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2.
Sleep ; 45(3)2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522323

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been proposed as a risk factor for severe COVID-19. Confounding is an important consideration as OSA is associated with several known risk factors for severe COVID-19. Our aim was to assess the association of OSA with hospitalization due to COVID-19 using a population-based cohort with detailed information on OSA and comorbidities. METHODS: Included were all community-dwelling Icelandic citizens 18 years of age and older diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020. Data on demographics, comorbidities, and outcomes of COVID-19 was obtained from centralized national registries. Diagnosis of OSA was retrieved from the centralized Sleep Department Registry at Landspitali - The National University Hospital. Severe COVID-19 was defined as the composite outcome of hospitalization and death. The associations between OSA and the outcome were expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), calculated using logistic regression models and inverse probability weighting. RESULTS: A total of 4,756 individuals diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Iceland were included in the study (1.3% of the Icelandic population), of whom 185 had a diagnosis of OSA. In total, 238 were hospitalized or died, 38 of whom had OSA. Adjusted for age, sex, and BMI, OSA was associated with poor outcome (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.5). This association was slightly attenuated (OR 2.0, 95% CI 2.0, 1.2-3.2) when adjusted for demographic characteristics and various comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: OSA was associated with twofold increase in risk of severe COVID-19, and the association was not explained by obesity or other comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257483, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435615

ABSTRACT

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on its own, as well as its risk factors, have been found to be associated with the outcome of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the association between the degree of OSA and COVID-19 severity is unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether or not parameters to clinically evaluate OSA severity and the type of OSA treatment are associated with COVID-19 severity. Patient data from OSA patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were reviewed from outpatients from the Isala Hospital and patients admitted to the Isala Hospital, starting from March until December 2020. Baseline patient data, sleep study parameters, OSA treatment information and hospital admission data were collected. Apnea hypopnea index (AHI), low oxyhemoglobin desaturation (LSAT), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), respiratory disturbance index (RDI), and the type of OSA treatment were regarded as the independent variables. COVID-19 severity-based on hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) admission, the number of days of hospitalization, and number of intubation and mechanical ventilation days-were regarded as the outcome variables. Multinomial regression analysis, binary logistic regression analysis, and zero-inflated negative binomial regression analysis were used to assess the association between the parameters to clinically evaluate OSA severity and COVID-19 severity. A total of 137 patients were included. Only LSAT was found to be significantly associated with the COVID-19 severity (p<0.05) when COVID-19 severity was dichotomized as non-hospitalized or hospitalized and ICU admission or death. Therefore, our findings showed that LSAT seems to be a significant risk factor for COVID-19 severity. However, the degree of OSA-based on AHI, ODI, and RDI-and OSA treatment were not found to be risk factors for COVID-19 severity when looking at hospital or ICU admission, the number of days of hospitalization, and number of intubation and mechanical ventilation days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemics/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology
5.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 92(1)2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410353

ABSTRACT

Portable sleep monitoring (PSM) is a promising alternative diagnostic tool for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) especially in high burden resource limited settings. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy and feasibility of PSM device-based studies in patients presenting for evaluation of OSA at a tertiary care hospital in North-India. PSM studies (using a Type-III PSM device) were compared for technical reliability and diagnostic accuracy with the standard laboratory-based Type-I polysomnography (PSG). Patients were also interviewed about their experience on undergoing an unsupervised PSM studies. Fifty patients (68% males) were enrolled in the study, of which only 30% patients expressed their concerns about undergoing unsupervised PSM studies which included safety issues, ease of use, diagnostic accuracy, etc. Technical acceptability criteria were easily met by the PSM studies with signal loss in 12% studies (complete data loss and inaccessible data in 6% studies), warranting repetition sleep studies in four patients. The overall sensitivity of PSM device (AHI ≥5) was 93.5% (area under curve; AUC: 0.87). The diagnostic accuracy was 68.5%, 80%, and 91.4% for mild, moderate, and severe cases of OSA, respectively. An overall strong correlation was observed between PSM-AHI (apnoea-hypopnoea index) and PSG (r>0.85, p≤0.001), especially in severe OSA. The observed sensitivity was >90% for AHI>20 (clinically significant OSA), with high specificity of 91% for severe OSA (AUC: 0.94, 0.97 for AHI>20, AHI>30 respectively). The overall Bland-Altman concordance analysis also demonstrated only a small dispersion for PSM studies with a Cronbach's coefficient of 0.95. Therefore, there is good diagnostic accuracy as well as feasibility of home-based portable sleep studies in Indian patients. It can be promoted for widespread use in high burden countries like India for diagnosing and managing appropriately selected stable patients with high clinical probability of OSA, especially during the ongoing crises of COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Polysomnography , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sleep , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology
6.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(9): 1548-1559, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394580

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic, in which obesity, hypertension, and diabetes have been linked to poor outcomes. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with these conditions and may influence the prognosis of adults with COVID-19. Objectives: To determine the effect of OSA on clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Methods: The current prospective observational study was conducted in three hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey from March 10 to June 22, 2020. The participants were categorized as high-risk or low-risk OSA according to the Berlin questionnaire that was administered in the out-patient clinic, in hospital, or shortly after discharge from hospital blinded to the clinical outcomes. A modified high-risk (mHR)-OSA score based on the snoring patterns (intensity and/or frequency), breathing pauses, and morning/daytime sleepiness, without taking obesity and hypertension into account, were used in the regression models. Results: The primary outcome was the clinical improvement defined as a decline of two categories from admission on a 7-category ordinal scale that ranges from 1 (discharged with normal activity) to 7 (death) on Days 7, 14, 21, and 28, respectively. Secondary outcomes included clinical worsening (an increase of 1 category), need for hospitalization, supplemental oxygen, and intensive care. In total, 320 eligible patients (median [interquartile range] age, 53.2 [41.3-63.0] yr; 45.9% female) were enrolled. In all, 121 (37.8%) were categorized as known (n = 3) or high-risk OSA (n = 118). According to the modified scoring, 70 (21.9%) had mHR-OSA. Among 242 patients requiring hospitalization, clinical improvement within 2 weeks occurred in 75.4% of the mHR-OSA group compared with 88.4% of the modified low-risk-OSA group (P = 0.014). In multivariate regression analyses, mHR-OSA (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.92) and male sex (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.17-0.86) predicted the delayed clinical improvement. In the entire study population (n = 320), including the nonhospitalized patients, mHR-OSA was associated with clinical worsening (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.00-2.39) and with the need for supplemental oxygen (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.06-3.59). Snoring patterns, especially louder snoring, significantly predicted delayed clinical improvement, worsening, need for hospitalization, supplemental oxygen, and intensive care. Conclusions: Adults with mHR-OSA in our COVID-19 cohort had poorer clinical outcomes than those with modified low-risk OSA independent of age, sex, and comorbidities. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04363333).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Snoring
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e26857, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376349

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The current global health crisis due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has prompted the medical community to investigate the effects of underlying medical conditions, including sleep-disordered breathing, on inpatient care. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common form of sleep-disordered breathing that may complicate numerous acquired conditions, particularly in inpatient and critical care settings. Viral pneumonia is a major contributor to intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and often presents more severely in patients with underlying pulmonary disease, especially those with obesity and OSA. This review summarizes the most recent data regarding complications of both OSA and obesity and highlights their impact on clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients. Additionally, it will highlight pertinent evidence for the complications of OSA in an organ-systems approach. Finally, this review will also discuss impatient treatment approaches for OSA, particularly in relation to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Obesity/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sleepiness
8.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 27(6): 529-534, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371768

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the care of people with sleep disorders, to explore relationships between OSA and COVID-19, and to describe current knowledge of the effect of the pandemic on sleep globally. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 has led to significant changes in the practice of sleep medicine, including the care of patients with OSA. An OSA diagnosis may portend a worse prognosis with COVID-19, whilst prior COVID-19 may have an impact on sleep breathing. SUMMARY: The pandemic has caused marked difficulties with access to diagnostic sleep studies and reduced capacity for CPAP initiation. Conversely, adherence to CPAP therapy may have improved, and use of remote consultations and telemonitoring has increased. An OSA diagnosis may be associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19, although any apparent relationship may be attributable to confounding factors, such as obesity and metabolic disease. Small studies have reported some increase in CPAP requirements in OSA patients following COVID-19 infection. More generally, the pandemic has been associated with a deterioration in subjective sleep quality across the population; much of this appears because of increased anxiety and stress. Finally, studies assessing putative links between COVID-19 and REM sleep issues are ongoing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy
9.
Sleep Med Clin ; 16(3): 409-416, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333604

ABSTRACT

The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has affected the operation of health care systems. The direct impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on COVID-19 infection outcome remains to be elucidated. However, the coincidence of common risk factors for OSA and severe COVID-19 suggests that patients with OSA receiving positive airway pressure therapy may have an advantage relative to those untreated when confronted with a COVID-19 infection. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to a substantial reduction of sleep medicine services, and the long-term consequences may be considerable. New strategies for the management of sleep disorders are needed to overcome the current underdiagnosis and delay of treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Sleep Medicine Specialty , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Registries , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Sleep Medicine Specialty/statistics & numerical data , Sweden/epidemiology
10.
Sleep Med ; 91: 253-261, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313433

ABSTRACT

This chapter summarizes the known associations between COVID-19 and sleep dysfunction, including insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, restless legs syndrome and nightmares, and touches upon pandemic-related considerations for obstructive sleep apnea and continuous positive airway pressure treatment. Treatment strategies and management approaches are also briefly discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Sleep Wake Disorders , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence/therapy , Humans , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/therapy
11.
Sleep Med ; 84: 98-106, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253648

ABSTRACT

Since the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic onset, many routine medical activities have been put on hold and this has deeply affected the management of patients with chronic diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea. Untreated OSA is associated with increased mortality and difficulties in social functioning. A delay in initiating treatment may therefore have harmful consequences. Between February and April 2020, the so-called first wave of the pandemic, the overall activity of sleep centers in Europe was reduced by 80%. As the international infection control authorities released guidelines for SARS-CoV-2 outbreak control, many of the national sleep societies provided strategies for a gradual re-opening of sleep facilities. Most of these strategies were not evidences-based and, in a climate of general concern, worldwide it was strongly advised to post-pone any non-urgent sleep-related procedure. Despite the initial idea that the outbreak could be transient, after one year it is still ongoing and the price we are paying, not only includes deaths caused by COVID-19, but also deaths caused by missed or late diagnosis. As further delays in diagnosing and treating patients with sleep apnea are no more acceptable, a new arrangement of sleep facilities and resources, in order to operate safely and effectively, is now mandatory. In this article, we review most recent literature and guidelines in order to provide practical advice for a new arrangement of sleep laboratories and the care of patients with obstructive sleep apnea after one year from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Continuity of Patient Care , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy
12.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(4. Vyp. 2): 110-115, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257256

ABSTRACT

In connection with the spread of the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) pandemic and the increase in the development of severe acute respiratory syndrome, works are published around the world that determined the risk factors for complications and poor outcomes in this disease. Among the main comorbidities in COVID-19, scientists distinguish hypertension, diabetes, obesity, etc. Recently, more and more physicians and researchers are concerned about the high frequency of severe and critical complications of COVID-19 in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In this review, we present some data on COVID-19 and OSA in the age aspect, show the general pathophysiological pathways leading to increased systemic inflammation and adverse consequences in the comorbid course of these diseases. Special attention is paid to such studies in the pediatric population, but only a few works of foreign scientists were found that did not reveal the essence of the problem under discussion, which requires further research in this area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Child , Comorbidity , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology
13.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 17(11): 2197-2204, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239112

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an extremely common sleep disorder. A potential association between OSA and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity has been proposed on the basis of similar comorbid medical conditions associated with both OSA and COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 1,738 patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19 between March and October of 2020. Patients were classified based on the presence or absence of OSA diagnosis based upon the International Classification of Diseases (ICD; codes G47.33 and U07.1 for OSA and COVID-19, respectively). Other data were collected, including demographics, body mass index, and comorbid conditions. COVID-19 severity was compared between groups using the quick COVID-19 severity index. RESULTS: Quick COVID-19 severity index scores were higher in patients with OSA compared with those without OSA. However, the prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes (P < .0001), coronary artery disease (P < .0001), congestive heart failure (P < .0001), and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (P < .0001) were also significantly greater in the OSA group. Unadjusted models revealed higher risk of intensive care unit admission in patients with COVID-19 and OSA. However, such an association was attenuated and became nonsignificant after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and comorbid disease. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, OSA does not appear to be an independent risk factor for worse COVID-19 outcomes in hospitalized patients. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to delineate the potential role of OSA in determining outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. CITATION: Mashaqi S, Lee-Iannotti J, Rangan P, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea and COVID-19 clinical outcomes during hospitalization: a cohort study. J Clin Sleep Med. 2021;17(11):2197-2204.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy
14.
Sleep Breath ; 25(2): 849-860, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204925

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may increase the risk of severe COVID-19; however, the level of potential modulation has not yet been established. The objective of the study was to determine the association between high risk of OSA, comorbidities, and increased risk for COVID-19, hospitalization, and intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based web survey in adults in 14 countries/regions. The survey included sociodemographic variables and comorbidities. Participants were asked questions about COVID-19, hospitalization, and ICU treatment. Standardized questionnaire (STOP questionnaire for high risk of OSA) was included. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted adjusting for various factors. RESULTS: Out of 26,539 respondents, 20,598 (35.4% male) completed the survey. Mean age and BMI of participants were 41.5 ± 16.0 years and 24.0 ± 5.0 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed OSA was 4.1% and high risk of OSA was 9.5%. We found that high risk of OSA (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.47) and diabetes (aOR 2.07, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.48) were associated with reporting of a COVID-19 diagnosis. High risk for OSA (aOR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.10-4.01), being male (aOR: 2.82, 95% CI: 1.55-5.12), having diabetes (aOR: 3.93, 95% CI: 1.70-9.12), and having depression (aOR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.15-4.77) were associated with increased risk of hospitalization or ICU treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Participants at high risk of OSA had increased odds of having COVID-19 and were two times more likely to be hospitalized or treated in ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Snoring/epidemiology
15.
Sleep Med ; 82: 47-53, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164478

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most prevalent sleep-related breathing disorder which could impair someone's quality of life and is also associated with poor outcomes from many diseases. Currently, the evidence regarding the link between OSA and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still conflicting. This study aims to analyze the relationship between OSA and poor outcomes of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed and Europe PMC database using specific keywords related to our aims until December 10th, 2020. All articles published on COVID-19 and OSA were retrieved. The quality of the study was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) tool for observational studies. Statistical analysis was done using Review Manager 5.4 software. RESULTS: A total of 21 studies with 54,276 COVID-19 patients were included in this meta-analysis. This meta-analysis showed that OSA was associated with composite poor outcome [OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.55-1.91), p < 0.00001, I2 = 36%, random-effect modeling] and its subgroup which comprised of severe COVID-19 [OR 1.70 (95% CI 1.18-2.45), p = 0.005], ICU admissions [OR 1.76 (95% CI 1.51-2.05), p < 0.00001], the need for mechanical ventilation [OR 1.67 (95% CI 1.48-1.88), p < 0.00001], and mortality [OR 1.74 (95% CI 1.39-2.19), p < 0.00001]. CONCLUSIONS: Extra care and close monitoring should be provided to patients with OSA to minimize the risk of infections. Simple questionnaires such as STOP-Bang questionnaire can be used for screening patients who may be at risk for severe adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
16.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(9): 1548-1559, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088781

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic, in which obesity, hypertension, and diabetes have been linked to poor outcomes. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with these conditions and may influence the prognosis of adults with COVID-19. Objectives: To determine the effect of OSA on clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Methods: The current prospective observational study was conducted in three hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey from March 10 to June 22, 2020. The participants were categorized as high-risk or low-risk OSA according to the Berlin questionnaire that was administered in the out-patient clinic, in hospital, or shortly after discharge from hospital blinded to the clinical outcomes. A modified high-risk (mHR)-OSA score based on the snoring patterns (intensity and/or frequency), breathing pauses, and morning/daytime sleepiness, without taking obesity and hypertension into account, were used in the regression models. Results: The primary outcome was the clinical improvement defined as a decline of two categories from admission on a 7-category ordinal scale that ranges from 1 (discharged with normal activity) to 7 (death) on Days 7, 14, 21, and 28, respectively. Secondary outcomes included clinical worsening (an increase of 1 category), need for hospitalization, supplemental oxygen, and intensive care. In total, 320 eligible patients (median [interquartile range] age, 53.2 [41.3-63.0] yr; 45.9% female) were enrolled. In all, 121 (37.8%) were categorized as known (n = 3) or high-risk OSA (n = 118). According to the modified scoring, 70 (21.9%) had mHR-OSA. Among 242 patients requiring hospitalization, clinical improvement within 2 weeks occurred in 75.4% of the mHR-OSA group compared with 88.4% of the modified low-risk-OSA group (P = 0.014). In multivariate regression analyses, mHR-OSA (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.92) and male sex (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.17-0.86) predicted the delayed clinical improvement. In the entire study population (n = 320), including the nonhospitalized patients, mHR-OSA was associated with clinical worsening (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.00-2.39) and with the need for supplemental oxygen (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.06-3.59). Snoring patterns, especially louder snoring, significantly predicted delayed clinical improvement, worsening, need for hospitalization, supplemental oxygen, and intensive care. Conclusions: Adults with mHR-OSA in our COVID-19 cohort had poorer clinical outcomes than those with modified low-risk OSA independent of age, sex, and comorbidities. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04363333).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Snoring
17.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with higher body mass index (BMI), diabetes, older age and male gender, which are all risk factors for severe COVID-19.We aimed to study if OSA is an independent risk factor for COVID-19 infection or for severe COVID-19. METHODS: OSA diagnosis and COVID-19 infection were extracted from the hospital discharge, causes of death and infectious diseases registries in individuals who participated in the FinnGen study (n=260 405). Severe COVID-19 was defined as COVID-19 requiring hospitalisation. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine association. Comorbidities for either COVID-19 or OSA were selected as covariates. We performed a meta-analysis with previous studies. RESULTS: We identified 445 individuals with COVID-19, and 38 (8.5%) of them with OSA of whom 19 out of 91 (20.9%) were hospitalised. OSA associated with COVID-19 hospitalisation independent from age, sex, BMI and comorbidities (p-unadjusted=5.13×10-5, OR-adjusted=2.93 (95% CI 1.02 to 8.39), p-adjusted=0.045). OSA was not associated with the risk of contracting COVID-19 (p=0.25). A meta-analysis of OSA and severe COVID-19 showed association across 15 835 COVID-19 positive controls, and n=1294 patients with OSA with severe COVID-19 (OR=2.37 (95% 1.14 to 4.95), p=0.021). CONCLUSION: Risk for contracting COVID-19 was the same for patients with OSA and those without OSA. In contrast, among COVID-19 positive patients, OSA was associated with higher risk for hospitalisation. Our findings are in line with earlier works and suggest OSA as an independent risk factor for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Finland/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Sleep Health ; 7(1): 14-18, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899507

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and the effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) management on COVID-19 among patients with confirmed OSA. DESIGN: Cross-sectional telephone interview survey. SETTING: Academic sleep labs. PARTICIPANTS: Iranian adults ≥ 18 years old with confirmed OSA. RESULTS: Among 275 participants with OSA, 20% (n = 55) were suspected to have history of COVID-19 but had no positive test, and 18% (n = 51) were in the definite COVID-19 group according to their reported symptoms or confirmed positive test. Having severe OSA (apnea hypopnea index ≥ 30) was associated with an increased risk of definite COVID-19, with an odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 2.31 (0.87-5.55) compared to having mild OSA in definite COVID-19 group. Those not undergoing treatment for OSA had an OR (95% CI) of 2.43 (1.26-4.67) for definite COVID-19 compared to those accepting treatment in definite COVID-19 group. Total sleep times (TSTs) were 354, 340, and 320 minutes in healthy, suspected, and COVID-19 groups, respectively; TST was associated with COVID-19 (P-value = .04). Similarly, sleep efficiency (SE) scores were 75.7, 74.2, and 67.9% for the healthy, suspected, and COVID-19 groups, respectively (P-value = .005); Beck Depression scores were 13.8, 13.0, and 17.7, respectively (P-value = .056). CONCLUSIONS: OSA as a proinflammatory condition with multiple comorbidities may be a contributing factor to developing COVID-19. Greater OSA severity, no treatment for OSA, and lower TST and SE were associated with increased COVID-19 prevalence among patients with OSA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Sleep Breath ; 25(2): 1155-1157, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808538

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study the relationship between OSA and risk of COVID-19 infection and disease severity, identified by the need for hospitalization and progression to respiratory failure. METHODS: We queried the electronic medical record system for an integrated health system of 10 hospitals in the Chicago metropolitan area to identify cases of COVID-19. Comorbidities and outcomes were ascertained by ICD-10-CM coding and medical record data. We evaluated the risk for COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization, and respiratory failure associated with OSA by univariate tests and logistic regression, adjusting for diabetes, hypertension, and BMI to account for potential confounding in the association between OSA, COVID-19 hospitalization, and progression to respiratory failure. RESULTS: We identified 9405 COVID-19 infections, among which 3185 (34%) were hospitalized and 1779 (19%) were diagnosed with respiratory failure. OSA was more prevalent among patients requiring hospitalization than those who did not (15.3% versus 3.4%, p < 0.0001; OR 5.20, 95% CI (4.43, 6.12)), and among those who progressed to respiratory failure (19.4% versus 4.5%, p < 0.0001; OR 5.16, 95% CI (4.41, 6.03)). After adjustment for diabetes, hypertension, and BMI, OSA was associated with increased risk for hospitalization (OR 1.65; 95% CI (1.36, 2.02)) and respiratory failure (OR 1.98; 95% CI (1.65, 2.37)). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with OSA experienced approximately 8-fold greater risk for COVID-19 infection compared to a similar age population receiving care in a large, racially, and socioeconomically diverse healthcare system. Among patients with COVID-19 infection, OSA was associated with increased risk of hospitalization and approximately double the risk of developing respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology
20.
Sleep Med Rev ; 55: 101382, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752844

ABSTRACT

The aims of the study were to review the rapidly emerging COVID-19 literature to determine 1) the relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and adverse COVID-19 outcomes and, 2) potential causal mechanisms 3) what effect COVID-19 has had on OSA diagnosis and 4) what effect COVID-19 has had on treatment and management of OSA during this period. PubMed was systematically searched up to 020620. Studies were included if they had examined the relationship between COVID-19 and OSA. Studies were included that were in English and had the full text available. The findings from this study suggest that many of the risk factors and co-morbidities associated for OSA which include obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus are associated with poor COVID-19 outcomes. There are plausible mechanisms by which OSA may independently increase one's risk of morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 and data from the newly published CORONADO study suggests that OSA treated patients may be at increased risk of death from COVID-19. It is clear that the pandemic has had a major effect on the treatment management and diagnosis of OSA and moving forward it may be necessary to explore new diagnosis and treatment pathways for these individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Hypertension , Melatonin , Obesity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/mortality
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