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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7964-7970, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608921

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop mental health nursing strategies for the inbound quarantined population based on the results of a survey study and frontline nursing experiences. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A mixed research method was selected, we collected data by questionnaires from 128 quarantined people, and by semi-structured interviews from 5 registered nurses. Generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7), the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were used in the quantitative research to identify the prevalence of psychological issues and risk factors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the qualitative study to conclude nursing experiences from RNs. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia were 34%, 41%, and 18% respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that social support, urban residence, and chronic disease were associated with mental health problems in certain aspects. Three themes were emerged from the analysis of RNs interviews: personality, chronic diseases, and social support. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of mental health issues in the inbound quarantined population was the same as the general population in the initial stage of COVID-19 outbreak, and significantly lower than people who lived in high-risk areas. Living in urban areas, with chronic diseases, and obtaining less social support are the risk factors. Finally, four nursing strategies were proposed by the research team for mental health well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/organization & administration , Psychiatric Nursing/organization & administration , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Professional Role , Quarantine/standards , Risk Factors , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/prevention & control , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Social Support/psychology , Social Support/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597023

ABSTRACT

The sleep-wake cycle plays a fundamental role in maintaining the physiological balance of our body. Its alteration favours the genesis of several organic alterations and diseases including sleep disorders and the consumption of several substances of abuse. It has been reported that the work activity, especially that carried out during the night, is able to influence the sleep-wake cycle, promoting the development of insomnia, which, in turn, would subject the worker to a stressful condition such as to encourage adverse behaviour such as the use/abuse of psychotropic substances. Based on the above premises, the aim of our research was to evaluate, in night workers: (i) the pattern of consumption of alcoholic beverages; (ii) the presence of insomnia; and (iii) the possible correlation between alcohol consumption and insomnia disorder. We used the AUDIT-C test (the abbreviated version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) and the Insomnia Severity Index to assess alcohol consumption and insomnia disorder, respectively. All questionnaires were completed by workers of both sexes belonging to different types of work activities, exclusively day or night. The results of our research show a higher propensity of night workers to consume alcoholic beverages than those who work during daytime hours, often in binge-drinking mode. In addition, an increase in the amount of alcohol consumed was found to be related to insomnia disorder, especially in night workers. This study provides further awareness of the importance of the negative impact of alcohol consumption on sleep quality in night workers.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Sleep , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580815

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak is associated with sleep problems and mental health issues among individuals. Therefore, there is a need to assess sleep efficiency during this tough period. Unfortunately, the commonly used instrument on insomnia severity-the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)-has never been translated and validated among Bangladeshis. Additionally, the ISI has never been validated during a major protracted disaster (such as the COVID-19 outbreak) when individuals encounter mental health problems. The present study aimed to translate the ISI into Bangla language (ISI-Bangla) and validate its psychometric properties. First, the linguistic validity of the ISI-Bangla was established. Then, 9790 Bangladeshis (mean age = 26.7 years; SD = 8.5; 5489 [56.1%] males) completed the Bangla versions of the following questionnaires: ISI, Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). All the participants also answered an item on suicidal ideation. Classical test theory and Rasch analyses were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the ISI-Bangla. Both classical test theory and Rasch analyses support a one-factor structure for the ISI-Bangla. Moreover, no substantial differential item functioning was observed across different subgroups (gender, depression status (determined using PHQ-9), and suicidal ideation). Additionally, concurrent validity of the ISI-Bangla was supported by significant and moderate correlations with FCV-19S and PHQ-9; known-group validity was established by the significant difference of the ISI-Bangla scores between participants who experienced suicidal ideation and those without. The present psychometric validation conducted during the COVID-19 outbreak suggests that the ISI-Bangla is a promising and operationally adequate instrument to assess insomnia in Bangladeshis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adult , Humans , Male , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580724

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led world authorities to adopt extraordinary measures to counteract the spread of the virus. The Italian government established a national lockdown from 9 March to 3 May 2020, forcing people in their homes and imposing social distancing. During the pandemic emergency, university students emerged as a vulnerable category. Indeed, higher rates of sleep problems and mental disorders were reported in this population. However, these outcomes were derived from cross-sectional investigations adopting retrospective assessments. Retrospective evaluations suffer from different biases, putatively leading to erroneous outcomes. To overcome this limitation, we adopted a between-subject approach comparing a sample of 240 Italian undergraduate university students assessed in 2016 (mean age ± standard deviation, 20.39 ± 1.42, range 18-25; 80.42% females), with an age/gender-matched sample of university students assessed during the third week of lockdown in Spring 2020. We evaluated sleep quality, insomnia symptoms, and depressive symptomatology using validated questionnaires. We found worse sleep quality, a delayed bedtime, and more severe insomnia and depression symptoms in the students sampled under COVID-19 restrictive measures. We suggest paying special attention to this at-risk population during the current pandemic emergency and applying preventive and supportive interventions to limit the exacerbation of sleep and psychological problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Students , Universities
5.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 41(6): 974-981, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579544

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of Shumian capsule in improving the symptoms of insomnia, anxiety, depression, and other symptoms of convalescent patients of COVID-19. METHODS: Totally 200 patients were collected and randomly divided into experiment group (n = 100) and control group (n = 100). The control group was treated with Shumian capsule simulator, and the experiment group was treated with Shumian capsule. The improvement of TCM symptom score, the total effective rate and symptom disappearance rate of TCM symptoms in the two groups before and after treatment were observed, and the clinical effect was evaluated. RESULTS: One week after treatment, the scores of anxiety symptoms in the experiment group were significantly different from those in the control group (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in the scores of insomnia and depression between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the total effective rate and disappearance rate of TCM symptoms of insomnia, anxiety and depression between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). After 2 weeks of treatment, the scores of insomnia, anxiety, depression and the total effective rate of TCM symptoms in the experiment group were significantly different from those in the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the disappearance rate of insomnia, anxiety and depression between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in heart rate, respiration, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Shumian capsule can significantly improve the symptoms of insomnia, anxiety and depression in COVID-19's convalescent patients with sleep and mood disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mood Disorders/drug therapy , Sleep Wake Disorders/drug therapy , Adult , Anxiety , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25363, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on both the physical and mental health of individuals worldwide. Evidence regarding the association between mental health problems and information exposure among Thai citizens during the COVID-19 outbreak is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the relationship between information exposure and mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand. METHODS: Between April 21 and May 4, 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional, nationwide online survey of the general population in Thailand. We categorized the duration of exposure to COVID-19-related information as follows: <1 h/day (reference group), 1-2 h/day, and ≥3 h/day. Mental health outcomes were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, the Perceived Stress Scale-10, and the Insomnia Severity Index for symptoms of depression, anxiety, perceived stress, and insomnia, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between information exposure and the risk of developing the aforementioned symptoms. An ancillary analysis using multivariable multinomial logistic regression models was also conducted to assess the possible dose-response relationship across the severity strata of mental health problems. RESULTS: Of the 4322 eligible participants, 4004 (92.6%) completed the online survey. Of them, 1481 (37.0%), 1644 (41.1%), and 879 (22.0%) participants were exposed to COVID-19-related information for less than 1 hour per day, 1 to 2 hours per day, or 3 or more hours per day, respectively. The major source of information related to the COVID-19 pandemic was social media (95.3%), followed by traditional media (68.7%) and family members (34.9%). Those exposed to information for 3 or more hours per day had a higher risk of developing symptoms of depression (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.03-1.76; P=.03), anxiety (adjusted OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.43-2.46; P<.001), and insomnia (adjusted OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.17-1.97; P=.001) than people exposed to information for less than 1 hour per day. Meanwhile, people exposed to information for 1 to 2 hours per day were only at risk of developing symptoms of anxiety (adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08-1.69; P=.008). However, no association was found between information exposure and the risk of perceived stress. In the ancillary analysis, a dose-response relationship was observed between information exposure of 3 or more hours per day and the severity of mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that social media is the main source of COVID-19-related information. Moreover, people who are exposed to information for 3 or more hours per day are more likely to develop psychological problems, including depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Longitudinal studies investigating the long-term effects of COVID-19-related information exposure on mental health are warranted.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Internet Use/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Social Media/supply & distribution , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thailand/epidemiology
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 307: 114337, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562014

ABSTRACT

The study's objective was to study the association of perceived discrimination with depression, insomnia and post-traumatic stress in people recovered from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Santa Marta, Colombia. COVID-19 survivors were invited to participate. The authors measured perceived discrimination related to COVID-19 (COVID-19 Perceived Stigma Scale), depression (PHQ-9), insomnia (Athens Insomnia Scale), and post-traumatic stress (Brief Davidson Trauma Scale). Three hundred thirty COVID-19 survivors participated in the research; the participants were between 18 and 89 years; 61.52% were females. 32.12% of the participants reported high perceived discrimination; 49.70%, depression; 60.61%, insomnia; and 13.33% post-traumatic stress. After adjusting for age, gender, and income, depression, insomnia, and post-traumatic stress were associated significantly with discrimination perceived by COVID-19. Perceived discrimination is a social stressor that affects the psychological well-being of people recovered from COVID-19. In the follow-up of this group of patients, it is important to consider the impact of perceived discrimination on psychological well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
8.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(5): 254-260, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542928

ABSTRACT

Post COVID-19 sequelae are a constellation of symptoms often reported after recovering from COVID-19. There is a need to better understand the clinical spectrum and long-term course of this clinical entity. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and risk factors of post COVID-19 sequelae in the North Indian population. This prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary healthcare centre in Northern India between October 2020 and February 2021. Patients aged >18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were recruited after at least two weeks of diagnosis, and details were captured. A total of 1234 patients were recruited and followed up for a median duration of 91 days (IQR: 45-181 days). Among them, 495 (40.1%) had persistent symptoms post-discharge or recovery. In 223 (18.1%) patients, the symptoms resolved within four weeks; 150 (12.1%) patients had symptoms till 12 weeks, and 122 (9.9%) patients had symptoms beyond 12 weeks of diagnosis/symptom-onset of COVID-19. Most common symptoms included myalgia (10.9%), fatigue (5.5%), shortness of breath (6.1%), cough (2.1%), insomnia (1.4%), mood disturbances (0.48%) and anxiety (0.6%). Patients who were hospitalized were more likely to report fatigue as a feature of long COVID. Hypothyroidism (OR: 4.13, 95% CI: 2.2-7.6, p-value < 0.001) and hypoxia (SpO2 ≤ 93%) (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, p-value 0.012) were identified as risk factors for long COVID sequelae. In conclusion, long COVID symptoms were common (22%), and 9.9% had the post COVID-19 syndrome. Myalgias, fatigue and dyspnoea were common symptoms. Patients with hypothyroidism and hypoxia during acute illness were at higher risk of long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Myalgia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Young Adult
9.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 220-224, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535076

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has also affected mental health. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Mexican population mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic by measuring symptoms of stress, depression, anxiety and insomnia, as well as resilience. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study. A survey was carried out to collect sociodemographic data, and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21), Athens Insomnia Scale and the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14) were applied. Central tendency and dispersion measures were obtained for quantitative variables and frequencies for qualitative variables. The chi-square test was used for bivariate analysis; alpha level was 0.05. RESULTS: 1,667 individuals with a mean age of 33.78 ± 10.79 years were analyzed. On DASS 21, a mean of 9.7 points (normal) was found, as well as 7.10 for anxiety (normal) and 6.73 for depression (normal). On Athens Insomnia Scale, a mean of 9.33 points (moderate alteration), and on the RS-14 scale, 69.13 points (high resilience) were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms' intensity was lower than expected in comparison with that recorded in other populations, probably due to the high levels of resilience of the Mexican population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Resilience, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Egyptian healthcare workers (HCWs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Six databases were searched for relevant papers. The quality of the selected articles was measured using the National Institute of Health quality assessment tool. We used a fixed-effects model when there was no heterogeneity and a random-effects model when there was heterogeneity. RESULTS: After screening 197 records, 10 studies were ultimately included. Anxiety was the most commonly reported psychiatric disorder among HCWs, with a prevalence of 71.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.4 to 86.9), followed by stress (66.6%; 95% CI, 47.6 to 81.3), depression (65.5%; 95% CI, 46.9 to 80.3), and insomnia (57.9%; 95% CI, 45.9 to 69.0). As measured using the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, the most common level of severity was moderate for depression (22.5%; 95% CI, 19.8 to 25.5) and stress (14.5%; 95% CI, 8.8 to 22.9), while high-severity anxiety was more common than other levels of severity (28.2%; 95% CI, 3.8 to 79.6). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative effect on Egyptian HCWs' psychological well-being. More psychological support and preventive measures should be implemented to prevent the further development of psychiatric illness among physicians and other HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 89-94, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the association between perceived stress and depression among medical students and the mediating role of insomnia in this relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to April 2020 in medical university. Levels of perceived stress, insomnia and depression were measured using Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9). The descriptive analyses of the demographic characteristics and correlation analyses of the three variables were calculated. The significance of the mediation effect was obtained using a bootstrap approach with SPSS PROCESS macro. RESULTS: The mean age of medical students was 21.46 years (SD=2.50). Of these medical students, 10,185 (34.3%) were male and 19,478 (65.7%) were female. Perceived stress was significantly associated with depression (ß=0.513, P < 0.001). Insomnia mediated the association between perceived stress and depression (ß=0.513, P < 0.001). The results of the non-parametric bootstrapping method confirmed the significance of the indirect effect of perceived stress through insomnia (95% bootstrap CI =0.137, 0.149). The indirect effect of insomnia accounted for 44.13% of the total variance in depression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings contribute to a better understanding of the interactive mechanisms underlying perceived stress and depression, and elucidating the mediating effects of insomnia on the association. This research provides a useful theoretical and methodological approach for prevention of depression in medical students. Findings from this study indicated that it may be effective to reduce depression among medical students by improving sleep quality and easing perceived stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Students, Medical , Adult , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 384-390, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513255

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To measure the Saudi population's sleep quality during the lockdown of COVID-19. METHODS: An internet-based questionnaire that was performed during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic among the Saudi population over 2 weeks from April 1 to April 15, 2020. We used the instant messaging application WhatsApp and Twitter to reach the targeted population. Saudi citizens and non-Saudi residents who can read and understand the questionnaire were recruited. Data were analyzed using Stata and SPSS. RESULTS: A total of 790 responses were included. The majority of participants were the Saudi population 735 (92.9%). The prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality were 54.4% and 55.5%, respectively. Saudi citizenship was associated with longer sleep duration (p=0.031). Female gender and being married were associated with worse global PSQI, sleep quality, sleep distribution, sleep latency, and daytime dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Saudi population had a high prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality. Routine monitoring of the psychological impact of life-threatening outbreaks and the adoption of effective early mental health actions should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Marital Status/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Public Policy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Sleep Latency , Surveys and Questionnaires , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
13.
Sleep ; 44(9)2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462491

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Emotional reactivity to negative stimuli has been investigated in insomnia, but little is known about emotional reactivity to positive stimuli and its neural representation. METHODS: We used 3 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine neural reactivity during the presentation of standardized short, 10- to 40-seconds, humorous films in patients with insomnia (n = 20, 18 females, aged 27.7 +/- 8.6 years) and age-matched individuals without insomnia (n = 20, 19 females, aged 26.7 +/- 7.0 years) and assessed humor ratings through a visual analog scale. Seed-based functional connectivity was analyzed for the left and right amygdalas (lAMYG and rAMYG, respectively) networks: group-level mixed-effects analysis (FLAME; FMRIB Software Library [FSL]) was used to compare amygdala connectivity maps between groups. RESULTS: fMRI seed-based analysis of the amygdala revealed stronger neural reactivity in patients with insomnia than in controls in several brain network clusters within the reward brain network, without humor rating differences between groups (p = 0.6). For lAMYG connectivity, cluster maxima were in the left caudate (Z = 3.88), left putamen (Z = 3.79), and left anterior cingulate gyrus (Z = 4.11), whereas for rAMYG connectivity, cluster maxima were in the left caudate (Z = 4.05), right insula (Z = 3.83), and left anterior cingulate gyrus (Z = 4.29). Cluster maxima of the rAMYG network were correlated with hyperarousal scores in patients with insomnia only. CONCLUSIONS: The presentation of humorous films leads to increased brain activity in the neural reward network for patients with insomnia compared with controls, related to hyperarousal features in patients with insomnia, in the absence of humor rating group differences. These novel findings may benefit insomnia treatment interventions. CLINICAL TRIAL: The Sleepless Brain: Neuroimaging Support for a Differential Diagnosis of Insomnia (SOMNET). ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02821234; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02821234.


Subject(s)
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adult , Amygdala/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Mapping , Female , Gyrus Cinguli/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463646

ABSTRACT

Benzodiazepines have proven to be highly effective for treating insomnia and anxiety. Although considered safe when taken for a short period of time, a major risk-benefit dilemma arises in the context of long-term use, relating to addiction, withdrawal symptoms, and potential side effects. For these reasons, benzodiazepines are not recommended for treating chronic sleep disorders, anxiety disorders, nor for people over the age of 65, and withdrawal among long-term users is a public health issue. Indeed, only 5% of patients manage to discontinue using these drugs on their own. Even with the help of a general practitioner, this rate does not exceed 25 to 30% of patients, of which approximately 7% manage to remain drug-free in the long term. Cognitive Behavioral Therapies (CBT) offer a crucial solution to this problem, having been shown to increase abstinence success to 70-80%. This article examines traditional and novel CBT techniques in this regard, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, which address both the underlying condition (insomnia/anxiety) and the substance-related disorder. The theoretical framework and evidence supporting the use of these approaches are reviewed. Finally, current research gaps are discussed, and key research perspectives are proposed.


Subject(s)
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Anxiety Disorders/drug therapy , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Humans , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/drug therapy
15.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459047

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Egyptian healthcare workers (HCWs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Six databases were searched for relevant papers. The quality of the selected articles was measured using the National Institute of Health quality assessment tool. We used a fixed-effects model when there was no heterogeneity and a random-effects model when there was heterogeneity. RESULTS: After screening 197 records, 10 studies were ultimately included. Anxiety was the most commonly reported psychiatric disorder among HCWs, with a prevalence of 71.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.4 to 86.9), followed by stress (66.6%; 95% CI, 47.6 to 81.3), depression (65.5%; 95% CI, 46.9 to 80.3), and insomnia (57.9%; 95% CI, 45.9 to 69.0). As measured using the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, the most common level of severity was moderate for depression (22.5%; 95% CI, 19.8 to 25.5) and stress (14.5%; 95% CI, 8.8 to 22.9), while high-severity anxiety was more common than other levels of severity (28.2%; 95% CI, 3.8 to 79.6). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative effect on Egyptian HCWs' psychological well-being. More psychological support and preventive measures should be implemented to prevent the further development of psychiatric illness among physicians and other HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 46(8): 822-830, 2021 Aug 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Public health emergencies have caused significant psychological burden on nurse and affect their mental health. After the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the nurse's mental health has been paid much attention. This study aims to investigate status and influencing factors for anxiety, depression, and insomnia in nurses during the normalized epidemic period, and to further compare the risk of anxiety, depression, and insomnia among nurses at different levels of hospitals between front-line epidemic nurses and other nurses so as to provide a basis for mental health work, nursing management, and relevant study in hospital. METHODS: A total of 4 237 nurses from all levels of hospitals in Hunan Province participated in the survey in December 2020. A self-designed anonymous questionnaire was used in this study. Anxiety, depression, and insomnia were assessed using Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 items (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items (PHQ-9), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), respectively. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to evaluate nurses' anxiety, depression, and insomnia; t-test, analysis of variance, and multiple linear stepwise regression analysis were used to analyze the influencing factors of nurses' anxiety, depression, and insomnia. RESULTS: The scores of GAD-7 among 4 237 nurses were 4.44±4.20, with 10.3% of them experienced moderate to severe level anxiety. The scores of PHQ-9 were 6.03±4.76, with 17.5% of them experienced moderate to severe level depressive symptom. The scores of ISI were 8.37±5.42, with 12.3% of them experienced moderate to severe insomnia. There were significant differences in GAD-7, PHQ-9, and ISI scores among different groups of hospital levels, gender, professional title, position, education level, night shifts, and family monthly income (all P<0.05). Marital status, whether to participate in the front-line, and whether to participate in psychology training groups were not associated with anxiety, depression, and insomnia (all P>0.05). Gender, hospital level, professional title, educational background, more night shifts, and family monthly income were the influencing factors for the GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores. Gender, length of service, position, hospital level, educational background, night shifts in the last year, and family monthly income were the influencing factors for ISI score. CONCLUSIONS: There is no difference in the scores of the GAD-7, PHQ-9, and ISI between nurses whether to participate in the front-line, indicating that series of measures for front-line medical staff are effective in China.Meanwhile, some nurses experienced anxiety, depression, and insomnia, and attention should be paid to nurses with low position, more night shifts, lower-level hospitals, and families with low income. It is recommended that management policies, psychological support, and human resource protection should be given to relieve the pressure and maintain the mental health of nurses. At the same time, it is necessary to make mental health knowledge training as a routine training when responding to public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
18.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246515, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388899

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During health disaster events such as the current devastating havoc being inflicted on countries globally by the SARS-CoV-19 pandemic, mental health problems among survivors and frontline workers are likely concerns. However, during such health disaster events, stakeholders tend to give more precedence to the socio-economic and biomedical health consequences at the expense of mental health. Meanwhile, studies show that regardless of the kind of disaster/antecedent, all traumatic events trigger similar post-traumatic stress symptoms among survivors, families, and frontline workers. Thus, our study investigated the prevalence of anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms among survivors of the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease that plagued the West African sub-region. METHODS: We systematically retrieved peer-reviewed articles published between 1970 and 2019 from seven electronic databases, including Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, PubMed, Scopus, Springer Link, Web of Science on Ebola and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. A comprehensive hand search complemented this literature search. Of the 87 articles retrieved, only 13 met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. RESULTS: After heterogeneity, influence, and publication bias analysis, our meta-analysis pooled proportion effects estimates showed a moderate to a high prevalence of anxiety (14%; 99% CI: 0.05-0.30), depression (15%; 99% CI: 0.11-0.21), and insomnia (22%; 99% CI: 0.13-0.36). Effect estimates ranging from (0.13; 99% CI: 0.05, 0.28) through to (0.11; 99% CI: 0.05-0.22), (0.15; 99% CI: 0.09-0.25) through to (0.13; 99% CI: 0.08-0.21) and (0.23; 99% CI: 0.11-0.41) to (0.23; 99% CI: 0.11-0.41) were respectively reported for anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms. These findings suggest a significant amount of EVD survivors are struggling with anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our study provided the first-ever meta-analysis evidence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia symptoms among EVD survivors, and suggest that the predominant biomedical health response to regional and global health disasters should be complemented with trauma-related mental health services.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/complications , Depression/complications , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/complications , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/complications , Africa, Western/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/complications , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Ebolavirus/isolation & purification , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Survivors
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the longer-term psychological impact of COVID-19 in healthcare workers (HCWs). PURPOSE: We examined the 10-week trajectory of insomnia symptoms in HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: HCWs completed a web-based survey at baseline (9 April-11 May 2020) and every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. The main outcome was the severity of insomnia symptoms in the past week. Multivariable-adjusted generalized estimating equation analyses examined factors associated with insomnia symptoms. RESULTS: n = 230 completed surveys at baseline. n = 155, n = 130, n = 118, n = 95, and n = 89 completed follow-ups at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, respectively. Prevalence of insomnia symptoms of at least moderate severity was 72.6% at baseline, and 63.2%, 44.6%, 40.7%, 34.7%, and 39.3% at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, respectively. In multivariable analyses, factors significantly associated with increased odds of insomnia symptoms were younger age (OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.96-1.00), working in a COVID-facing environment (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.15-2.67) and hours worked (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.06-1.27). CONCLUSIONS: The initial high rates of insomnia symptoms improved as time passed from the peak of local COVID-19 cases but four out of ten HCWs still had moderate-to-severe insomnia symptoms ten weeks after baseline.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Health Personnel , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mental Health , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
20.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(17): e65-e73, 2021 Sep.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368971

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that some patients suffer from persistent symptoms for months after recovery from acute COVID-19. However, the clinical phenotype and its pathogenesis remain unclear. We here present data on complaints and results of a diagnostic workup of patients presenting to the post-COVID clinic at the University Medical Center Freiburg. METHODS: Retrospective data analysis of persistently symptomatic patients presenting to our clinic at least 6 months after onset of acute COVID-19. All patients were assessed by a doctor and routine laboratory analysis was carried out. Quality of life was assessed using SF-36 questionnaire. In case of specific persisting symptoms, further organ-specific diagnostic evaluation was performed, and patients were referred to respective departments/specialists. FINDINGS: 132 Patients (58 male, 74 female; mean age 53.8 years) presented to our clinic at least 6 months after COVID-19. 79 (60 %) had been treated as outpatients and 53 (40 %) as inpatients. Most common complaints were persistent fatigue (82 %) and dyspnea on exertion (61 %). Further common complaints were impairments of concentration (54 %), insomnia (43 %), and impairments of smell or taste (35 %). Quality of life was reduced in all sections of the SF-36 questionnaire, yielding a reduced working capacity. Significant pathological findings in laboratory, echocardiographic and radiological work-up were rare. Impairments in lung function tests were more common in previously hospitalized patients. CONCLUSION: Patients presenting 6 months after onset of acute COVID-19 suffer from a diverse spectrum of symptoms with impaired quality of life, also referred to as Long COVID or Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). Further research is needed to determine the frequency of these post-COVID syndromes and their pathogenesis, natural course and treatment options. Evaluation and management should be multi-disciplinary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anosmia , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dyspnea , Fatigue , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders , Young Adult
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