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1.
Sleep Med ; 91: 253-261, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292257

ABSTRACT

This chapter summarizes the known associations between COVID-19 and sleep dysfunction, including insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, restless legs syndrome and nightmares, and touches upon pandemic-related considerations for obstructive sleep apnea and continuous positive airway pressure treatment. Treatment strategies and management approaches are also briefly discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Sleep Wake Disorders , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence/therapy , Humans , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/therapy
2.
Respirology ; 28(6): 518-524, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274595

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 AND SLEEP: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with an increase in insomnia and impaired sleep quality Health care workers are particularly susceptible and improved with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) Long COVID has significant effects on sleep OSA impacts on the severity of acute COVID-19 illness OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNOEA: Large trials of clinically representative patients confirm the cardiovascular benefits of CPAP treatment in OSA CPAP may improve long-term cognitive outcomes in OSA, but further research is needed Racial disparities in OSA prevalence and mortality risk are becoming evident Periodic evaluation of OSA risk in pregnancy is important as timing may be key for intervention to prevent or treat cardiovascular risk factors INSOMNIA: Comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnoea (COMISA) can frequently co-exist and the combined negative effects of both may be deleterious, particularly to cardiovascular health There is evidence for effectiveness with novel orexin receptor antagonists.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Pandemics , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sleep , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy
3.
Obes Surg ; 33(3): 807-812, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266722

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Same-day discharge after bariatric surgery is increasingly being performed. In current practice, patients with only minor comorbidities are considered eligible for same-day discharge after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common comorbidity in patients with morbid obesity, with a prevalence of around 70-80% among patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the current gold standard treatment for OSA. We aimed to investigate whether same-day discharge after RYGB is feasible for patients with compliant use of CPAP. METHODS: In this single-center prospective feasibility study, patients were selected who were scheduled for RYGB and were adequately treated for OSA. Compliance on the use of CPAP had to be proved (> 4 h per night for 14 consecutive nights). There were strict criteria on approval upon same-day discharge. The primary outcome was the rate of successful same-day discharge. Secondary outcomes included short-term complications, emergency department presentations, readmissions, and mortality. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients underwent RYGB with intended same-day discharge, of whom 45 (92%) were successfully discharged. Three patients had an overnight stay because of divergent vital signs and one patient due to a delayed start of the surgery. Two patients (4%) were readmitted in the first 48 h postoperatively, both due to intraluminal bleeding which was managed conservatively (Clavien-Dindo 2). There were no severe complications in the first 48 h after surgery. CONCLUSION: Same-day discharge after RYGB can be considered feasible for selected patients with well-regulated OSA.


Subject(s)
Gastric Bypass , Laparoscopy , Obesity, Morbid , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Humans , Gastric Bypass/adverse effects , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , Feasibility Studies , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/surgery , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Clin Periodontol ; 50(6): 842-887, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2192725

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate (1) whether periodontitis has an influence on the prevalence/incidence of respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], asthma, community-acquired pneumonia [CAP], obstructive sleep apnoea [OSA] and COVID-19), and (2) what is the impact of periodontal therapy on the onset or progression of respiratory diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic search was performed on Pubmed, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases up to October 2021, to identify studies answering the PECOS and PICOS questions. RESULTS: Seventy-five articles were selected. Meta-analyses identified statistically significant associations of periodontitis with COPD (nstudies  = 12, odds ratio [OR] = 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.16; 1.42], p < .001), and OSA (ns  = 6, OR = 1.65, 95% CI [1.21; 2.25], p = .001), but not for asthma (ns  = 9, OR = 1.53, 95% CI [0.82; 2.86], p = .181). For acute conditions, two studies were found for CAP, while for COVID-19, significant associations were found for the need of assisted ventilation (ns  = 2, OR = 6.24, 95% CI [2.78; 13.99], p < .001) and COVID-related mortality (ns  = 3, OR = 2.26, 95% CI [1.36, 3.77], p = .002). Only four intervention studies were found, showing positive effects of periodontal treatment on COPD, asthma and CAP. CONCLUSIONS: A positive association between periodontitis and COPD, OSA and COVID-19 complications has been found, while there is a lack of intervention studies.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Periodontitis , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Asthma/complications , Asthma/epidemiology , Periodontitis/complications , Periodontitis/epidemiology , Periodontitis/therapy , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy
5.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280376, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological manifestations in patients with COVID-19 have been reported previously as outcomes of the infection. The purpose of current study was to investigate the occurrence of neurological signs and symptoms in COVID-19 patients, in the county of Östergötland in southeastern Sweden. METHODS: This is a retrospective, observational cohort study. Data were collected between March 2020 and June 2020. Information was extracted from medical records by a trained research assistant and physician and all data were validated by a senior neurologist. RESULTS: Seventy-four percent of patients developed at least one neurological symptom during the acute phase of the infection. Headache (43%) was the most common neurological symptom, followed by anosmia and/or ageusia (33%), confusion (28%), hallucinations (17%), dizziness (16%), sleep disorders in terms of insomnia and OSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apnea) (9%), myopathy and neuropathy (8%) and numbness and tingling (5%). Patients treated in the ICU had a higher male presentation (73%). Several risk factors in terms of co-morbidities, were identified. Hypertension (54.5%), depression and anxiety (51%), sleep disorders in terms of insomnia and OSAS (30%), cardiovascular morbidity (28%), autoimmune diseases (25%), chronic lung diseases (24%) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (23%) founded as possible risk factors. CONCLUSION: Neurological symptoms were found in the vast majority (74%) of the patients. Accordingly, attention to neurological, mental and sleep disturbances is warranted with involvement of neurological expertise, in order to avoid further complications and long-term neurological effect of COVID-19. Furthermore, risk factors for more severe COVID-19, in terms of possible co-morbidities that identified in this study should get appropriate attention to optimizing treatment strategies in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/complications , Sweden/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications
6.
Am J Cardiol ; 191: 8-13, 2023 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165046

ABSTRACT

Untreated sleep disorders form a risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Access to polysomnography is limited, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, with home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) being a potentially viable alternative. We describe an HSAT protocol in patients with advanced heart failure (HF). In a single-center, observational analysis between 2019 and 2021 in patients with advanced HF and heart transplant (HT), 135 screened positive on the STOP-Bang sleep survey and underwent a validated HSAT (WatchPAT, ZOLL-Itamar). HSAT was successful in 123 patients (97.6%), of whom 112 (91.1%; 84 HF and 28 HT) tested positive for sleep apnea. A total of 91% of sleep apnea cases were obstructive, and 63% were moderate to severe. Multivariable linear regression showed that the apnea hypopnea index was 34% lower in the HT group than in the HF group (p = 0.046) after adjusting for gender, and that this effect persisted in White patients but not among African-Americans. Patient characteristics were similar between groups, with coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension as the most prevalent co-morbidities. In conclusion, sleep apnea remains prevalent in patients with HF with a high co-morbidity burden. HSAT is a feasible and effective tool for screening and diagnosis in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Humans , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/complications , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/epidemiology , Sleep , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1384: 281-293, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059687

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and the ensuing pandemic have greatly impacted the global healthcare system due to its high infectiousness, associated high mortality, and a complete lack of immunity in the population. Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has unleashed a health crisis that has not only seriously disrupted people's lives but also affected their normal sleep, along with physical and mental health; this situation is especially exacerbated in people suffering from pre-existing conditions, such as sleep apnea. A recent meta-analysis of 18 studies by Miller et al. (September 2020) showed that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is related to higher mortality and morbidity in patients with COVID-19 and is most likely independent of other risk factors. A recent meta-analysis indicated that COVID-19 patients with OSA are more severely affected than those without OSA, thereby providing further evidence that concurrent OSA may elevate the severity of COVID-19 infection, along with the risk of mortality. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the diagnosis and therapeutic management of patients with OSA. Thus, it is necessary to identify and develop new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues in the future. In this context, the current study summarizes known associations between COVID-19 and OSA and the regular diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for OSA in the light of COVID-19 pandemic prevention and control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology
8.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e937427, 2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND SARS-CoV-2 has globally affected humanity and devastated many families. Here, we attempt to identify which diseases are independent risk factors for severe SARS-CoV-2. There have been multiple studies that have evaluated the impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on SARS-CoV-2 outcomes, suggesting that OSA is an independent risk factor. SARS-CoV-2 has also been suggested to invade the central nervous system and be responsible for neurological signs and decreasing central respiratory drive. Central sleep apnea (CSA) is defined when apneas and hypopneas are associated with absent or reduced ventilatory effort, respectively, due to diminished central respiratory drive. CASE REPORT Here, we describe 2 cases involving patients with OSA that developed transient central sleep apnea after being diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction. They had similar past medical histories and presentation of illness. The differences included compliance of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), recovery, and severity of central sleep index. We review and address alternate causes for the development of CSA. We hypothesize that continuous and compliant use of CPAP machines may be beneficial in reducing recovery and severity of SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS Our case report calls attention to the acquired central respiratory drive neurological complication associated with SARS-CoV-2. Our case report highlights the plausible existence of a relationship between development of central respiratory drive leading to CSA and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further studies are needed to explore this relationship, including evaluating whether CSA occurs in SARS-CoV-2 patients with no history of OSA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea, Central , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Apnea, Central/complications , Sleep Apnea, Central/therapy , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy
9.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2022: 6006127, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009237

ABSTRACT

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most common and serious sleep-related breathing disorders with a high prevalence among patients with cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Despite its widespread presence, OSA remains severely undiagnosed and untreated. CV mortality and morbidity are significantly increased in the presence of OSA as it is associated with an increased risk of resistant hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias, and coronary artery disease. Evaluation and treatment of OSA should focus on recognizing patients at risk of developing OSA. The use of screening questionnaires should be routine, but a formal polysomnography sleep study is fundamental in establishing and classifying OSA. Recognition of OSA patients will allow for the institution of appropriate therapy that should alleviate OSA-related symptoms with the intent of decreasing adverse CV risk. In this review, we focus on the impact OSA has on CV disease and evaluate contemporary OSA treatments. Our goal is to heighten awareness among CV practitioners.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Polysomnography/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology
10.
Cells ; 11(9)2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847275

ABSTRACT

The novel corona virus that is now known as (SARS-CoV-2) has killed more than six million people worldwide. The disease presentation varies from mild respiratory symptoms to acute respiratory distress syndrome and ultimately death. Several risk factors have been shown to worsen the severity of COVID-19 outcomes (such as age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity). Since many of these risk factors are known to be influenced by obstructive sleep apnea, this raises the possibility that OSA might be an independent risk factor for COVID-19 severity. A shift in the gut microbiota has been proposed to contribute to outcomes in both COVID-19 and OSA. To further evaluate the potential triangular interrelationships between these three elements, we conducted a thorough literature review attempting to elucidate these interactions. From this review, it is concluded that OSA may be a risk factor for worse COVID-19 clinical outcomes, and the shifts in gut microbiota associated with both COVID-19 and OSA may mediate processes leading to bacterial translocation via a defective gut barrier which can then foster systemic inflammation. Thus, targeting biomarkers of intestinal tight junction dysfunction in conjunction with restoring gut dysbiosis may provide novel avenues for both risk detection and adjuvant therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications
11.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 18(7): 1857-1864, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786233

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea treated with home continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Retrospective study of patients admitted for COVID-19. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea treated with home CPAP were identified and for each of them we selected 5 patients admitted consecutively in the following hours. The main outcome of the study was the development of severe COVID-19, defined as 1) death or 2) a composite outcome of death or the presence of severe hypoxemic respiratory failure at or during admission. The association between CPAP-treated obstructive sleep apnea and these outcomes was estimated by logistic regression analysis after applying inverse probability of treatment weighting using a propensity score-weighting approach. RESULTS: Of the 2,059 patients admitted, 81 (3.9%) were receiving treatment with home CPAP. Among the 486 patients included in the study, 19% died and 39% presented the composite outcome. The logistic regression analysis did not show an association of CPAP treatment either with death (odds ratio [OR]: 0.684; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.332-1.409; P = .303) or with the composite outcome (OR: 0.779; 95% CI: 0.418-1.452; P = .432). Death was associated with age (OR: 1.116; 95% CI: 1.08-1.152; P < .001) and number of comorbidities (OR: 1.318; 95% CI: 1.065-1.631; P = .012), and the composite outcome was associated with male sex (OR: 2.067; 95% CI: 1.19-3.589; P = .01) and number of comorbidities (OR: 1.241; 95% CI: 1.039-1.484; P = .018). CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, prior obstructive sleep apnea treated with home CPAP is not independently associated with worse outcomes. CITATION: Sampol J, Sáez M, Martí S, et al. Impact of home CPAP-treated obstructive sleep apnea on COVID-19 outcomes in hospitalized patients. J Clin Sleep Med. 2022;18(7):1857-1864.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(3)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765784

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term continuous positive air pressure (CPAP) treatment for health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Materials and Methods: Our subjects were 18-65 years old, diagnosed with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and treated with CPAP between January 2020 and June 2021 in Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Kaunas clinics. All the patients completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), the and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) before and after 3 months of treatment. Polysomnography was also repeated. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 27.0 software. The value of p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The active-treatment group comprised 17 subjects with a mean age of 51.9 ± 8.9 years. The total SF-36 questionnaire score improved from 499.8 ± 122.3 to 589.6 ± 124.7 (p = 0.012). The SF-36 role limitations due to emotional problems (p = 0.021), energy (fatigue) (p = 0.035), and general health (p = 0.042) domains score significantly improved after CPAP treatment for 3 months. The PSQI mean score at baseline was 12.6 ± 2.9 and in the post-treatment group, it was -5.5 ± 2.3 (p = 0.001). The ESS also changed significantly from a pretreatment mean score of 10.9 ± 5.7 to -5.3 ± 3.2 (p = 0.002) after 3 months. Conclusions: Improvement in HRQL is seen even after a short treatment period with CPAP. Questionnaires are a good tool to evaluate CPAP treatment efficacy.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Air Pressure , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Middle Aged , Quality of Life/psychology , Sleep , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Young Adult
13.
Lung ; 200(2): 161-168, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748493

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of chronic cough increases with age. However, data on the prevalence and background disorders of cough subtypes in the elderly are scarce. The objective of this study was to identify the point prevalence and risk factors of acute, subacute, and chronic cough in an elderly community-based population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional email survey amongst 26,205 members of the Finnish Pensioners' Federation during the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2021. RESULTS: The response rate was 23.6% (6189). 5983 subjects aged at least 64 years were included in the analyses (mean 72.6 years, 66.3% female). The point prevalence of daily acute, subacute, and chronic cough were 1.4%, 0.7%, and 9.6%, respectively. Only 0.4% of the subjects had a COVID-19 infection. In the multivariate analyses, chronic rhinosinusitis, and obstructive sleep apnoea were common risk factors for all cough subtypes. Chronic cough had several risk factors; Bronchiectasis (OR 5.79 (CI95% 2.70-12.41)), current asthma (2.67 (2.02-3.54)), chronic rhinosinusitis (2.51 (1.94-3.24)), somatic symptom score (1.13 per symptom (1.07-1.19)), family history of chronic cough (1.88 (1.54-2.30)), gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (1.86 (1.50-2.32)), advanced age (1.20 per decade (1.02-1.40)), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.74 (0.99-3.05)), dog ownership (1.42 (1.07-1.89)), and obstructive sleep apnoea (1.41 (1.16-1.73)). CONCLUSION: Acute and subacute cough, as well as previous COVID-19 infection, were uncommon in this Finnish elderly population. The prevalence of chronic cough was higher than that previously found in younger adults. Chronic cough is a multifactorial disorder in the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cough/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications
15.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 18(6): 1573-1581, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687344

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children is associated with acute metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurocognitive abnormalities. The long-term outcomes of childhood OSA into adulthood have not been established. We performed a 20-year follow-up of patients with polysomnography-documented OSA in childhood compared to a healthy control group to evaluate the long-term anthropometric, sleep, cognitive, and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: Children diagnosed with severe OSA between ages 1 and 17 years (mean, 4.87 ± 2.77) were prospectively contacted by telephone as young adults after approximately 20 years. Data collected included reported anthropometric information, educational level, health history, and Berlin questionnaire scores. RESULTS: Young adults with confirmed severe OSA in childhood had significantly higher adulthood body mass index (P = .038), fewer academic degrees (P < .001), and more snoring (P = .045) compared to control patients. The apnea-hypopnea index during childhood trended toward predicting cardiovascular outcomes and the results of the Berlin questionnaire in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with a history of severe childhood OSA have a high risk of snoring, elevated body mass index, and lower academic achievement in adulthood. Thus, children with severe OSA may be at increased risk of chronic diseases later in life. The intervening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has introduced considerable additional neurobehavioral morbidity complicating the identification of the full long-term consequences of childhood OSA. CITATION: Nosetti L, Zaffanello M, Katz ES, et al. Twenty-year follow-up of children with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2022;18(6):1573-1581.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Snoring/complications , Snoring/epidemiology
16.
Sleep ; 45(3)2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522323

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been proposed as a risk factor for severe COVID-19. Confounding is an important consideration as OSA is associated with several known risk factors for severe COVID-19. Our aim was to assess the association of OSA with hospitalization due to COVID-19 using a population-based cohort with detailed information on OSA and comorbidities. METHODS: Included were all community-dwelling Icelandic citizens 18 years of age and older diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020. Data on demographics, comorbidities, and outcomes of COVID-19 was obtained from centralized national registries. Diagnosis of OSA was retrieved from the centralized Sleep Department Registry at Landspitali - The National University Hospital. Severe COVID-19 was defined as the composite outcome of hospitalization and death. The associations between OSA and the outcome were expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), calculated using logistic regression models and inverse probability weighting. RESULTS: A total of 4,756 individuals diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Iceland were included in the study (1.3% of the Icelandic population), of whom 185 had a diagnosis of OSA. In total, 238 were hospitalized or died, 38 of whom had OSA. Adjusted for age, sex, and BMI, OSA was associated with poor outcome (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.5). This association was slightly attenuated (OR 2.0, 95% CI 2.0, 1.2-3.2) when adjusted for demographic characteristics and various comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: OSA was associated with twofold increase in risk of severe COVID-19, and the association was not explained by obesity or other comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology
17.
Sleep Breath ; 24(3): 791-799, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453831

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published evidence elucidating the prevalence of dysphagia and detail alterations in swallowing function in patients with OSAS. METHODS: Computerized literature searches were performed from four search engines. The studies were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies were screened using Covidence (Cochrane tool) and followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement standards (PRISMA-2009). A total 2645 studies were initially retrieved, of which a total of 17 studies met inclusion criteria. Two reviewers, blinded to each other, evaluated level and strength of evidence using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence and QualSyst, respectively. RESULTS: Dysphagia prevalence ranged from 16 to 78% among the eligible studies. Studies varied in operational definitions defining swallowing dysfunction (dysphagia) and method used to assess swallowing function. Approximately 70% of eligible studies demonstrated strong methodological quality. The majority of studies (n = 11; 65%) reported pharyngeal swallowing impairments in patients with OSAS, including delayed initiation of pharyngeal swallow and penetration/aspiration. CONCLUSION: This systematic review describes swallowing function in patients with OSAS. However, due to the variability in defining OSAS and dysphagia, in the assessment method used to determine dysphagia, and heterogeneity of study designs, true prevalence is difficult to determine. Clinicians involved in the management of OSAS patients should employ validated assessment measures to determine if swallow dysfunction is present.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition/physiology , Oropharynx/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Humans , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology
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