6.
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev ; 24(7): 325-336, 2021 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455046

ABSTRACT

Water-only or soap and water solutions are considered a gold standard for skin decontamination. However, there is lack of conclusive data regarding their efficacy. The aim of this study was to summarize in vivo animal model data on skin decontamination using water-only, and/or soap and water. Covidence, Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched to identify relevant articles using water-only or soap and water decontamination methods in in vivo animals. Data extraction was completed from studies, representing three animal models, and 11 contaminants. Results demonstrated water-only decontamination solutions led to complete decontamination in 3.1% (n = 16/524) protocols, incomplete decontamination in 90.6% (n = 475/524) of protocols, and mortality in 6.3% (n = 33/524) of protocols. Soap and water decontamination solutions resulted in complete decontamination in 6.9% (n = 8/116) protocols, incomplete decontamination in 92.2% (n = 107/116) of protocols, and mortality in 6.9% (n = 8/116) of protocols. Although water only, or soap and water is considered a gold standard for skin decontamination, most papers investigated found that water only, and soap and water provided incomplete decontamination. Due to the insufficient data, and limitations that hinder the applicability of available data, evidence indicates that more contemporary studies investigating skin decontamination are needed, and compared to other model species, including humans, when practical.


Subject(s)
Decontamination/methods , Skin/metabolism , Soaps/chemistry , Animals , Humans , Models, Animal , Skin/chemistry , Species Specificity , Water/chemistry
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19817, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454815

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have focused their attention on conjunctivitis as one of the symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, tear samples were taken from COVID-19 patients and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was evidenced using Real Time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The main aim of this study was to analyze mRNA expression in the tears of patients with COVID-19 compared with healthy subjects using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). The functional evaluation of the transcriptome highlighted 25 genes that differ statistically between healthy individuals and patients affected by COVID-19. In particular, the NGS analysis identified the presence of several genes involved in B cell signaling and keratinization. In particular, the genes involved in B cell signaling were downregulated in the tears of COVID-19 patients, while those involved in keratinization were upregulated. The results indicated that SARS-CoV-2 may induce a process of ocular keratinization and a defective B cell response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Eye Diseases/virology , Tears/metabolism , Transcriptome , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Eye Diseases/genetics , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Keratins/metabolism , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Skin/metabolism , Skin/pathology , Skin/virology , Tears/virology
9.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360720

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has completely disrupted the health systems of the entire planet. From the earliest months, it became increasingly clear that in addition to affecting the upper airways and lungs, there were other organs that could be affected. Among these, the skin became a real "sentinel signal" to be able to even suspect COVID-19. Background: this study deals with a little-explored issue for now: the study of skin immunopathology in SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects ascertained using the most reliable methods available. Methods: we used skin biopsy samples from SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients, studying morphology (Hematoxylin-Eosin), T lymphocyte population (CD4 and CD8), three markers such as HMGB-1, TIM-3 and HO-1 by immunohistochemistry. Results: although the presence of the CD4 and CD8 T population did not differ statistically significantly, we found greater activation and release of HMGB-1 in skin samples from SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, greater immunolabeling for TIM-3 at the level of CD4 and CD8 and a reduced expression of Heme oxygenase 1. Conclusions: these results support the possibility that there is immune deregulation in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients who develop skin manifestations of various kinds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/metabolism , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Skin Diseases/metabolism , Skin/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Skin/pathology , Skin Diseases/etiology , Skin Diseases/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
10.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 179: 113919, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347010

ABSTRACT

Vaccine administration by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection is the most commonly prescribed route for inoculation, however, it is often associated with some deficiencies such as low compliance, high professionalism, and risk of infection. Therefore, the application of microneedles for vaccine delivery has gained widespread interests in the past few years due to its high compliance, minimal invasiveness, and convenience. This review focuses on recent advances in the development and application of microneedles for vaccination based on different delivery strategies, and introduces the current status of microneedle-mediated vaccination in clinical translation. The prospects for its application including opportunities and challenges are further discussed.


Subject(s)
Needles , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Nanoparticles , Skin/metabolism
11.
Biomolecules ; 10(10)2020 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295752

ABSTRACT

Acute and chronic skin wounds due to burns, pressure injuries, and trauma represent a substantial challenge to healthcare delivery with particular impacts on geriatric, paraplegic, and quadriplegic demographics worldwide. Nevertheless, the current standard of care relies extensively on preventive measures to mitigate pressure injury, surgical debridement, skin flap procedures, and negative pressure wound vacuum measures. This article highlights the potential of adipose-, blood-, and cellulose-derived products (cells, decellularized matrices and scaffolds, and exosome and secretome factors) as a means to address this unmet medical need. The current status of this research area is evaluated and discussed in the context of promising avenues for future discovery.


Subject(s)
Burns/therapy , Exosomes/transplantation , Hydrogels/therapeutic use , Wound Healing/genetics , Burns/pathology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/trends , Cellulose/therapeutic use , Exosomes/genetics , Humans , Hydrogels/chemistry , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/trends , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Skin/growth & development , Skin/injuries , Skin/metabolism
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5595016, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a pandemic disease worldwide. Although cutaneous manifestations may present in affected patients, there have been limited studies on the cutaneous findings and hair and nail abnormalities after discharge. OBJECTIVE: To establish the cutaneous manifestations, hair and scalp disorders, and nail abnormalities in patients who recovered from COVID-19 infections. METHODS: A retrospective chart review and telephone interviews were conducted to determine the cutaneous manifestations, hair and scalp disorders, and nail abnormalities of patients aged over 18 years who were diagnosed with COVID-19 infections at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, between January and June 2020. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients with prior COVID-19 infections participated in the study. The COVID-19 severity had been mild for most (71%). Cutaneous manifestations were reported in 8 patients (8.6%), with the common skin conditions being maculopapular rash and urticaria. The onsets of the skin conditions were before admission (1%), during admission (4.3%), and after discharge (3.2%). Increased hair shedding was also reported in 22 patients (23.7%), with a female predominance. Three patients were affected during admission, while the others were affected after discharge. The patients with moderate, severe, and critical COVID-19 infections experienced significantly more hair shedding than those with asymptomatic and mild diseases. Only 2 patients with mild COVID-19 disease reported nail abnormalities (chromonychia and brittle nails). CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous manifestations, hair disorders, and nail abnormalities can occur in patients with COVID-19 after their discharge from hospital. Patients should therefore be followed up in anticipation of dermatological problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hair Diseases , Nail Diseases , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hair/metabolism , Hair/virology , Hair Diseases/epidemiology , Hair Diseases/metabolism , Hair Diseases/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nail Diseases/epidemiology , Nail Diseases/metabolism , Nail Diseases/virology , Nails/metabolism , Nails/virology , Skin/metabolism , Skin/virology
13.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 20(1): 183-188, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103608

ABSTRACT

A hypothesis is proposed to explain the increased detrimental effect of COVID-19 for Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) men and women compared to Caucasian individuals. This is based on the differing photochemistry of phaeomelanin in fair skin and eumelanin in dark/black skin. It is suggested that a range of reactive oxygen species, including, singlet oxygen and the superoxide radical anion, derived via direct photolysis of phaeomelanin, may escape the melanocyte and cause subsequent damage to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It is further suggested that (large) carbon and sulphur peroxy radicals, from oxygen addition to radicals formed by carbon-sulphur bond cleavage, may assist via damage to the cell membranes. It is also speculated that light absorption by phaeomelanin and the subsequent C-S bond cleavage, leads to release of pre-absorbed reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen and free radicals, which may also contribute to an enhanced protective effect for fair-skinned people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Photochemical Processes , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/virology , Carbon/chemistry , Female , Free Radicals/chemistry , Humans , Light , Male , Melanins/chemistry , Photolysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Singlet Oxygen/chemistry , Singlet Oxygen/metabolism , Skin/metabolism , Sulfur/chemistry , Superoxides/chemistry , Superoxides/metabolism
14.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 171: 164-186, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062195

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a serious threat to global health and the global economy. The ongoing race to develop a safe and efficacious vaccine to prevent infection by SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent for COVID-19, highlights the importance of vaccination to combat infectious pathogens. The highly accessible cutaneous microenvironment is an ideal target for vaccination since the skin harbors a high density of antigen-presenting cells and immune accessory cells with broad innate immune functions. Microarray patches (MAPs) are an attractive intracutaneous biocargo delivery system that enables safe, reproducible, and controlled administration of vaccine components (antigens, with or without adjuvants) to defined skin microenvironments. This review describes the structure of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and relevant antigenic targets for vaccination, summarizes key concepts of skin immunobiology in the context of prophylactic immunization, and presents an overview of MAP-mediated cutaneous vaccine delivery. Concluding remarks on MAP-based skin immunization are provided to contribute to the rational development of safe and effective MAP-delivered vaccines against emerging infectious diseases, including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Development/trends , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Skin/immunology , Transdermal Patch/trends , Administration, Cutaneous , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , Drug Development/methods , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Skin/drug effects , Skin/metabolism
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(3): 857-869.e7, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is commonly associated with skin manifestations, and may also exacerbate existing skin diseases, yet the relationship between COVID-19 and skin diseases remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: By investigating this relationship through a multiomics approach, we sought to ascertain whether patients with skin conditions are more susceptible to COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted an epidemiological study and then compared gene expression across 9 different inflammatory skin conditions and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-infected bronchial epithelial cell lines, and then performed a genome-wide association study transdisease meta-analysis between COVID-19 susceptibility and 2 skin diseases (psoriasis and atopic dermatitis). RESULTS: Skin conditions, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, increase the risk of COVID-19 (odds ratio, 1.55; P = 1.4 × 10-9) but decrease the risk of mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 0.22; P = 8.5 × 10-5). We observed significant overlap in gene expression between the infected normal bronchial epithelial cells and inflammatory skin diseases, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. For genes that are commonly induced in both the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and skin diseases, there are 4 S100 family members located in the epidermal differentiation complex, and we also identified the "IL-17 signaling pathway" (P = 4.9 × 10-77) as one of the most significantly enriched pathways. Furthermore, a shared genome-wide significant locus in the epidermal differentiation complex was identified between psoriasis and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, with the lead marker being a significant expression quantitative trait locus for S100A12 (P = 3.3 × 10-7). CONCLUSIONS: Together our findings suggest association between inflammatory skin conditions and higher risk of COVID-19, but with less severe course, and highlight shared components involved in anti-COVID-19 immune response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Atopic , Gene Expression Regulation , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Psoriasis , Quantitative Trait Loci , S100A12 Protein , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Atopic/genetics , Dermatitis, Atopic/metabolism , Female , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genomics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psoriasis/epidemiology , Psoriasis/genetics , Psoriasis/metabolism , Risk Factors , S100A12 Protein/biosynthesis , S100A12 Protein/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Skin/metabolism , Skin/virology
16.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 34(1): 31-35, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor is a critical step for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to enter target cells. This enzyme is expressed in many human tissues including the lungs, but no research has demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 can infect human skin or subcutaneous fat tissue, despite the increasing number of reported skin manifestations. The aim of this study was to investigate ACE2 gene expression in skin using a public database. METHODS: A search of transcriptomic data sets from a public gene expression database to investigate ACE2 gene expression in human tissues. RESULTS: Human skin keratinocytes and basal cells express more ACE2 than lung epithelial cells. In contrast, both fibroblasts and melanocytes from human skin express less ACE2 than human lung epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: The high expression of ACE2 in keratinocytes and basal cells of human skin indicates that they may be directly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection via the ACE2 receptor, especially in conditions of skin barrier dysfunction, and are therefore a potential target for the coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Gene Expression , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Skin/pathology
17.
Exp Dermatol ; 29(9): 902-909, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944711

ABSTRACT

Hypertrophic scar and keloid are two types of fibroproliferative conditions that result from excessive extracellular matrix production. The underlying pathological mechanism is not entirely clear. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with fibrosis in various organs. RAS components including angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptors, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) are expressed in the skin and act independently from the plasma RAS. AT1 receptors, which are usually the dominating receptor subtype, promote fibrosis and scar formation, while AT2 receptors inhibit the aforementioned AT1 receptor-coupled effects. Elevated angiotensin II (Ang II) levels acting on the AT1 receptor contribute to skin scar formation through increased expression of inflammatory factors such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibrinogenic factors such as transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), while at the same time suppressing the anti-fibrotic tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMPs). First, small clinical trials have provided evidence that inhibition of the ACE/Ang II/ AT1 receptor axis may be effective in the treatment of hypertrophic scars/keloids. This review provides a detailed overview of the current literature on the RAS in skin, wound healing and scar formation and discusses the translational potential of targeting this hormonal system for treatment and prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids.


Subject(s)
Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/etiology , Keloid/etiology , Renin-Angiotensin System , Skin/metabolism , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Animals , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/drug therapy , Fibrosis , Humans , Keloid/drug therapy , Skin/pathology , Wound Healing
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831006

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is a steroid hormone classically involved in the calcium metabolism and bone homeostasis. Recently, new and interesting aspects of vitamin D metabolism has been elucidated, namely the special role of the skin, the metabolic control of liver hydroxylase CYP2R1, the specificity of 1α-hydroxylase in different tissues and cell types and the genomic, non-genomic and epigenomic effects of vitamin D receptor, which will be addressed in the present review. Moreover, in the last decades, several extraskeletal effects which can be attributed to vitamin D have been shown. These beneficial effects will be here summarized, focusing on the immune system and cardiovascular system.


Subject(s)
Vitamin D/metabolism , 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase/metabolism , Animals , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Calcitriol/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Cytochrome P450 Family 2/metabolism , Homeostasis , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism , Receptors, Calcitriol/metabolism , Skin/metabolism , Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase/metabolism
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