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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21989, 2022 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307496

ABSTRACT

Sleep is a complex process and is needed both in health and illness. Deprivation of sleep is known to have multiple negative physiological effects on people's bodies and minds. Despite the awareness of these harmful effects, previous studies have shown that sleep is poor among hospitalised patients. We utilized an observational design with 343 patients recruited from medical and surgical units in 12 hospitals located in nine Spanish regions. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients were collected. Sleep quality at admission and during hospitalisation was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Sleep quantity was self-reported by patients in hours and minutes. Mean PSQI score before and during hospitalisation were respectively 8.62 ± 4.49 and 11.31 ± 4.04. Also, inpatients slept about an hour less during their hospital stay. Lower educational level, sedative medication intake, and multi-morbidity was shown to be associated with poorer sleep quality during hospitalisation. A higher level of habitual physical activity has shown to correlate positively with sleep quality in hospital. Our study showed poor sleep quality and quantity of inpatients and a drastic deterioration of sleep in hospital versus at home. These results may be helpful in drawing attention to patients' sleep in hospitals and encouraging interventions to improve sleep.


Subject(s)
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Humans , Hospitals, Public , Inpatients , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/complications , Sleep Quality , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/complications , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Int J Public Health ; 68: 1604647, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274760

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected people's physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep. This study aimed to clarify the association between combining these factors, integrated as adherence to 24-h movement guidelines, and depressive status during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: At the end of October 2020, we sent self-administered questionnaires to 1,711 adults aged ≥18. We assessed physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, adherence to 24-h movement guidelines, depressive status, and confounding factors. Results: Of the 640 valid responses, 90 (14.1%) reported a depressive status. Multivariable odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of depressive status were 0.22 (0.07, 0.71) for all three recommendations of the 24-h movement guidelines and those who met none of the recommendations as reference. The number of guidelines met was associated with depressive status in a dose-response fashion. Conclusion: Meeting the 24-h movement guidelines was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive status during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adults should adhere to these guidelines to maintain their mental health during future quarantine life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Exercise , Adult , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , East Asian People , Exercise/psychology , Pandemics , Sleep/physiology , Depression/epidemiology
3.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(3)2023 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287873

ABSTRACT

Sleep is an essential physiological activity, accounting for about one-third of our lives, which significantly impacts our memory, mood, health, and children's growth. Especially after the COVID-19 epidemic, sleep health issues have attracted more attention. In recent years, with the development of wearable electronic devices, there have been more and more studies, products, or solutions related to sleep monitoring. Many mature technologies, such as polysomnography, have been applied to clinical practice. However, it is urgent to develop wearable or non-contacting electronic devices suitable for household continuous sleep monitoring. This paper first introduces the basic knowledge of sleep and the significance of sleep monitoring. Then, according to the types of physiological signals monitored, this paper describes the research progress of bioelectrical signals, biomechanical signals, and biochemical signals used for sleep monitoring. However, it is not ideal to monitor the sleep quality for the whole night based on only one signal. Therefore, this paper reviews the research on multi-signal monitoring and introduces systematic sleep monitoring schemes. Finally, a conclusion and discussion of sleep monitoring are presented to propose potential future directions and prospects for sleep monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wearable Electronic Devices , Child , Humans , Polysomnography , Sleep/physiology
4.
Curr Biol ; 33(5): 998-1005.e2, 2023 03 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282292

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is a major strategy to control a viral pandemic. Simple behavioral interventions that might boost vaccine responses have yet to be identified. We conducted meta-analyses to summarize the evidence linking the amount of sleep obtained in the days surrounding vaccination to antibody response in healthy adults. Authors of the included studies provided the information needed to accurately estimate the pooled effect size (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and to examine sex differences.1,2,3,4,5,6,7 The association between self-reported short sleep (<6 h/night) and reduced vaccine response did not reach our pre-defined statistical significant criteria (total n = 504, ages 18-85; overall ES [95% CI] = 0.29 [-0.04, 0.63]). Objectively assessed short sleep was associated with a robust decrease in antibody response (total n = 304, ages 18-60; overall ES [95% CI] = 0.79 [0.40, 1.18]). In men, the pooled ES was large (overall ES [95% CI] = 0.93 [0.54, 1.33]), whereas it did not reach significance in women (overall ES [95% CI] = 0.42 [-0.49, 1.32]). These results provide evidence that insufficient sleep duration substantially decreases the response to anti-viral vaccination and suggests that achieving adequate amount of sleep during the days surrounding vaccination may enhance and prolong the humoral response. Large-scale well-controlled studies are urgently needed to define (1) the window of time around inoculation when optimizing sleep duration is most beneficial, (2) the causes of the sex disparity in the impact of sleep on the response, and (3) the amount of sleep needed to protect the response.


Subject(s)
Sleep Wake Disorders , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Female , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sleep Duration , Antibody Formation , Sleep Deprivation , Vaccination , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/complications
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270305

ABSTRACT

Sleep deprivation is a significant risk to the health and judgment of physicians. We wanted to investigate whether anesthesiology residents (ARs) who work only one night shift per week have different physical and mental health from occupational medicine residents (OMRs) who do not work at night. A total of 21 ARs and 16 OMRs attending a university general hospital were asked to wear an actigraph to record sleep duration, heart rate and step count and to complete a questionnaire for the assessment of sleep quality, sleepiness, fatigue, occupational stress, anxiety, depression and happiness. ARs had shorter sleep duration than OMRs; on average, they slept 1 h and 20 min less (p < 0.001). ARs also had greater daytime sleepiness, a higher heart rate and lower happiness than OMRs. These results should be interpreted with caution given the cross-sectional nature of the study and the small sample size, but they are an incentive to promote sleep hygiene among residents.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiology , Occupational Medicine , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Deprivation/epidemiology , Sleep Deprivation/psychology , Fatigue/psychology , Work Schedule Tolerance/psychology
6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 13(1): 32, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221796

ABSTRACT

Short nighttime sleep duration impairs the immune response to virus vaccination, and long nighttime sleep duration is associated with poor health status. Thus, we hypothesized that short (<6 h) and long (>9 h) nighttime sleepers have a higher post-COVID risk than normal nighttime sleepers, despite two doses of mRNA vaccine (which has previously been linked to lower odds of long-lasting COVID-19 symptoms). Post-COVID was defined as experiencing at least one core COVID-19 symptom for at least three months (e.g., shortness of breath). Multivariate logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and other factors showed in 9717 respondents (age span 18-99) that two mRNA vaccinations lowered the risk of suffering from post-COVID by about 21% (p < 0.001). When restricting the analysis to double-vaccinated respondents (n = 5918), short and long sleepers exhibited a greater post-COVID risk than normal sleepers (adjusted OR [95%-CI], 1.56 [1.29, 1.88] and 1.87 [1.32, 2.66], respectively). Among respondents with persistent sleep duration patterns during the pandemic compared to before the pandemic, short but not long sleep duration was significantly associated with the post-COVID risk (adjusted OR [95%-CI], 1.59 [1.24, 2.03] and 1.18 [0.70, 1.97], respectively). No significant association between sleep duration and post-COVID symptoms was observed in those reporting positive SARS-CoV-2 test results (n = 538). Our findings suggest that two mRNA vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2 are associated with a lower post-COVID risk. However, this protection may be less pronounced among those sleeping less than 6 h per night. Our findings warrant replication in cohorts with individuals with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Humans , Sleep Duration , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225196

ABSTRACT

Sleep of inadequate quantity and quality is increasing in the present 24 h society, with a negative impact on physical and mental health. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) generate a state of calm behavior that can reduce hyperactivity and improve sleep. We hypothesized that our specific MBI, administered online, may improve sleep quality and foster emotion regulation and mindfulness. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Sleep Condition Indicator (SCI), Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS), Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST), Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were used to measure sleep quality and stability. Emotion regulation and mindfulness were measured via the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) and Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). Our MBI included 12 biweekly integral meditation (IM) classes, recorded IM training for individual practice, and dietary advice to promote sleep regulation. Fifty-six voluntary poor sleepers with a PSQI score of >5 were randomly allocated to treated (n = 28) and control (n = 28) groups. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the effectiveness of the intervention. Statistically significant results were observed in the FFMQ sub-domain non-reactivity to inner experience (ß = 0.29 [0.06; -0.52], p = 0.01), PSQI (ß = -1.93 [-3.43; -0.43], p = 0.01), SCI (ß = 3.39 [0.66; 6.13], p = 0.02) and ISI (ß = -3.50 [-5.86; -1.14], p = 0.004). These results confirm our hypothesis regarding the beneficial effects of our intervention on sleep quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mindfulness , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Mindfulness/methods , Sleep Quality , Pandemics , Sleep/physiology
8.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279620, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197114

ABSTRACT

Young adults with a later chronotype are vulnerable for a discrepancy in sleep rhythm between work- and free days, called social jet lag (SJL). This study analysed (i) chronotype/SJL association with visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass, (ii) the attribution to physical activity behaviour, and (iii) chronotype-specific changes in physical activity behaviour in young adults during the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown. Chronotype and SJL were derived from the Munich-Chrono-Type-Questionnaire in 320 German students (age 18-25 years) from September 2019 to January 2020, 156 of these participated in an online follow-up survey in June 2020. Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance analysis at baseline. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to relate chronotype/SJL to body composition; the contribution of self-reported physical activity was tested by mediation analysis. At baseline, a later chronotype and a larger SJL were associated with a higher visceral fat mass (P<0.05), this relation was notably mediated by the attention to physical activity (P<0.05). Chronotype (P = 0.02) but not SJL (P = 0.87) was inversely associated with skeletal muscle mass. During the pandemic lockdown, chronotype hardly changed, but SJL was reduced. Timing and physical activity behaviour remained in most participants and changes were unrelated to chronotype (all P>0.07). A later chronotype/higher SJL may increase the risk of a higher visceral fat mass even in this relatively healthy sample, which may be partly due to their physical activity behaviour. Despite a reduction in SJL during the pandemic lockdown, later chronotypes did not change their physical activity behaviour more than earlier chronotypes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Jet Lag Syndrome , Young Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Jet Lag Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Chronotype , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Sleep/physiology , Students , Body Composition , Exercise , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279034, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197065

ABSTRACT

Confinements due to the COVID-19 outbreak affected sleep and mental health of adults, adolescents and children. Already preschool children experienced acutely worsened sleep, yet the possible resulting effects on executive functions remain unexplored. Longitudinally, sleep quality predicts later behavioral-cognitive outcomes. Accordingly, we propose children's sleep behavior as essential for healthy cognitive development. By using the COVID-19 confinement as an observational-experimental intervention, we tested whether worsened children's sleep affects executive functions outcomes 6 months downstream. We hypothesized that acutely increased night awakenings and sleep latency relate to reduced later executive functions. With an online survey during the acute confinement phase we analyzed sleep behavior in 45 children (36-72 months). A first survey referred to the (retrospective) time before and (acute) situation during confinement, and a follow-up survey assessed executive functions 6 months later (6 months retrospectively). Indeed, acutely increased nighttime awakenings related to reduced inhibition at FOLLOW-UP. Associations were specific to the confinement-induced sleep-change and not the sleep behavior before confinement. These findings highlight that specifically acute changes of children's nighttime sleep during sensitive periods are associated with behavioral outcome consequences. This aligns with observations in animals that inducing poor sleep during developmental periods affects later brain function.


Subject(s)
Executive Function , Sleep , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Executive Function/physiology , Protective Factors , Retrospective Studies , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/physiopathology , Child
10.
J Spec Pediatr Nurs ; 28(1): e12401, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152821

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was (1) to examine sleep changes in first graders before and after school closure and (2) to examine the association between parental work rearrangement and children's sleep change during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN AND METHODS: This was an observational study. The children's sleep habit questionnaire was completed by 103 parents of first-graders before and after school closure. Paired t-test and the general linear model were applied to data analysis. RESULTS: Children delayed their bedtime and rising time, but total sleep duration increased. Moreover, parents who rearranged their work during the pandemic perceived more child parasomnia symptoms (p = .029) and less delayed sleep-wake patterns in their children. PRACTICAL IMPLICATION: Sleep is an indicator that reflects children's behavioral changes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. As routine changes, parents should be aware of child's parasomnia symptoms. Nursing interventions could aim at promoting sufficient external cues in the daytime during home confinement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parasomnias , Sleep Wake Disorders , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Sleep/physiology , Parents , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology
11.
J Sleep Res ; 31(6): e13591, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137087

ABSTRACT

This study examined the role of sleep disturbances and insomnia in the context of stress reactivity in adolescence. One-hundred and thirty-five 11-18 year olds (Mage  = 14.2 years, SD = 1.9, 52% female) completed the Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Salivary cortisol and subjective stress ratings were collected at six time points, and heart rate as well as heart rate variability were measured pre-, during and post-stress induction. Additionally, sleep disturbances and insomnia diagnosis were assessed by a self-report questionnaire and a sleep interview. Robust mixed models investigated if adolescents with compared with adolescents without (a) sleep disturbances and (b) insomnia differ regarding cortisol, heart rate, heart rate variability and psychological stress reactivity considering gender effects. The results indicated that boys with high sleep disturbances showed higher cortisol activity compared with boys with low sleep disturbances, B = 0.88, p < 0.05. Moreover, in boys with insomnia, heart rate and alpha 1 significantly differ less than in boys without insomnia. These findings support the notion of sex differences regarding the association between poor sleep and increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and a less adaptable autonomic nervous system in boys in response to an experimental social stress task.


Subject(s)
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Child , Female , Adolescent , Humans , Male , Hydrocortisone , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Sleep/physiology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Electrocardiography , Saliva
12.
Chronobiol Int ; 39(12): 1640-1655, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117679

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to holistically examine the impact of long-haul transmeridian travel (LHTT) on perceptual, mood, sleep and physiological markers in Olympic team support staff travelling to Japan for the 2020 Summer Olympic Games. An observational descriptive study design was used. Nine support staff members of the Irish Olympic team (2 M/7 F; age 34.3 ± 8.3 y (mean ±SD)) embarked on a long-haul (LH) eastward flight across eight time-zones from Ireland to Japan (approx. 24 h total travel time), to work at the Irish Team's 2020 Summer pre-Olympic Games camp, postponed to July 2021 due to Covid-19 pandemic. Perceived jet lag and travel fatigue symptoms, mood states and salivary markers for circadian rhythm and stress were assessed in the morning and evening during the week prior to travel as baseline (BL) measures and on days 1 to 8 (C1-C8) and day 15 (C15) post-travel. Night-time sleep (duration and quality) was monitored via actigraphy monitors and self-report sleep diaries. Participants perceived themselves to be significantly jet lagged for six days post-travel (p < .05). Morning sCort decreased by 66% on C1 and remained significantly lower than BL until C6 (p ≤ .03). On arrival participants perceived sleep to be worse than BL on arrival (C1, C2, C4, C5; p ≤ .04), with significantly shorter sleep duration (C2, C3, C6; p ≤ .01) and lower sleep efficiency (C2, C6; p ≤ .04) recorded by actigraphy, all normalizing by C7. Negative changes in mood states were evident in the evening time following LHTT, with significant elevations in confusion (C2, C3, p ≤ .02), fatigue (C2, C3; p ≤ .03) and depression (C3, C7; p < .05) and reduction in vigour (C2, C6, C7; p < .05). Following LHTT in an eastward direction across eight time-zones, it took seven days for perceived jet lag, physiological markers for circadian rhythm and sleep to normalize in Olympic team support staff. Despite alleviation of jet lag and fatigue and return of sleep to normal by C15, vigor remained low, indicating a "submerged" mood profile in these Olympic team support staff. These findings highlight the need to put strategies in place before and after LHTT for the Olympic Games to assist Olympic team support staff to maximize sleep, minimize stress and assist with expediating recovery from jet lag and travel fatigue, allowing them to perform optimally in supporting Olympic athletes in their final preparations for the Games.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Jet Lag Syndrome , Humans , Adult , Pandemics , Circadian Rhythm , Sleep/physiology , Travel , Fatigue
13.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 24(11): 635-643, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104097

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed current evidence on the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on sleep of different populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies demonstrated that sleep deprivation may cause immune system dysregulation, which deteriorates the course of COVID-19. The increased prevalence of sleep disorders among COVID-19 patients has been associated with more severe disease and worse clinical outcomes. Healthcare workers who were subjected to atypical workload and more nightshifts developed sleep disorders which associated with work-related errors and COVID-19 infection susceptibility. In general population, circadian misalignment and excessive stressors impaired sleep quality. Sleep dysfunction has been recorded due to the pandemic. It is essential to implement interventions in order to alleviate pandemic-related sleep disorders. Telemedicine, cognitive behavioral therapy, and sleep hygiene practices appear to be helpful. Psychotropic medication should be cautiously administered, while other pharmacological agents, such as melatonin, have shown promising results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/therapy , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sleep is a complex, reversible process that is responsible for the modulation of various physiological mechanisms. COVID-19-related sleep disorders are affecting different populations with a heterogenous prevalence, yet high rates among infected patients are frequently reported. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of insomnia in the early post-COVID-19 recovery period and explore the differences in the results acquired by the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) by gender and selected infection severity parameters. METHODS: The data presented in the paper come from a prospective, observational study on COVID-19 complications (SILCOV-19) consisting of 200 COVID-19 patients. The AIS was used for the quantitative measurement of insomnia symptoms based on ICD-10 criteria. RESULTS: 32% (n = 64) of all patients in the study group obtained results indicating sleep disturbances (>5 points on the scale), while 21.5% (n = 43) obtained results indicating insomnia (>10 points on the scale). The analysis of the results obtained by all patients in the AIS showed a significant correlation with the duration of symptoms (Spearman's rank-order: R = 0.18; p < 0.05), but not with the number of days spent in the hospital or age. Women achieved a higher score in overall AIS, as well as in questions assessing total sleep time, well-being the next day, physical and mental fitness the next day, and sleepiness during the day (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of insomnia in the early post-COVID-19 recovery period is high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Humans , Female , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071484

ABSTRACT

This study examined the longitudinal changes of movement behaviors and their relationships with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among university students during the coronavirus disease 2019 in China. A total of 569 university students completed online surveys twice (Time 1: between December 2020 and January 2021; Time 2: between November and December 2021). Physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration and quality, as well as PTSD were self-reported. According to Canadian 24-h movement guidelines, the longitudinal shifts in each movement behavior from Time 1 to Time 2 were divided into four categories (consistently meeting the guidelines, from meeting to not meeting the guidelines, from not meeting to meeting the guidelines, and consistently not meeting the guidelines). Generalized linear mixed models were conducted using 410 valid responses (20.2 ± 1.0 years old at Time 2, 41.2% males). From Time 1 to Time 2, 22.2%, 2.0%, and 45.6% of the students consistently met the physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep guidelines, respectively. Compared to those who consistently met the sedentary behavior guideline, students who consistently failed to meet or changed from meeting to not meeting the guidelines had higher levels of PTSD. Students who had poor sleep quality at both time points or changed from good to bad sleep quality had higher levels of PTSD than those who maintained good sleep quality over time. Compared to those who consistently failed to meet the guideline, students who consistently met the PA guideline had higher levels of PTSD. These findings highlight the needs to improve and maintain healthy behaviors for mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Male , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Universities , Pandemics , Canada/epidemiology , Sleep/physiology , Students/psychology
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065946

ABSTRACT

Physical activity (PA) and sleep are both important to mental health. However, their joint effects on mental distress have not been well explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the joint effects of PA and sleep on mental health, as well as the dose-response relationships between PA and mental health under different sleep health statuses. A longitudinal panel study was adopted to evaluate the relationship between PA, sleep, and mental health among 66 healthy Chinese college students with four online questionnaire surveys. A mixed-effect model with individual-level random effect was used to analyze the interactive regulation effect of PA and sleep on mental health, and a generalized additive model with splines was further fitted to analyze dose-response relationships between variables. When sleep was at a healthy level, no significant difference in mental health was observed between different levels of PA (p > 0.05). However, poor sleepers with moderate and high PA levels indicated significantly fewer negative emotions than those with low PA levels (p = 0.001, p = 0.004). Likewise, poor sleepers who engaged in more moderate intensity PA could significantly reduce negative emotions (ß = -0.470, p = 0.011) in a near-linear trend. In summary, both sleep and PA benefit mental health, and they probably regulate mental health through an interactive compensation mode. For good and poor sleepers, PA plays a different role in maintaining and improving mental health. Increasing moderate intensity PA up to moderate-and-high levels is recommended for those who simultaneously suffer from sleep and psychological health problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Exercise , Humans , Pandemics , Sleep/physiology , Students/psychology
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1843, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 outbreak, the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) has formulated Implementation Measures for Exemption of Crew Duty Periods and Flight Time Restrictions during the COVID-19 Outbreak. This exemption policy imposes temporary deviations from the approved crew duty periods and flight time restrictions for some transport airlines and regulates the use of multiple crews for continuous round-trip flights. However, no research has been conducted on flight crew fatigue under this exemption policy. That is, the exemption policy lacks theoretical analysis and scientific validation. METHODS: Firstly, flight plans for international flights under both the exemption and the CCAR-121 Policy schemes (with three flight departure scenarios: early morning, midday and evening) are designed, and flight plans are simulated based on the SAFE model. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and the PVT objective test of alertness, both of which are commonly used in the aviation industry, are then selected for use in an empirical experimental study of flight crew fatigue on two flights subject to the exemption and CCAR-121 policies. RESULTS: The SAFE model simulation found that the fatigue risk results based on flight crews for flights departing in the early morning (4:00), at noon (12:00) and in the evening (20:00) indicate that the fatigue risk levels of flight crews operating under the exemption policy are overwhelmingly lower than or similar to those operating under the CCAR-121 policy. However, there were a few periods when the fatigue risk of crews flying under the exemption policy was higher than that of crews flying under the CCAR-121 policy, but at these times, the crews flying under both policies were either at a lower level of fatigue risk or were in the rest phase of their shifts. In the experimental study section, 40 pilots from each of the early morning (4:00), noon (12:00) and evening (20:00) departures operating under the exemption policy were selected to collect KSS scale data and PVT test data during their duty periods, and a total of 120 other pilots operating under the CCAR-121 policy were selected for the same experiment. First, the KSS scale data results found that flight pilots, whether flying under the exemption policy or under the CCAR-121 policy, had overall similar KSS scores, maintained KSS scores below the fatigue risk threshold (i.e., KSS score < 6) during the flights and that the empirical KSS data and the model simulation results from the KSS data were overall identical at the test nodes during the flight and had nearly identical trends. Finally, the results of the PVT objective test indicators showed that the overall change in 1/RT of the crews flying under the exemption policy was less than or similar to that of the crews flying under the CCAR-121 policy, while the maximum change in 1/RT of the crews under both policies was between 1 and 1.5. This indicates that the overall level of alertness of the crew flying under the exemption policy is higher than or similar to that of the crew flying under the CCAR-121 policy, while the change in alertness level of the crew before and after the mission is relatively small when flying under either policy. CONCLUSION: Based on the model simulation results and the results of the empirical study, it was verified that the overall fatigue risk level of flight crews operating under the exemption policy is lower than or similar to the fatigue risk level of flight crews operating under the CCAR-121 policy. Therefore, the exemption policy in response to the COVID-19 outbreak does not result in an overall increase in the level of flight crew fatigue risk compared to the original CCAR-121 policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Work Schedule Tolerance , Aircraft , Disease Outbreaks , Fatigue/epidemiology , Humans , Policy , Risk Assessment , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Deprivation/epidemiology , Work Schedule Tolerance/physiology
18.
Neurol Sci ; 43(12): 6639-6655, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035088

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The objective of the present study was to evaluate sleep features and sleep-modifying factors in patients with chronic migraine (CM) during the first Italian COVID-19 lockdown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based on an e-mail survey addressed to CM patients of our headache center. The survey investigated demographic, life-style, sleep, psychological, and migraine features during the first COVID-19 lockdown period and the month before. The outcomes were sleep quality (measured using PSQI) and variation in sleep quality, duration, and latency. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included. The mean PSQI was 11.96. Sleep quality was improved in 14.1%, stable in 47.8%, and worsened in 38.0%. Sleep latency was reduced in 5.4%, stable in 46.7%, and increased in 47.8%. Sleep duration was reduced in 29.3%, stable in 34.8%, and increased in 35.9%. Significant associations were found with age, work/study, remote working, job loss, meal quality change, smoking variation, COVID-19 province prevalence, home-inhabitant relationship, ratio of house size/number of people, stress, state anxiety, anxiety/depression variation, future concern variation, computer hours, internet hours, and television hours. CONCLUSION: The study described sleep features of chronic migraineurs during COVID-19 lockdown, pinpointing the main factors involved in sleep quality and sleep changes. Our findings revealed that migraineurs' sleep was closely linked with life-style and psychological features. Several modifiable factors came to light and they should be considered in order to develop an optimal management of CM. An appropriate and more aware treatment of sleep problems could be a way to improve migraineurs' life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Migraine Disorders , Humans , Communicable Disease Control , Migraine Disorders/drug therapy , Sleep/physiology , Anxiety/epidemiology
19.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 41: 341-347, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031123

ABSTRACT

AIM: To explore anxiety, sleep quality, and mindfulness of frontline nurses at the initial epicenter of the pandemic, to examine the mediating effects of mindfulness. BACKGROUND: COVID-19 was first identified in Wuhan, China in January 2020. Nurses were at the forefront of care and treatment across hospitals in response to the pandemic. METHODS: Single site cross-sectional survey conducted in Wuhan province (China) between March and April in 2020. Quantitative analysis of survey data from N118 nurses working in the frontline COVID response. Questionnaires included: The general information questionnaire, the Self-Anxiety Scale, the Short Inventory of Mindfulness, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. RESULTS: Front-line nurses' anxiety was positively associated with sleep quality and mindfulness was negatively associated with anxiety and sleep quality. Mindfulness had a mediating role on anxiety and sleep quality, with intermediary adjustment effects (ES = 0.136, 95 % CI 0.02 to 0.26), accounting for 21.9 % of the total effect ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety causes a reduction in sleep quality and mindfulness can help with anxiety. Mindfulness strategies may help during periods of higher anxiety in the workplace; however, other factors must be considered. Further research is required on strategies for assisting nurses during periods of extreme anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mindfulness , Humans , Sleep Quality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sleep/physiology , Anxiety/therapy , China
20.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(9): 11-12, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medical professionals (MPs) are facing stress, sleep deprivation, and burnout due to pandemic-related high patient inflow and consistent work shifts. Yoga and meditation are feasible, cost-effective, evidence-based, and well-accepted tools having multifold mental and physical health benefits. DESIGN: In this ongoing open-label single-arm trial, we assessed changes in sleep, heart rate variability (HRV), and vitals before and after a 4-day online breath meditation workshop (OBMW) among 41 MPs at a tertiary care hospital in northern India during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after the 4-day workshop using a ballistocardiography-based contactless health monitoring device. The workshop was conducted online. Two participants were excluded due to a lack of adherence. RESULTS: A highly significant increase was seen in total sleep duration (p = 0.000) and duration of deep sleep (p = 0.001), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (p = 0.000), and light sleep (p = 0.032). HRV outcomes of the standard deviation of normal-to-normal R-R intervals (SDNN) and root mean square of successive differences between adjacent normal heartbeat (RMSSD) also improved significantly (p = 0.000) while heart rate reduced significantly (p = 0.001). No significant change was observed in breath rate, total time awake, or in the low-frequency by high-frequency (LF/HF) spectrum of HRV. CONCLUSION: Four days of OBMW improved sleep and HRV among MPs, strengthening the fact that yoga and meditation can help induce psychophysical relaxation and prove to be an effective tool to combat stress and sleep deprivation. As the stakeholders in patient care, that is, MPs are healthy, it will further improve patient care and reduce the chance of medical errors.


Subject(s)
Ballistocardiography , COVID-19 , Meditation , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Pandemics , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Deprivation , Tertiary Care Centers
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