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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2037, 2022 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gender nonconformity (GNC) (i.e., gender expression that differs from gender role expectations for feminine or masculine appearance and behavior) is an under-researched area of adolescent sleep health. The COVID-19 lockdown offers an opportunity to understand how the effect of GNC on adolescent health outcomes changes between school closure and reopening. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China, in 2020. The sample size for analysis was 3,265. The age-specific insufficient sleep was estimated according to National Sleep Foundation's sleep duration recommendations. The self-perceived and self-rated GNC were measured by the two items "On the same scale that goes from 100% as a girl to 100% as a boy, where do you think others see you?" and "On a scale that goes from feeling 100% like a girl to feeling 100% like a boy, where do you see yourself?", and birth sex. In addition, we calculated sex-stratified adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of insufficient sleep for students with high and moderate GNC compared to students with low GNC. Finally, we measured the AORs with self-perceived and self-rated GNC during COVID-19 school closure and reopening. RESULTS: Among 3,265 students in grade 6-12 in the analytic sample, 1,567(48.0%) were assigned female at birth (AFAB), 3,188 (97.6%) Han, and 1,921(58.8%) in grade 6-9. Among AFAB students, high self-perceived GNC was significantly associated with insufficient sleep (AOR,1.65; 95%CI,1.30-2.09) during school closure. Insufficient sleep was associated with high self-rated GNC (AOR,1.73; 95%CI,1.23-2.44) and moderate self-rated GNC (AOR,1.69; 95%CI,1.29-2.22) during school closure. After school reopening, neither self-perceived nor self-rated GNC was associated with insufficient sleep among AFAB students. Among assigned male at birth (AMAB) students, none of the two kinds of GNC was associated with insufficient sleep in the two periods during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests GNC is only associated with insufficient sleep among AFAB students during school closure. Furthermore, the association is nonsignificant among AMAB students. These findings indicate that GNC-related stigma within the family could be a risk factor for insufficient sleep among AFAB adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Deprivation , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Schools , Sleep
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(37): e30637, 2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107666

ABSTRACT

To determine the prevalence of sleep disturbance during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among US adults who are more vulnerable to complications because of age and co-morbid conditions, and to identify associated sociodemographic and psychosocial factors. Cross-sectional survey linked to 3 active clinical trials and 2 cohort studies, conducted between 11/30/2020 and 3/3/2021. Five academic internal medicine practices and 2 federally qualified health centers. A total of 715 adults ages 23 to 91 years living with one or more chronic conditions. A fifth (20%) of participants reported poor sleep. Black adults were twice as likely to report poor sleep compared to Whites. Self-reported poor physical function (51%), stress (42%), depression (28%), and anxiety (36%) were also common and all significantly associated with poor sleep. Age ≥70 years and having been vaccinated for COVID-19 were protective against poor sleep. Sex, education, income, alcohol use, and employment status were not significantly associated with sleep quality. In this diverse sample of adults with chronic conditions, by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, disparities in sleep health amid the ongoing pandemic were apparent. Worse physical function and mental health were associated with poor sleep and should be considered targets for health system interventions to prevent the many subsequent consequences of disturbed sleep on health outcomes. Measurements: self-reported sleep quality, physical function, stress, depression, and anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sleep , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Young Adult
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19156, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106477

ABSTRACT

Movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep) have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. We report changes in and factors that influenced movement behaviors during COVID-19 among Latin American/Latino children aged 1 to 5 years in Chile, Mexico, and the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study between April and August 2020. Caregivers of 4,136 children (mean age [SD], 3.1 [1.4] years; 51% boys) reported family and household characteristics and changes in their child's movement behaviors. The proportion of children who met the WHO Guidelines decreased significantly in all countries, with the largest declines in meeting the physical activity and screen time guidelines. Factors associated with negative changes in movement behaviors were being an older child, unable to attend an early childhood education and care service, higher parental education levels, not having the opportunity to play with someone, and not having access to spaces to play. The findings highlight the need to minimize disparities faced by families by providing access to early childhood education and care and safe places for children to play.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Infant , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chile/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology , Latin America , Sleep , Hispanic or Latino
4.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 24(11): 635-643, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104097

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed current evidence on the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on sleep of different populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies demonstrated that sleep deprivation may cause immune system dysregulation, which deteriorates the course of COVID-19. The increased prevalence of sleep disorders among COVID-19 patients has been associated with more severe disease and worse clinical outcomes. Healthcare workers who were subjected to atypical workload and more nightshifts developed sleep disorders which associated with work-related errors and COVID-19 infection susceptibility. In general population, circadian misalignment and excessive stressors impaired sleep quality. Sleep dysfunction has been recorded due to the pandemic. It is essential to implement interventions in order to alleviate pandemic-related sleep disorders. Telemedicine, cognitive behavioral therapy, and sleep hygiene practices appear to be helpful. Psychotropic medication should be cautiously administered, while other pharmacological agents, such as melatonin, have shown promising results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/therapy , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099519

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a rapid and sustained negative impact on sleep and mental health in the United States with disproportionate morbidity and mortality among socioeconomically deprived populations. We used multivariable and logistic regression to evaluate the associations among sleep duration, mental health, and socioeconomic deprivation (social deprivation index) in 14,676 Ohio residents from 1101 zip code tabulation areas from the 2020 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. Higher socioeconomic deprivation was associated with shorter sleep and poorer mental health after adjusting for covariates (age, sex, race, education, income, and body mass index) in the multivariable linear regression models. Those in the highest socioeconomically deprived areas had 1.6 and 1.5 times higher odds of short sleep (duration < 6 h) and poor mental health (>14 poor mental health days), respectively, in the logistic regression models. Previous researchers have focused on limited socio-environmental factors such as crowding and income. We examined the role of a composite area based measure of socioeconomic deprivation in sleep duration and mental health during the first year of COVID-19. Our results suggest the need for a broader framework to understand the associations among socioeconomic deprivation, sleep duration, and mental health during a catastrophic event.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States/epidemiology , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mental Health , Income , Sleep , Socioeconomic Factors
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099505

ABSTRACT

Mandatory home isolation caused by COVID-19 in professional contexts led to a situation that required work activities to be converted into a remote modality. The literature on this topic is very recent, given the pandemic and the uncertainty of virtual and face-to-face work modalities. This study aimed to examine the effects of adults' prolonged exposure to screens on sleep quality, the type of devices used according to age and gender, periods of access to such devices and the impact on performance in the context of telework due to COVID-19. Specifically, the study analyzed the differences in the use of devices and in the time spent using them during and after teleworking between genders and age groups. A total of 127 Portuguese participants answered the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and a questionnaire that we specifically developed to characterize teleworking habits. The results showed differences between men and women regarding the use of devices and its impact on sleep quality, as well as differences in terms of age. These results are discussed in terms of how the current work context may affect performance, sleep, gender differences and the adverse effects of exposure to screens during and after work hours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Teleworking , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sleep , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sleep is a complex, reversible process that is responsible for the modulation of various physiological mechanisms. COVID-19-related sleep disorders are affecting different populations with a heterogenous prevalence, yet high rates among infected patients are frequently reported. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of insomnia in the early post-COVID-19 recovery period and explore the differences in the results acquired by the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) by gender and selected infection severity parameters. METHODS: The data presented in the paper come from a prospective, observational study on COVID-19 complications (SILCOV-19) consisting of 200 COVID-19 patients. The AIS was used for the quantitative measurement of insomnia symptoms based on ICD-10 criteria. RESULTS: 32% (n = 64) of all patients in the study group obtained results indicating sleep disturbances (>5 points on the scale), while 21.5% (n = 43) obtained results indicating insomnia (>10 points on the scale). The analysis of the results obtained by all patients in the AIS showed a significant correlation with the duration of symptoms (Spearman's rank-order: R = 0.18; p < 0.05), but not with the number of days spent in the hospital or age. Women achieved a higher score in overall AIS, as well as in questions assessing total sleep time, well-being the next day, physical and mental fitness the next day, and sleepiness during the day (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of insomnia in the early post-COVID-19 recovery period is high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Humans , Female , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology
8.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276165, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089421

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed unique academic, social, financial, and health-related challenges for young adults. While numerous studies have documented average increases in reported mental health issues in the general population, few have measured the magnitude of changes in mental health symptoms and sleep difficulties within individuals. Here, we measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and sleep of university students pre- and mid-pandemic. Prior to the pandemic (Fall 2019), individuals (n = 23) were recruited to participate in an eight-day, comprehensive sleep study using Fitbit® actigraphy. Participants also completed detailed mental health and sleep surveys, including depression (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI), and sleep disturbance (PROMIS) surveys. One year later, these individuals repeated the study during the pandemic (Fall 2020); participants completed the original surveys and sleep study, in addition to a targeted survey on mental and sleep health due to the pandemic. Self-reported levels of anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance, and sleep parameters, measured by actigraphy, were compared within the same individuals pre- and mid-pandemic. Self-report survey data revealed that three-quarters of participants experienced an increase in stress and anxiety due to the pandemic. In addition, intra-individual depression and anxiety symptoms increased to clinically significant levels within individuals from pre- to mid-pandemic. Over two-thirds of participants reported sleeping less, and more than half reported that their sleep health had worsened during the pandemic. Changes in sleep disturbance were positively associated with changes in depression and anxiety, reinforcing the robust relationship between poor sleep quality and mental health. Furthermore, individuals who reported greater sleep disturbance during the pandemic experienced lower relative proportions of both REM and deep sleep. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on university students is multi-faceted-mental health, sleep quality, and the amount of restorative sleep are negatively affected by the pandemic environment. These compounded effects exacerbate the health consequences of the pandemic and highlight a need for increased attention to the prevention and treatment of mental health disorders, particularly in vulnerable populations of young adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Humans , Young Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Sleep , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology
9.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 60, 2022 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increased incidence of central precocious puberty (CPP) after coronavirus infectious disease-19 lockdown has been reported. Our study aims in investigating changes in CPP rates and in sleep patterns in CPP and healthy controls. METHODS: CPP were retrospectively evaluated from April 2020 to April 2021. Parents of girls diagnosed with CPP during lockdown and of matched healthy controls filled out a questionnaire about sleep disturbances (SDSC questionnaire) and sleep schedules. RESULTS: Thirty-five CPP and 37 controls completed the survey. Incidence of new CPP cases significantly increased in 2020-2021 compared to 2017-2020 (5:100 vs 2:100, p = 0.02). Sleep disturbance rates did not differ between CPP and healthy controls before lockdown. During lockdown, CPP reported higher rates of sleep disturbs for total score (p = 0.005), excessive somnolence (p = 0.049), sleep breathing disorders (p = 0.049), and sleep-wake transition disorders (p = 0.005). Moreover, CPP group more frequently shifted toward later bedtime (p = 0.03) during lockdown compared to controls. Hours of sleep and smartphone exposure around bedtime did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the observation of increased incidence of CPP after lockdown measures. Additionally, CPP showed higher rates of sleep disturbances and later bedtime compared to controls. The causality link between sleep disturbances and CPP should be further investigated to gain knowledge in this association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Puberty, Precocious , Sleep Wake Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Puberty, Precocious/epidemiology , Puberty, Precocious/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Sleep , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082079

ABSTRACT

Pilot fatigue and alertness are critical for civil aviation safety. Intercontinental pilots are more prone to fatigue and sleepiness due to jet lag, prolonged workdays, and disrupted rhythms. The Civil Aviation Administration of China excused enlarged flight crews from mandatory layovers and reimposed flight duration restrictions during COVID-19. This study investigates the sleep quality and attentional performance of pilots on intercontinental flights. The fifteen pilots who performed intercontinental flights in different crew compositions wore a body movement recorder, which has been proven to accurately estimate sleep duration and sleep efficiency. The crew's attentional performance and self-report were monitored at specified flight phases. In conclusion, the larger crews slept longer and more efficiently on board, particularly pilots in charge of takeoff and landing responsibilities. Crews on four-pilot layover flights were more alert before the takeoff of the inbound flights than exempt flights, but there was no significant difference towards the end of the mission. The new long-haul flight organization did not result in fatigue or decreased attention in the pilots. This study expands on the research by validating a novel intercontinental flight operation model under the COVID-19 scenario and highlighting critical spots for future fatigue management in various crew compositions.


Subject(s)
Aviation , COVID-19 , Humans , Work Schedule Tolerance , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Sleep
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 995664, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080299

ABSTRACT

Background: Sleep disturbance including insomnia and sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of infectious. With the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it is important to explore potential causal associations of sleep disturbance on COVID-19 susceptibility and hospitalization. Method: Insomnia and sleep duration were selected as exposure. Outcomes included susceptibility and hospitalization for COVID-19. Two sample mendelian randomization design was used to assess causality between sleep and COVID-19. Inverse variance weighted method was used as main analysis method to combine the ratio estimates for each instrumental variable to obtain the causal effect. Cochran's Q statistic was used to test for global heterogeneity. MR-Egger and weighting median estimator (WME) were used as sensitivity analysis to ensure the stability and reliability of the results. MR-Egger intercept term was used to test the mean pleiotropy. In addition, the direct effects of insomnia and sleep duration on COVID-19 susceptibility and hospitalization were estimated using multivariable mendelian randomization (MVMR). Results: Univariate MR provided no evidence of a causal associations of insomnia on COVID-19 susceptibility (OR = 1.10, 95% CI:0.95, 1.27; p = 0.21) and hospitalization (OR = 0.61, 95% CI:0.40, 0.92; p = 0.02); as does sleep duration (ORCOIVD - 19susceptibility = 0.93, 95% CI:0.86, 1.01; p = 0.07; ORCOIVD - 19 hospitalization = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.47; p = 0.08). MVMR results showed that insomnia may be a risk factor for increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.05; p <0.001); and sleep duration was also associated with increased COVID-19 susceptibility (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.46; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Insomnia and extreme sleep duration may risk factors for increased COVID-19 susceptibility. Relieving insomnia and maintaining normal sleep duration may be powerful measures to reduce COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Hospitalization , Humans , Mendelian Randomization Analysis/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Sleep , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071484

ABSTRACT

This study examined the longitudinal changes of movement behaviors and their relationships with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among university students during the coronavirus disease 2019 in China. A total of 569 university students completed online surveys twice (Time 1: between December 2020 and January 2021; Time 2: between November and December 2021). Physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration and quality, as well as PTSD were self-reported. According to Canadian 24-h movement guidelines, the longitudinal shifts in each movement behavior from Time 1 to Time 2 were divided into four categories (consistently meeting the guidelines, from meeting to not meeting the guidelines, from not meeting to meeting the guidelines, and consistently not meeting the guidelines). Generalized linear mixed models were conducted using 410 valid responses (20.2 ± 1.0 years old at Time 2, 41.2% males). From Time 1 to Time 2, 22.2%, 2.0%, and 45.6% of the students consistently met the physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep guidelines, respectively. Compared to those who consistently met the sedentary behavior guideline, students who consistently failed to meet or changed from meeting to not meeting the guidelines had higher levels of PTSD. Students who had poor sleep quality at both time points or changed from good to bad sleep quality had higher levels of PTSD than those who maintained good sleep quality over time. Compared to those who consistently failed to meet the guideline, students who consistently met the PA guideline had higher levels of PTSD. These findings highlight the needs to improve and maintain healthy behaviors for mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Male , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Universities , Pandemics , Canada/epidemiology , Sleep/physiology , Students/psychology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065947

ABSTRACT

Due to the evolution of COVID-19,restrictive measures were implemented. The quarantine resulted in significant changes in the social, economic, and psychological status of the population; however, its long-term effects have not yet been elucidated, especially in young adults. In the present study, people aged 18-25 years were studied, in relation to their sleeping, smoking, eating, and drinking habits and their physical activity before, during, and after the implementation of quarantine. We included 540 respondents (21.2 ± 2.3 years, 62.8% female). During quarantine, from 23 March to 4 May 2020, we observed an increase in sleep hours by 1.17 ± 1.98 h (p < 0.001), time of sleep arrival by 11.90 ± 30.41 min (p < 0.001), and number of daily meals by 0.66 ± 1.4 (p < 0.001). The subjects who consumed alcoholic beverages never or almost never had an upward change of 27.04%, and the time of daily exercise was reduced by 10.16 ± 48.68 min (p < 0.001). After quarantine, cigarettes per day increased by 1.14 ± 3.62 (p < 0.001) and the awakenings during night time increased by 0.37 ± 1.93 (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that the quarantine brought about significant changes in smoking, sleeping habits, physical activity, dietary habits, and the consumption of alcoholic beverages, some of which continue after its termination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Pandemics , Quarantine/psychology , Sleep , Sleep Quality , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065946

ABSTRACT

Physical activity (PA) and sleep are both important to mental health. However, their joint effects on mental distress have not been well explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the joint effects of PA and sleep on mental health, as well as the dose-response relationships between PA and mental health under different sleep health statuses. A longitudinal panel study was adopted to evaluate the relationship between PA, sleep, and mental health among 66 healthy Chinese college students with four online questionnaire surveys. A mixed-effect model with individual-level random effect was used to analyze the interactive regulation effect of PA and sleep on mental health, and a generalized additive model with splines was further fitted to analyze dose-response relationships between variables. When sleep was at a healthy level, no significant difference in mental health was observed between different levels of PA (p > 0.05). However, poor sleepers with moderate and high PA levels indicated significantly fewer negative emotions than those with low PA levels (p = 0.001, p = 0.004). Likewise, poor sleepers who engaged in more moderate intensity PA could significantly reduce negative emotions (ß = -0.470, p = 0.011) in a near-linear trend. In summary, both sleep and PA benefit mental health, and they probably regulate mental health through an interactive compensation mode. For good and poor sleepers, PA plays a different role in maintaining and improving mental health. Increasing moderate intensity PA up to moderate-and-high levels is recommended for those who simultaneously suffer from sleep and psychological health problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Exercise , Humans , Pandemics , Sleep/physiology , Students/psychology
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065933

ABSTRACT

The number of occasions to stay in a car overnight is increasing during disasters; however, the effects on sleep and the impact on daytime functioning are not well understood. We investigated the effect of seat angle when sleeping in a car and its impact on calculation performance the following day. Fifteen healthy males participated in three trials (sleeping in a car with the front seat angled at 45° and 60° in a laboratory and sleeping at home); sleep and calculation performance the following day were compared. Increased wake after sleep onset and decreased slow-wave sleep were observed in the 60° trial, that is, near-vertical, compared with the others. Subjective sleep quality and calculation performance in the 45° and 60° trials were poorer than those in the home trial. The effect of seat angle on sleep was confirmed objectively, but not subjectively, suggesting that a large seat angle might cause sleep impairment.


Subject(s)
Automobiles , Sleep Quality , Humans , Male , Polysomnography , Sleep
17.
Fam Community Health ; 45(4): 288-298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063028

ABSTRACT

Many children have experienced unprecedented levels of stress as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic due to school closures, strained resources, and excess morbidity and mortality. The current study examines change in children's mental health and sleep during the early months of the US pandemic and identifies risk and protective factors. In May 2020, a total of 225 parents reported on the mental health and sleep of each child (N = 392 children) living in their household prior to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and about their functioning in the past month. McNemar's test examined change in mental health and sleep disturbance across developmental stage. Bivariate and multivariate generalized estimating equations examined predictors of change in mental health and sleep. Each age group showed a significant change in mental health and sleep outcomes, but the development of mental health problems was greater for older children. Parental caregiving strain (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-5.27) was identified as a risk factor associated with children developing anxiety, and income loss was associated with developing sleep disturbances (aOR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.06-5.17). Parental receipt of emotional support was identified as a protective factor for all child health outcomes. Policies and interventions that promote access to mental health services, provide financial safety nets, and strengthen social support networks for families are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Parents/psychology , Sleep , United States/epidemiology
18.
Chronobiol Int ; 39(11): 1524-1532, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062543

ABSTRACT

Current evidence suggests that preventive measures, such as social distancing and wearing face masks, are critical to contain the spread of COVID-19. The recent burgeoning literature has empirically examined how a wide range of facet-level personality and individual-differences variables are associated with people's adherence to COVID-19 regulations. However, there lacks direct evidence regarding the role of chronotype in compliance with pandemic safety measures. According to the eveningness epidemiological liability hypothesis, people of later chronotype are more likely to breach COVID-19 restrictions. Despite this hypothesis shedding considerable light on the potential role of chronotype in the abidance of the virus-mitigating measures, it has not been rigorously tested using empirical data. To fill this gap, the present research investigated the link between morningness-eveningness and compliance with COVID-19 containment policies in Chinese samples. Two studies using multiple populations (students and community adults) and diverse measures of adherence to public health guidelines (self-report and actual behavior) consistently show that individuals who orient towards morningness display a higher level of compliance with COVID-19 prevention than people who orient towards eveningness. Overall, these findings present the first empirical confirmation of the eveningness epidemiological liability hypothesis, highlighting the role of chronotype in adherence to COVID-19 prevention guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Strigiformes , Animals , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Circadian Rhythm , Surveys and Questionnaires , Students , Sleep
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1843, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 outbreak, the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) has formulated Implementation Measures for Exemption of Crew Duty Periods and Flight Time Restrictions during the COVID-19 Outbreak. This exemption policy imposes temporary deviations from the approved crew duty periods and flight time restrictions for some transport airlines and regulates the use of multiple crews for continuous round-trip flights. However, no research has been conducted on flight crew fatigue under this exemption policy. That is, the exemption policy lacks theoretical analysis and scientific validation. METHODS: Firstly, flight plans for international flights under both the exemption and the CCAR-121 Policy schemes (with three flight departure scenarios: early morning, midday and evening) are designed, and flight plans are simulated based on the SAFE model. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and the PVT objective test of alertness, both of which are commonly used in the aviation industry, are then selected for use in an empirical experimental study of flight crew fatigue on two flights subject to the exemption and CCAR-121 policies. RESULTS: The SAFE model simulation found that the fatigue risk results based on flight crews for flights departing in the early morning (4:00), at noon (12:00) and in the evening (20:00) indicate that the fatigue risk levels of flight crews operating under the exemption policy are overwhelmingly lower than or similar to those operating under the CCAR-121 policy. However, there were a few periods when the fatigue risk of crews flying under the exemption policy was higher than that of crews flying under the CCAR-121 policy, but at these times, the crews flying under both policies were either at a lower level of fatigue risk or were in the rest phase of their shifts. In the experimental study section, 40 pilots from each of the early morning (4:00), noon (12:00) and evening (20:00) departures operating under the exemption policy were selected to collect KSS scale data and PVT test data during their duty periods, and a total of 120 other pilots operating under the CCAR-121 policy were selected for the same experiment. First, the KSS scale data results found that flight pilots, whether flying under the exemption policy or under the CCAR-121 policy, had overall similar KSS scores, maintained KSS scores below the fatigue risk threshold (i.e., KSS score < 6) during the flights and that the empirical KSS data and the model simulation results from the KSS data were overall identical at the test nodes during the flight and had nearly identical trends. Finally, the results of the PVT objective test indicators showed that the overall change in 1/RT of the crews flying under the exemption policy was less than or similar to that of the crews flying under the CCAR-121 policy, while the maximum change in 1/RT of the crews under both policies was between 1 and 1.5. This indicates that the overall level of alertness of the crew flying under the exemption policy is higher than or similar to that of the crew flying under the CCAR-121 policy, while the change in alertness level of the crew before and after the mission is relatively small when flying under either policy. CONCLUSION: Based on the model simulation results and the results of the empirical study, it was verified that the overall fatigue risk level of flight crews operating under the exemption policy is lower than or similar to the fatigue risk level of flight crews operating under the CCAR-121 policy. Therefore, the exemption policy in response to the COVID-19 outbreak does not result in an overall increase in the level of flight crew fatigue risk compared to the original CCAR-121 policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Work Schedule Tolerance , Aircraft , Disease Outbreaks , Fatigue/epidemiology , Humans , Policy , Risk Assessment , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Deprivation/epidemiology , Work Schedule Tolerance/physiology
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16660, 2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050554

ABSTRACT

Most studies have shown a decline in the adherence to 24-Hour Movement Guidelines because of Covid-19 lockdown. However, there is little evidence regarding changes 1-year after the pandemic in these guidelines and their possible impact on academic performance. The study aims were: (1) to examine the possible changes in 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for youth (i.e., at least 60 min per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, ≤ 2 h per day of recreational screen time, and 9 to 11 h of sleep per day for children and 8 to 10 h for adolescents) before and after 1-year into the Covid-19 pandemic, and (2) to examine the possible changes in the relationship between 24-Hour Movement Behaviours (physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration) and academic performance before and after 1-year into the Covid-19. This is a repeated cross-sectional study in two different samples of young Spanish at different times. Firstly, a total of 844 students (13.12 ± 0.86; 42.7% girls) completed a series of valid and reliable questionnaires about physical activity levels, recreational screen time, sleep duration and academic performance before Covid-19 pandemic (March to June 2018). Secondly, a different sample of 501 students (14.39 ± 1.16; 55.3% girls) completed the same questionnaires 1-year after Covid-19 pandemic (February to March 2021). Adherence to the three 24-Hour Movement Guidelines was significantly lower 1-year after into the Covid-19 pandemic (0.2%) than before the pandemic (3.3%), while adherence to none of these three recommendations was significantly higher 1-year after the Covid-19 pandemic (66.3%) than before the pandemic (28.9%). The positive relationship between physical activity levels and academic performance was no longer significant after 1-year into Covid-19 pandemic (ß = - 0.26; p < 0.001). 1-year after Covid-19 pandemic, the relationship between recreational screen time (ß = - 0.05; p > 0.05) and sleep duration (ß = 0.05; p < 0.001) with academic performance did not change compared to pre-pandemic. The results suggest that 24-Hour Movement Behaviours have worsened among young people 1-year after Covid-19 pandemic compared to pre-pandemic period. Moreover, the physical activity benefits associated in terms of academic performance seem to have disappeared because of the Covid-19 pandemic. Therefore, there is a public health problem that requires priority and coordinated action by schools, policy makers, and researchers to mitigate the adverse effects of the pandemic on 24-Hour Movement Behaviours.


Subject(s)
Academic Performance , COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Sedentary Behavior , Sleep
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