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2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1011539, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142345

ABSTRACT

Although the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health has been reported in different communities, little is known about the mental health of psychotherapists during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in Austrian psychotherapists and compare it with the general population. A total of n = 513 psychotherapists (80.5% women; mean age: 53.06 ± 9.94 years) took part in an online survey conducted from April to June 2022. At the same time, a representative sample (N = 1,031) of the Austrian general population was surveyed online. Indicators of mental health were mental wellbeing (WHO-5), depression (PHQ-2), anxiety (GAD-2), insomnia (ISI-2), and stress (PSS-10). The general population sample was matched according to age and gender with the psychotherapist's data using propensity scores, yielding a final sample of n = 513 (80.5% women; mean age: 52.33 ± 13.39 years). Psychotherapists showed lower odds for exceeding cut-offs for clinically relevant depressive, anxiety, insomnia and stress symptoms (0.34-0.58) compared to the general population. Further studies should elucidate the protective factors underlying these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Male , Mental Health , Psychotherapists , COVID-19/epidemiology , Austria/epidemiology , Pandemics
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1006610, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142341

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Medical workers are prone to psychological and sleep disturbances during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Little is known about the varying degrees of influence among vaccinated medical staff working in different positions. The current study is aimed to evaluate and compare depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances among first-line, second-line and at home vaccinated medical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic in Shanghai, China. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in May 2022. In addition to demographic data, levels of depression, anxiety, sleep quality, and insomnia were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). Results: A total of 236 vaccinated medical workers completed the questionnaires, including 85 first-line medical staff (FMS), 82 second-line medical staff (SMS) and 69 at home medical staff (HMS). The proportions of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, poor sleep quality, and insomnia were 52.1, 44.1, 55.9, and 49.2%, respectively. Compared with HMS, medical staff at work (FMS and SMS) got significantly higher frequency of poor sleep quality (both p < 0.001), insomnia (both p < 0.001), depressive (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively) and anxiety symptoms (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Compared with SMS, FMS were more likely to have poor sleep quality (p = 0.020). Besides, nurses got significantly higher percentage of poor sleep quality (OR = 1.352, p = 0.016) and insomnia (OR = 1.243, p = 0.041) than doctors. Whereas, the proportion of anxiety symptoms was increased in females than in males (OR = 2.772, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Psychological and sleep disturbances are common among medical staff at work during the COVID-19 pandemic. More psychological intervention should be administrated for FMS, especially for nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Female , Male , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , China/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Medical Staff , Sleep Quality
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2135, 2022 11 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Insomnia and suicidal thoughts are two of the negative impacts that have been caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Identifying the factors that contribute to these psychological problems may help develop strategies to sustain the mental health of the public. The present study examined the psychosocial impacts caused by the COVID-19 pandemic among different populations in Taiwan, and investigated the relationships between these psychosocial variables, insomnia, and suicidal thoughts. METHODS: Between September 2020 and May 2021, online questionnaires including psychometrically validated scales were distributed to a convenience sample of outpatients (n = 205), healthcare workers (HCWs) (n = 500), and individuals in the general population (n = 1200) in Taiwan to collect data regarding their insomnia severity, suicidal thoughts, fear of COVID-19, trust of information, and resilience. Multivariate logistic regression methods were used to identify variables associated with suicidal thoughts and insomnia. RESULTS: Greater fear of COVID-19 was significantly associated with suicidal thoughts: odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.155 (1.002-1.330) for outpatients; 1.127 (1.035-1.228) for HCWs; and 1.100 (1.130-1.222) for those in the general population. Higher resilience was significantly associated with lower insomnia: OR (95% CI) = 0.819 (0.725-0.926) for outpatients; 0.803 (0.728-0.887), for HCWs; 0.829 (0.785-0.875), and for those in the general population. In addition, there was a statistically significant association between insomnia diagnosis and greater fear of COVID-19 among HCWs (OR [95% CI] = 1.102 [1.062-1.144]) and those in the general population (OR [95% CI] = 1.079 [1.053-1.106]). Among outpatients, there was a statistically significant association between suicidal thoughts and lower trust of information (OR [95% CI] = 0.794 [0.646-0.976]), while among those in the general population there was a statistically significant association between suicidal thoughts and higher insomnia severity (OR [95% CI] = 1.175 [1.13-1.222]). A statistically significant association was also found between insomnia diagnosis and higher suicidal thoughts among those in the general population (OR [95% CI] = 3.455 [2.338-5.106]). CONCLUSIONS: Trust of information, fear, and resilience were important factors for suppressing suicidal thoughts and insomnia among the three study populations. Health policies that monitor psychological status and build resiliency of the public are recommended to help develop tailored strategies for different populations affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Outpatients , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Taiwan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Personnel
5.
J Sleep Res ; 31(6): e13591, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137087

ABSTRACT

This study examined the role of sleep disturbances and insomnia in the context of stress reactivity in adolescence. One-hundred and thirty-five 11-18 year olds (Mage  = 14.2 years, SD = 1.9, 52% female) completed the Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Salivary cortisol and subjective stress ratings were collected at six time points, and heart rate as well as heart rate variability were measured pre-, during and post-stress induction. Additionally, sleep disturbances and insomnia diagnosis were assessed by a self-report questionnaire and a sleep interview. Robust mixed models investigated if adolescents with compared with adolescents without (a) sleep disturbances and (b) insomnia differ regarding cortisol, heart rate, heart rate variability and psychological stress reactivity considering gender effects. The results indicated that boys with high sleep disturbances showed higher cortisol activity compared with boys with low sleep disturbances, B = 0.88, p < 0.05. Moreover, in boys with insomnia, heart rate and alpha 1 significantly differ less than in boys without insomnia. These findings support the notion of sex differences regarding the association between poor sleep and increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and a less adaptable autonomic nervous system in boys in response to an experimental social stress task.


Subject(s)
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Child , Female , Adolescent , Humans , Male , Hydrocortisone , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Sleep/physiology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Electrocardiography , Saliva
6.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 417, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117395

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Long-onset COVID syndrome has been described in patients with COVID-19 infection with persistence of symptoms or development of sequelae beyond 4 weeks after the onset of acute symptoms, a medium- and long-term consequence of COVID-19. This syndrome can affect up to 32% of affected individuals, with symptoms of fatigue, dyspnea, chest pain, cognitive disorders, insomnia, and psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed to characterize and evaluate the prevalence of sleep symptoms in patients with long COVID syndrome. METHODOLOGY: A total of 207 patients with post-COVID symptoms were evaluated through clinical evaluation with a neurologist and specific exams in the subgroup complaining of excessive sleepiness. RESULTS: Among 189 patients included in the long COVID sample, 48 (25.3%) had sleep-related symptoms. Insomnia was reported by 42 patients (22.2%), and excessive sleepiness (ES) was reported by 6 patients (3.17%). Four patients with ES were evaluated with polysomnography and test, multiple sleep latencies test, and actigraphic data. Two patients had a diagnosis of central hypersomnia, and one had narcolepsy. A history of steroid use was related to sleep complaints (insomnia and excessive sleepiness), whereas depression was related to excessive sleepiness. We observed a high prevalence of cognitive complaints in these patients. CONCLUSION: Complaints related to sleep, such as insomnia and excessive sleepiness, seem to be part of the clinical post-acute syndrome (long COVID syndrome), composing part of its clinical spectrum, relating to some clinical data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Humans , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Sleepiness , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence/diagnosis , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Syndrome
7.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(10): 707-718, 2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111422

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on public health, including healthcare workers and healthcare systems, worldwide. Aims: To investigate COVID-19-related psychological impact on healthcare workers in 12 Arab countries. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, hospital-based online survey conducted between 4 May and 8 June 2020. We evaluated stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Insomnia Severity Index. Results: A total of 2879 respondents from 12 Arab countries completed the survey. Anxiety, depression, stress, and insomnia were reported by 48.9%, 50.6%, 41.4% and 72.1% of respondents, respectively. Lower-middle- and lower-income countries had a significantly higher prevalence of all the psychological outcomes than high-income countries. The prevalence of mental health symptoms was higher among healthcare workers aged 30-39 years, those who worked > 44 hours per week, and those in contact with COVID-19 cases, as well as healthcare workers who were not satisfied with the preventive measures. The prevalence of mental health symptoms was lower among male healthcare workers. Conclusion: COVID-19 had a considerable impact on the mental and psychological health of healthcare workers in Arab countries. This was aggravated by the geopolitical location of some Arab countries and social norms usually observed during the month of Ramadan. Being a physician or a young healthcare worker, and long working hours were risk factors for greater psychological impact of the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Female , Humans , Male , Arabs , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Psychological Distress
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(10): e39676, 2022 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and its corresponding preventive and control measures have increased the mental burden on the public. Understanding and tracking changes in public mental status can facilitate optimizing public mental health intervention and control strategies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to build a social media-based pipeline that tracks public mental changes and use it to understand public mental health status regarding the pandemic. METHODS: This study used COVID-19-related tweets posted from February 2020 to April 2022. The tweets were downloaded using unique identifiers through the Twitter application programming interface. We created a lexicon of 4 mental health problems (depression, anxiety, insomnia, and addiction) to identify mental health-related tweets and developed a dictionary for identifying health care workers. We analyzed temporal and geographic distributions of public mental health status during the pandemic and further compared distributions among health care workers versus the general public, supplemented by topic modeling on their underlying foci. Finally, we used interrupted time series analysis to examine the statewide impact of a lockdown policy on public mental health in 12 states. RESULTS: We extracted 4,213,005 tweets related to mental health and COVID-19 from 2,316,817 users. Of these tweets, 2,161,357 (51.3%) were related to "depression," whereas 1,923,635 (45.66%), 225,205 (5.35%), and 150,006 (3.56%) were related to "anxiety," "insomnia," and "addiction," respectively. Compared to the general public, health care workers had higher risks of all 4 types of problems (all P<.001), and they were more concerned about clinical topics than everyday issues (eg, "students' pressure," "panic buying," and "fuel problems") than the general public. Finally, the lockdown policy had significant associations with public mental health in 4 out of the 12 states we studied, among which Pennsylvania showed a positive association, whereas Michigan, North Carolina, and Ohio showed the opposite (all P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: The impact of COVID-19 and the corresponding control measures on the public's mental status is dynamic and shows variability among different cohorts regarding disease types, occupations, and regional groups. Health agencies and policy makers should primarily focus on depression (reported by 51.3% of the tweets) and insomnia (which has had an ever-increasing trend since the beginning of the pandemic), especially among health care workers. Our pipeline timely tracks and analyzes public mental health changes, especially when primary studies and large-scale surveys are difficult to conduct.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Social Media , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Infodemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy
9.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277368, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109333

ABSTRACT

Although the psychological impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been evaluated in the literature, further research is needed, particularly on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychological outcomes, is needed. This study aims to investigate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychological outcomes (depression, anxiety, and insomnia). A cross-sectional study using an online survey was conducted using the following instruments: Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), structural equation model (SEM), multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling, and differential item functioning (DIF) were performed to analyze the collected data. According to the results, participants with PTSD (n = 360) showed a higher level of depression, anxiety, and insomnia than those without PTSD (n = 639). Among the participants, 36.5% experienced moderate to severe symptoms of depression, and 32.6% had mild depressive symptoms. Moreover, 23.7% of participants experienced moderate to severe anxiety symptoms, and 33.1% had mild anxiety symptoms. In addition, 51.5% of participants experienced symptoms of insomnia. In conclusion, the PTSD caused by COVID-19 is significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and insomnia at the level of latent constructs and observed variables.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 230: 103759, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104226

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has globally affected almost every aspect of people's lives, especially, their physical and mental well-being. The degree of its impact, however, is different from place-to-place and person-to-person. Although there is a growing literature on the variable impact of the pandemic on the quality of sleep, loneliness, and mood across different populations (e.g., students, health-workers), little is known about how COVID-19-specific anxiety affects the loneliness feeling and sleep quality among students and employees, specifically, in a low-resource region like Bangladesh. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of COVID-related anxiety on the feeling of loneliness and sleep quality of students and professionals in Bangladesh. Additionally, we were interested in comparing the level of COVID-specific anxiety, loneliness, and quality of sleep between these two groups. In total, 211 Bangladeshi students and professionals participated in an online survey in August 2021 when the restriction was still in place. Measures of COVID-19 anxiety, loneliness, and sleep quality scales were used. Regression analysis indicated that overall loneliness and poor sleep quality were strongly predicted by COVID-specific anxiety regardless of being a student or professional. Almost half of the study population (48.3 %) felt severe loneliness and 70.01 % were bad sleepers. Mann-Whitney U test revealed that professionals felt more emotionally lonely, had a higher level of COVID-19-specific anxiety, and had poorer sleep quality than students. A better support structure should be implemented to help the population, particularly, the professionals to lessen their COVID-19-related anxiety and loneliness, and promote better sleep for alleviating stress and improved well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Sleep Quality , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Students/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2014053, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094114

ABSTRACT

Importance: People exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and a series of imperative containment measures could be psychologically stressed, yet the burden of and factors associated with mental health symptoms remain unclear. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors associated with mental health symptoms in the general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This large-sample, cross-sectional, population-based, online survey study was conducted from February 28, 2020, to March 11, 2020. It involved all 34 province-level regions in China and included participants aged 18 years and older. Data analysis was performed from March to May 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and acute stress among the general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Insomnia Severity Index, and Acute Stress Disorder Scale. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore demographic and COVID-19-related risk factors. Results: Of 71 227 individuals who clicked on the survey link, 56 932 submitted the questionnaires, for a participation rate of 79.9%. After excluding the invalid questionnaires, 56 679 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.97 [8.22] years; 27 149 men [47.9%]) were included in the study; 39 468 respondents (69.6%) were aged 18 to 39 years. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the rates of mental health symptoms among the survey respondents were 27.9% (95% CI, 27.5%-28.2%) for depression, 31.6% (95% CI, 31.2%-32.0%) for anxiety, 29.2% (95% CI, 28.8%-29.6%) for insomnia, and 24.4% (95% CI, 24.0%-24.7%) for acute stress. Participants with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 and their family members or friends had a high risk for symptoms of depression (adjusted odds ratios [ORs], 3.27 [95% CI, 1.84-5.80] for patients; 1.53 [95% CI, 1.26-1.85] for family or friends), anxiety (adjusted ORs, 2.48 [95% CI, 1.43-4.31] for patients; 1.53 [95% CI, 1.27-1.84] for family or friends), insomnia (adjusted ORs, 3.06 [95% CI, 1.73-5.43] for patients; 1.62 [95% CI, 1.35-1.96] for family or friends), and acute stress (adjusted ORs, 3.50 [95% CI, 2.02-6.07] for patients; 1.77 [95% CI, 1.46-2.15] for family or friends). Moreover, people with occupational exposure risks and residents in Hubei province had increased odds of symptoms of depression (adjusted ORs, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.77-2.17] for occupational exposure; 1.42 [95% CI, 1.19-1.68] for Hubei residence), anxiety (adjusted ORs, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.75-2.13] for occupational exposure; 1.54 [95% CI, 1.30-1.82] for Hubei residence), insomnia (adjusted ORs, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.45-1.77] for occupational exposure; 1.20 [95% CI, 1.01-1.42] for Hubei residence), and acute stress (adjusted ORs, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.79-2.20] for occupational exposure; 1.49 [95% CI, 1.25-1.79] for Hubei residence). Both centralized quarantine (adjusted ORs, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.10-1.61] for depression; 1.46 [95% CI, 1.22-1.75] for anxiety; 1.63 [95% CI, 1.36-1.95] for insomnia; 1.46 [95% CI, 1.21-1.77] for acute stress) and home quarantine (adjusted ORs, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.25-1.36] for depression; 1.28 [95% CI, 1.23-1.34] for anxiety; 1.24 [95% CI, 1.19-1.30] for insomnia; 1.29 [95% CI, 1.24-1.35] for acute stress) were associated with the 4 negative mental health outcomes. Being at work was associated with lower risks of depression (adjusted OR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.79-0.91]), anxiety (adjusted OR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86-0.99]), and insomnia (adjusted OR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.81-0.94]). Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this survey indicate that mental health symptoms may have been common during the COVID-19 outbreak among the general population in China, especially among infected individuals, people with suspected infection, and people who might have contact with patients with COVID-19. Some measures, such as quarantine and delays in returning to work, were also associated with mental health among the public. These findings identify populations at risk for mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic and may help in implementing mental health intervention policies in other countries and regions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Coronavirus Infections , Depression , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Mental Status Schedule/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence , Quarantine/psychology , Return to Work/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/diagnosis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sleep is a complex, reversible process that is responsible for the modulation of various physiological mechanisms. COVID-19-related sleep disorders are affecting different populations with a heterogenous prevalence, yet high rates among infected patients are frequently reported. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of insomnia in the early post-COVID-19 recovery period and explore the differences in the results acquired by the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) by gender and selected infection severity parameters. METHODS: The data presented in the paper come from a prospective, observational study on COVID-19 complications (SILCOV-19) consisting of 200 COVID-19 patients. The AIS was used for the quantitative measurement of insomnia symptoms based on ICD-10 criteria. RESULTS: 32% (n = 64) of all patients in the study group obtained results indicating sleep disturbances (>5 points on the scale), while 21.5% (n = 43) obtained results indicating insomnia (>10 points on the scale). The analysis of the results obtained by all patients in the AIS showed a significant correlation with the duration of symptoms (Spearman's rank-order: R = 0.18; p < 0.05), but not with the number of days spent in the hospital or age. Women achieved a higher score in overall AIS, as well as in questions assessing total sleep time, well-being the next day, physical and mental fitness the next day, and sleepiness during the day (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of insomnia in the early post-COVID-19 recovery period is high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Humans , Female , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology
13.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276165, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089421

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed unique academic, social, financial, and health-related challenges for young adults. While numerous studies have documented average increases in reported mental health issues in the general population, few have measured the magnitude of changes in mental health symptoms and sleep difficulties within individuals. Here, we measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and sleep of university students pre- and mid-pandemic. Prior to the pandemic (Fall 2019), individuals (n = 23) were recruited to participate in an eight-day, comprehensive sleep study using Fitbit® actigraphy. Participants also completed detailed mental health and sleep surveys, including depression (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI), and sleep disturbance (PROMIS) surveys. One year later, these individuals repeated the study during the pandemic (Fall 2020); participants completed the original surveys and sleep study, in addition to a targeted survey on mental and sleep health due to the pandemic. Self-reported levels of anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance, and sleep parameters, measured by actigraphy, were compared within the same individuals pre- and mid-pandemic. Self-report survey data revealed that three-quarters of participants experienced an increase in stress and anxiety due to the pandemic. In addition, intra-individual depression and anxiety symptoms increased to clinically significant levels within individuals from pre- to mid-pandemic. Over two-thirds of participants reported sleeping less, and more than half reported that their sleep health had worsened during the pandemic. Changes in sleep disturbance were positively associated with changes in depression and anxiety, reinforcing the robust relationship between poor sleep quality and mental health. Furthermore, individuals who reported greater sleep disturbance during the pandemic experienced lower relative proportions of both REM and deep sleep. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on university students is multi-faceted-mental health, sleep quality, and the amount of restorative sleep are negatively affected by the pandemic environment. These compounded effects exacerbate the health consequences of the pandemic and highlight a need for increased attention to the prevention and treatment of mental health disorders, particularly in vulnerable populations of young adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Humans , Young Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Sleep , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology
14.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(3): 564-571, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has put enormous stress on the health care workers, threatening not only their physical health but also their mental well-being. No mental health support program (MHSP) addressing depression and anxiety in healthcare workers (HCWs), has been shown to be effective in Turkey previously. We aimed to measure the effect of our MHSP among healthcare workers who applied for psychological help associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An MHSP has been created for healthcare professionals working in a pandemic hospital during the COVID-19 period. Health workers were recruited between July and September 2020. Anxiety, depression, and insomnia levels were evaluated with HAM-A (Hamilton Anxiety Scale), HDRS (Hamilton Depression Scale), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) before and after the intervention. Sexual complaints were questioned by a consultant psychiatrist. MHSP (n=31), and treatment as usual (TAU, n=27) groups were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Sociodemographic data, medical history of COVID-19, and psychiatric diagnoses were similar between the groups. There was no difference in baseline HAM-A, HDRS, and ISI scores (p>0.05). At the end of the study, there was a significant difference between study groups regarding anxiety scores (For post-treatment, MHSP=8.0±2.6 vs. TAU=17.9±3.1, p<0.001) and depression symptoms (For post-treatment, MHSP=8.8±2.7 vs. TAU=20.0±2.4, p<0.001) but not in insomnia levels (For post-treatment, MHSP=6.5±2.4 vs. TAU=7.3±2.4, p=0.499). Likewise, both groups reported similar levels of improvement in reduced sexual drive. CONCLUSIONS: Our study results suggest that the MHSP effectively alleviates the psychiatric complaints of healthcare professionals. It is recommended to have mental support teams for healthcare professionals in hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/therapy , Depression/psychology , Turkey/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/therapy , Anxiety/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Hospitals , Delivery of Health Care
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 995664, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080299

ABSTRACT

Background: Sleep disturbance including insomnia and sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of infectious. With the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it is important to explore potential causal associations of sleep disturbance on COVID-19 susceptibility and hospitalization. Method: Insomnia and sleep duration were selected as exposure. Outcomes included susceptibility and hospitalization for COVID-19. Two sample mendelian randomization design was used to assess causality between sleep and COVID-19. Inverse variance weighted method was used as main analysis method to combine the ratio estimates for each instrumental variable to obtain the causal effect. Cochran's Q statistic was used to test for global heterogeneity. MR-Egger and weighting median estimator (WME) were used as sensitivity analysis to ensure the stability and reliability of the results. MR-Egger intercept term was used to test the mean pleiotropy. In addition, the direct effects of insomnia and sleep duration on COVID-19 susceptibility and hospitalization were estimated using multivariable mendelian randomization (MVMR). Results: Univariate MR provided no evidence of a causal associations of insomnia on COVID-19 susceptibility (OR = 1.10, 95% CI:0.95, 1.27; p = 0.21) and hospitalization (OR = 0.61, 95% CI:0.40, 0.92; p = 0.02); as does sleep duration (ORCOIVD - 19susceptibility = 0.93, 95% CI:0.86, 1.01; p = 0.07; ORCOIVD - 19 hospitalization = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.47; p = 0.08). MVMR results showed that insomnia may be a risk factor for increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.05; p <0.001); and sleep duration was also associated with increased COVID-19 susceptibility (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.46; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Insomnia and extreme sleep duration may risk factors for increased COVID-19 susceptibility. Relieving insomnia and maintaining normal sleep duration may be powerful measures to reduce COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Hospitalization , Humans , Mendelian Randomization Analysis/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Sleep , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
16.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271824, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079702

ABSTRACT

Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of healthcare workers has been established, linking workplace factors with high levels of stress, anxiety, depression, insomnia and burnout. Less established is how COVID-19 affects both work, home and social life of nurses and midwives concurrently. This study describes the prevalence and severity of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and insomnia and examines their associations with stressors within the work, home and social environment, among nurses and midwives. A longitudinal, mixed-methods, online survey explored the psychological health of public sector nurses and midwives during the COVID-19 pandemic first year. Surveys were conducted in April (initial) and June 2020 (3-month), and April 2021 (12-month) and consisted of psychological tests including the Patient Health Questionnaire, General Anxiety Disorder, Insomnia Severity Index, and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised; workplace and lifestyle questions, together with free-text comments. The relative strengths of the associations between predictor and outcome variables were estimated using repeated measures ordered logistic regression, and free text responses were themed. Data show diagnostic levels of anxiety (23%, 18%, 21%) at surveys one, two and three respectively, depression (26%, 23% and 28%), PTSD (16%, 12% and 10%) and insomnia (19%, 19% and 21%). The strongest predictors of psychological distress were current home and family stress and poor clinical team support. Factors which will help preserve the mental health of nurses and midwives include strong workplace culture, reducing occupational risk, clear communication processes, and supporting stable and functional relationships at home. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the visibility of mental distress on nurses and midwives and established they are pivotal to healthcare. The health service has a duty-of-care for the welfare of nurses and midwives who have entered this psychologically taxing profession to future proof service delivery and safeguard its service-response capacity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Midwifery , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Public Sector , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Tasmania
17.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 27: 40, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of the prolonged coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on the mental health of nursing students is unclear. This study assesses the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia among nursing students in Japan during the pandemic and determines the risk factors associated with such symptoms. METHODS: An online survey-based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 16 to October 16, 2021. Participants were first- to fourth-year nursing students enrolled in undergraduate programs at the eight universities in Japan. Anxiety, depression, and insomnia were assessed using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Insomnia Severity Index-7, respectively. We calculated descriptive statistics for each measurement item and performed univariate and logistic regression analyses to evaluate the potential risk factors. RESULTS: We received responses from 1,222 of 3,056 nursing students (response rate: 40.0%). After 25 participants were excluded due to missing outcome values, 1,197 students (valid response rate: 98.0%) were included in the analysis. The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia was 4.8%, 12.4%, and 18.0%, respectively. The risk of anxiety was lower among participants who did not have any relatives or friends who had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 than among those who did (aOR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14-0.94). The risk of depression was higher among participants whose financial status had worsened during the pandemic than among those whose financial status had not changed (aOR 3.44; 95% CI 1.98-5.96). Common factors that increased the risk of anxiety, depression, and insomnia were life satisfaction and fear of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Mental health-related symptoms among nursing students in Japan have not necessarily worsened with the spread of COVID-19 but were exacerbated by the intensity of changes in daily living and fear, which are psychosocial effects associated with the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Students, Nursing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e066024, 2022 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053225

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and risk factors of poor sleep quality (SQ) among the academic staff at the University of Gondar, Northwestern Ethiopia. DESIGN: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2021. A validated, self-administered, standardised Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to quantify the amount of self-reported poor SQ. The collected data were entered into EpiData V.4.6 and analysed using Stata V.14 software. Binary logistic regressions were computed to determine the association between variables. The association was determined using an adjusted OR (AOR) with a 95% CI at a p value of <0.05. SETTING: The study was conducted at the University of Gondar, Northwestern Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 607 lecturers participated in this study. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome is the prevalence of poor SQ, which was measured using the PSQI. RESULTS: Overall response rate was 95.60% (N=607). The age of the participants ranges from 21 to 70 with a mean of 32.39 (SD±6.80) years. The magnitude of poor SQ during the COVID-19 pandemic in the last month was 60.30% (95% CI (56.28% to 64.21%)). Working greater than 10 hours per day (AOR=2.19, 95% CI (1.16 to 4.27)), electronic device use before bedtime (AOR=1.53, 95% CI (1.04 to 2.27)), high-risk perception of COVID-19 infections (AOR=1.60, 95% CI (1.04 to 2.46)) and perceived job stress (AOR=2.15 (95% CI (1.50 to 3.08)) were risk factors for poor SQ. CONCLUSION: The study revealed that the prevalence of poor SQ was high during the COVID-19 pandemic. The finding highlights the importance of optimising the working hours per day, minimising electronic device use before bedtime, promoting risk perception toward COVID-19 infection and developing workplace coping strategies for stress, which play a substantial role in minimising poor SQ.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Quality , Young Adult
20.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 31: e69, 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050234

ABSTRACT

AIMS: COVID-19 has long-term impacts on public mental health, while few research studies incorporate multidimensional methods to thoroughly characterise the psychological profile of general population and little detailed guidance exists for mental health management during the pandemic. This research aims to capture long-term psychological profile of general population following COVID-19 by integrating trajectory modelling approaches, latent trajectory pattern identification and network analyses. METHODS: Longitudinal data were collected from a nationwide sample of 18 804 adults in 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak in China. Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 and Insomnia Severity Index were used to measure depression, anxiety and insomnia, respectively. The unconditional and conditional latent growth curve models were fitted to investigate trajectories and long-term predictors for psychological symptoms. We employed latent growth mixture model to identify the major psychological symptom trajectory patterns, and ran sparse Gaussian graphical models with graphical lasso to explore the evolution of psychopathological network. RESULTS: At 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak, psychological symptoms generally alleviated, and five psychological symptom trajectories with different demographics were identified: normal stable (63.4%), mild stable (15.3%), mild-increase to decrease (11.7%), mild-decrease to increase (4.0%) and moderate/severe stable (5.5%). The finding indicated that there were still about 5% individuals showing consistently severe distress and approximately 16% following fluctuating psychological trajectories, who should be continuously monitored. For individuals with persistently severe trajectories and those with fluctuating trajectories, central or bridge symptoms in the network were mainly 'motor abnormality' and 'sad mood', respectively. Compared with initial peak and late COVID-19 phase, aftermath of initial peak might be a psychologically vulnerable period with highest network connectivity. The central and bridge symptoms for aftermath of initial peak ('appetite change' and 'trouble of relaxing') were totally different from those at other pandemic phases ('sad mood'). CONCLUSIONS: This research identified the overall growing trend, long-term predictors, trajectory classes and evolutionary pattern of psychopathological network of psychological symptoms in 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak. It provides a multidimensional long-term psychological profile of the general population after COVID-19 outbreak, and accentuates the essentiality of continuous psychological monitoring, as well as population- and time-specific psychological management after COVID-19. We believe our findings can offer reference for long-term psychological management after pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adult , Depression/psychology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
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