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1.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286322, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mpox (monkeypox) infection has become a global concern for healthcare authorities after spreading in multiple non-endemic countries. Following the sudden multi-country outbreak of Mpox, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a public health emergency of international concern. We do not have any vaccines approved for the prevention of Mpox infection. Therefore, international healthcare authorities endorsed smallpox vaccines for the prevention of Mpox disease. Here we intended to perform this cross-sectional study among the adult males in Bangladesh to assess the Mpox vaccine perception and vaccination intention. METHODS: We conducted this web-based survey among the adult males in Bangladesh from September 1, 2022, to November 30, 2022, using Google Forms. We assessed the Mpox vaccine perception and vaccination intention. We performed a chi-square test to compare vaccine perception and vaccination intention levels. Also, we performed multiple logistic regression analyses to determine the association between the study parameters and the sociodemographic profile of the participants. RESULTS: According to the present study, the Mpox vaccine perception was high among 60.54% of the respondents. Also, 60.05% of respondents showed medium vaccination intention. Mpox vaccine perception and vaccination intention were strongly associated with the sociodemographic profiles of the participants. Furthermore, we discovered a significant association between the level of education and vaccination intention among the respondents. Also, age and marital status played a role in the Mpox vaccine perception and vaccination intention. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed a significant association between sociodemographic characteristics and the Mpox vaccine perception/vaccination intention. Along with the country's long experience in mass immunization, campaigns about Covid-19 vaccines and high vaccination rates might play a role in Mpox vaccine perception and vaccination intention. We recommend more social awareness and educational communications or seminars for the target population to bring more positive changes in their attitude towards Mpox prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Vaccines , Male , Adult , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Intention , Bangladesh , Vaccination , Perception
3.
J Glob Health ; 13: 04033, 2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243915

ABSTRACT

Background: The latent monkeypox outbreak has become the most emergent public health challenge globally. This study was conducted to assess the acceptability, and willingness to take and pay for a hypothetical Monkeypox vaccine among the Vietnamese general public as well as investigate preference for individual vaccine attributes. Methods: An online cross-sectional study was conducted using snowball sampling among 842 respondents in Vietnam in 2022. A Discrete choice experiment (DCE) on preference for six major attributes of vaccine: effectiveness, immunity duration, side effects, mortality rate, restriction, and the cost was applied. Results: Fear of the impact of monkeypox on public health and the economy, vaccine service satisfaction and responsibility to the community were the most weighted factors in the decision to take a hypothetical monkeypox vaccine. Two-thirds of participants were willing to take the vaccine, while insufficient information on monkeypox and the vaccine were the main reasons for vaccine hesitancy. For vaccine attributes, the mortality rate after seven days of vaccination was the most weighted while cost was the least influential attribute. Factors associated with willingness to take and to pay for the monkeypox vaccine included knowledge of transmission, geographical location, service satisfaction, and risk of infection, while financial burden and fear of vaccine were major drivers of hesitancy. Conclusion: Our findings underline an urgent need for effective information dissemination through social media and counseling. The implementation of nationwide monkeypox vaccination requires prioritization and support for high-risk groups as well as consideration for the country's financial resources.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Vaccines , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Global Health
4.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1153136, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243494

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to explore potential healthcare workers' (HCWs) concerns about the monkeypox virus in order to create practical solutions to manage this disease. Methods: Online cross-sectional research was conducted in 11 Arabic countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Syria, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Iraq, Palestine, Jordan, and Sudan) from 2 August 2022 to 28 December 2022. Results: Approximately 82% of respondents felt the need to acquire further information. The acceptability of the vaccine against monkeypox has been indicated by more than half of the participants (54.5%). Furthermore, we state that 45% of the participants are knowledgeable about the monkeypox virus, and 53.1% of the participants have never been affected with COVID-19 before are more worried about COVID-19 than about monkeypox. Participants diagnosed with COVID-19 were 0.63 times less likely to worry about monkeypox than those who were not diagnosed with COVID-19. A greater willingness to get the monkeypox vaccination was seen among the age group 21-30 years (42.4%) compared to the other age groups. Conclusion: Most healthcare professionals have a moderate knowledge of the monkeypox virus. Furthermore, they demonstrated a low willingness to get the vaccination against the monkeypox virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Health Personnel
5.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28763, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234552

ABSTRACT

People are expected to have been previously vaccinated with a Vaccinia-based vaccine, as until 1980 smallpox vaccination was a standard protocol in China. It is unclear whether people with smallpox vaccine still have antibody against vaccinia virus (VACV) and cross-antibody against monkeypox virus (MPXV). Herein, we assessed the binding antibodies with antigen of VACV-A33 and MPXV-A35 in the general population and HIV-1 infected patients. Firstly, we detected VACV antibody with A33 protein to evaluate the efficiency of smallpox vaccination. The result show that 29% (23 of 79) of hospital staff (age ≥ 42 years) and 63% (60 of 95) of HIV-positive patients (age ≥ 42 years) from Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital were able to bind A33. However, among the subjects below 42 years of age, 1.5% (3/198) of the hospital volunteer samples and 1% (1/104) of the samples from HIV patients were positive for antibodies against A33 antigen. Then, we assessed the specific cross-reactive antibodies against MPXV A35 protein. 24% (19 of 79) hospital staff (age〉 = 42 years) and 44% (42 of 95) of HIV-positive patients (age〉 = 42 years) were positive. 98% (194/198) of the hospital staff and 99% (103/104) of the HIV patients had no A35-binding antibodies. Further, we found significant sex differences for the reactivity to A35 antigen were observed in HIV population, but no significant sex differences in hospital staff. Further, we analyzed the positivity rate of anti-A35 antibody of men who have sex with men (MSM) and non-MSM in HIV patients (age〉 = 42years). We found that 47% of no-MSM population and 40% of MSM population were positive for A35 antigen, with no significant difference. Lastly, we found only 59 samples were positive for anti-A33 IgG and anti-A35 IgG in all participants. Together, we demonstrated A33 and A35 antigens binding antibodies were detected in HIV patients and general population who were older than 42 years, and cohort studies only provided data of serological detection to support early response to monkeypox outbreak.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Smallpox Vaccine , Smallpox , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Antigens, Viral , Homosexuality, Male , Immunoglobulin G , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Vaccinia virus , Viral Proteins
6.
Vaccine ; 41(27): 4002-4008, 2023 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234502

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The 2022 global outbreak of Monkeypox virus (Mpox), which has primarily spread through the sexual networks of sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals, has introduced new public health challenges. While an efficacious Mpox vaccine is in active circulation, few Mpox vaccine studies have examined its uptake among SGM groups. The aims of this study were to investigate (a) the prevalence of Mpox vaccine uptake among SGM and (b) the contextual, Mpox-disease specific, and Mpox-vaccine specific factors associated with Mpox vaccine among SGM. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Illinois, USA in September 2022; 320 young SGM completed self-administered questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the contextual, Mpox-disease specific, and Mpox-vaccine specific factors associated with Mpox vaccine uptake. Adjusted Odds Ratios (aORs) and 95 % Confidence Intervals (CI) are reported. RESULTS: Approximately 50 % of the SGM participants included in this study had received at least their first dose of the Mpox vaccine. Multinomial regression analysis showed that individuals who had recently experienced food insecurity, had higher degrees of fear of social rejection due to Mpox acquisition, and were more Mpox-vaccine hesitant were more likely to be unvaccinated. Conversely, knowing people who have contracted Mpox, having higher formal educational attainment, having higher degrees of Mpox-related internalized heterosexism, and being more concerned about one's safety regarding Mpox morbidity were more likely to be double-dosers. CONCLUSION: Approximately 50 % of the SGMs included in this study received at least their first dose of the Mpox vaccine; however, only one-quarter of participants completed the recommended 2-dose Mpox regimen. Our findings indicate that socioeconomic stability, fear of social rejection due to disease acquisition, and Mpox-specific vaccine hesitancy may be important structural targets to consider when developing vaccine-uptake prevention and intervention strategies tailored to the needs of sexual and gender minorities.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Smallpox Vaccine , Humans , Young Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Illinois
7.
Vaccine ; 41(27): 3954-3959, 2023 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327891

ABSTRACT

This survey aimed to assess the prevalence of intention to receive smallpox vaccine against mpox and its relationship with sexual orientation in Japan. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in September-October 2022, with 12,900 assigned males and 13,413 assigned females participating. Modified Poisson regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between vaccine willingness and sexual orientation, adjusting for socioeconomics, trust in government, COVID-19 vaccination status, and frequency of brothel visits. Vaccine willingness was higher in homosexual respondents than heterosexual counterparts, with proportions of 23.1 % among assigned males and 13.4 % among assigned females. Homosexual orientation was significantly associated with vaccine willingness, with prevalence ratios of 1.37 (95 % CI: 1.23-1.54) among assigned males and 1.34 (95 % CI: 1.13-1.59) among assigned females. These findings highlight the need for targeted vaccine promotion campaigns and ongoing monitoring of attitudes towards mpox and vaccine compliance in high-risk groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Female , Humans , Male , Intention , Japan , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heterosexuality , Antigens, Viral , Vaccination
8.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 14: 21501319231169991, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320804

ABSTRACT

Mpox is a new public health outbreak that particularly threatens the homeless population. Street Medicine Phoenix (SMP) is a student-led interprofessional volunteer organization that provides medical care and other essential services to individuals experiencing homelessness in Phoenix, Arizona. In addition to core services such as wound care; health screenings (blood pressure and blood glucose.); vision screenings; HIV testing; naloxone education and distribution; flu, COVID-19, and Hepatitis A vaccinations; and community resource referrals, SMP began offering mpox education and vaccination at outreach events. During an outreach event shortly after the onset of the mpox outbreak, SMP identified 2 suspected mpox cases. Accordingly, SMP has partnered with the Maricopa County Public Health Department to set up mobile mpox vaccination clinics on the streets outside of Phoenix Arizona's largest homeless shelter. We share the details of these 2 cases along with our early efforts vaccinating individuals experiencing homelessness for mpox via our mobile vaccination clinic. Our experiences demonstrate the importance of community agencies providing direct outreach to underserved populations where they are at, particularly the homeless population, to address public health concerns such as emerging disease outbreaks like mpox. In addition, these cases highlight the potential significant impact that street medicine programs can have on their respective homeless communities in the context of infectious disease mitigation and emphasize the importance of partnerships with local health departments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ill-Housed Persons , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
9.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e379, 2023 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302519

ABSTRACT

Numerous state, national, and global resources exist for planning and executing mass vaccination campaigns. However, they are disparate and can be complex. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for clear, easy to use mass vaccination resources. Meanwhile, annual influenza vaccination, as well as outbreaks such as mpox, demonstrates the need for continued emphasis on timely and effective vaccinations to mitigate outbreaks. This pocket guide seeks to combine relevant resources and basic steps for setting up a mass vaccination clinic, utilizing experience from COVID-19 mass vaccination sites.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination , Smallpox Vaccine
11.
Fam Med Community Health ; 11(1)2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248156

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We performed a segmentation analysis of the unvaccinated adult US population to identify sociodemographic and psychographic characteristics of those who were vaccine accepting, vaccine unsure and vaccine averse. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Nationally representative, web-based survey. PARTICIPANTS: 211 303 participants aged ≥18 years were asked in the Household Pulse Survey conducted during 1 December 2021 to 7 February 2022, whether they had ever received a COVID-19 vaccine. Those answering 'No' were asked their receptivity to the vaccine and their responses were categorised as vaccine averse, unsure and accepting. Adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) were calculated in separate multivariable Poisson regression models to evaluate the correlation of the three vaccine dispositions. RESULTS: Overall, 15.2% of US adults were unvaccinated during 1 December 2021 to 7 February 2022, ranging from 5.8% in District of Columbia to 29.0% in Wyoming. Of the entire unvaccinated population nationwide, 51.0% were vaccine averse, 35.0% vaccine unsure and 14.0% vaccine accepting. The likelihood of vaccine aversion was higher among those self-employed (APR=1.11, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.22) or working in a private company (APR=1.09, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.17) than those unemployed; living in a detached, single-family house than in a multiunit apartment (APR=1.15, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.26); and insured by Veterans Affairs/Tricare than uninsured (APR=1.22, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.47). Reasons for having not yet received a vaccine differed among those vaccine accepting, unsure and averse. The percentage reporting logistical or access-related barriers to getting a vaccine (eg, difficulty getting a vaccine, or perceived cost of the vaccine) was relatively higher than those vaccine accepting. Those vaccine unsure reported the highest prevalence of barriers related to perceived safety/effectiveness, including wanting to 'wait and see' if the vaccines were safe (45.2%) and uncertainty whether the vaccines would be effective in protecting them from COVID-19 (29.6%). Those vaccine averse reported the highest prevalence for barriers pertaining to lack of trust in the government or in the vaccines (50.1% and 57.5% respectively), the perception that COVID-19 was not that big of a threat (32.2%) and the perception that they did not need a vaccine (42.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The unvaccinated segment of the population is not a monolith, and a substantial segment may still get vaccinated if constraining factors are adequately addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smallpox Vaccine , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics
12.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(2): 163-170, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246156

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization declared monkeypox as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted to understand beliefs, attitudes, perceived preventive measures, and vaccination acceptance related to monkeypox in the public in China. METHODS: Between August 30 and September 15, 2022, we recruited adults through an online survey platform. Demographic characteristics, perceptions, common knowledge, concerns, attitudes, willingness to adopt preventive measures (including hygiene practices, social distancing, and travel avoidance), and vaccination acceptance related to monkeypox were collected. Logistic regression was used to assess correlates of concerns about monkeypox, willingness to adopt preventive measures, and vaccination acceptance. RESULTS: 2135 participants were recruited (median age: 31.4 years). 62.7% were concerned about monkeypox. 33.2% were more concerned about monkeypox compared to COVID-19. Males (aOR 0.61, 95%CI 0.50-0.74), accessing monkeypox information from the Internet (0.77, 0.61-0.98), and willingness to adopt monkeypox vaccine (2.9, 2.38-3.53) were associated with concerns about monkeypox. Most participants were willing to adopt precautions (76.3% hygiene practices, 68.2% social distancing, 85.9% travel avoidance). Individuals who were concerned about monkeypox (hygiene practices: 2.09, 1.69-2.59; social distancing: 1.78, 1.46-2.16; travel avoidance: 1.74, 1.34-2.26) and had better knowledge about monkeypox (hygiene practices: 1.85, 1.48-2.31; social distancing: 2.17, 1.77-2.66; travel avoidance: 1.74, 1.34-2.26) were more likely to adopt precautions. 68.8% were willing to adopt monkeypox vaccine. Participants with older age (aged 40-49: 0.57, 0.38-0.85; aged 50 +: 0.50, 0.31-0.81), and higher income (¥6000-10,000: 0.61, 0.39-0.95; ≥¥10,000: 0.48, 0.30-0.77) were less likely to adopt the monkeypox vaccine. Being concerned more about monkeypox compared to COVID-19 (1.63, 1.31-2.02), and having better knowledge about monkeypox (1.34, 1.09-1.66) were associated with willingness to adopt vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with COVID-19, monkeypox attracted significantly less attention in the public in China, who currently have insufficient monkeypox knowledge. Interventions aimed at improving monkeypox knowledge and precautions among different groups of individuals in China are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Vaccines , Adult , Male , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , China
13.
Vaccine ; 41(12): 1989-1993, 2023 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244078

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is the most celebrated and denigrated achievement of medicine and public health - not only today, but since Edward Jenner's time (1798). In fact, the idea of injecting a mild form of "disease" into a healthy person was attacked even earlier than the discovery of vaccines. The forerunner of Jenner's vaccination with bovine lymph was the inoculation of smallpox material from person to person, which, known in Europe since the beginning of the eighteenth century, was a target of harsh criticism. The reasons for criticizing the Jennerian vaccination and its mandatory practice were medical, anthropological, biological (vaccination is not safe), religious and ethical (it is wrong to inoculate a healthy person with disease), and political (vaccination is a threat to individual freedom). As such, anti-vaccination groups emerged in England, where inoculation was adopted early, as well as overall in Europe and in the United States. This paper focuses on the lesser known debate that arose in Germany in the years 1852-53 about the medical practice of vaccination. This is an a important topic of public health that has aroused a wide debate and comparison especially in recent years and now with pandemic on Sars-Cov-2 (Covid-19) and will probably be the subject of further reflection and consideration in the coming years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smallpox Vaccine , Smallpox , Vaccines , Humans , Animals , Cattle , United States , History, 18th Century , Smallpox Vaccine/history , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunization , Smallpox/prevention & control , Germany
14.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(3): 346-353, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2180683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared monkeypox a "public health emergency of international concern" on 23 June 2022. However, there is a lack of data on monkeypox perceptions among medical workers. The purposes of this study were to evaluate perceptions, worries about monkeypox, attitudes towards monkeypox vaccination and their correlates among medical workers in China. METHODS: Data were collected from medical practitioners using an online survey questionnaire between September 1 and September 30, 2022 in China. All the subjects completed an online questionnaire including general characteristics, perceptions/knowledge/worries about monkeypox, and attitudes towards monkeypox vaccination. Logistic regression was employed to examine the correlates of perceptions, worries about monkeypox, and attitudes toward monkeypox vaccination. RESULTS: In total, this study sample included 639 medical workers. The mean age was 37.9 ± 9.4 years old. Approximately 71.8% of individuals reported perceptions of monkeypox, 56.7% worried about monkeypox, and 64.9% supported the promotion of monkeypox vaccination. Medical workers who were older than 50 years (aOR 3.73, 95%CI 1.01-13.85), worked in the Infectious Diseases/Dermatology/Venereal Diseases departments (3.09, 1.61-5.91), and provided correct answer to monkeypox transmission route (10.19, 5.42-19.17) were more likely to know about monkeypox/monkeypox virus before investigation. 30.7% reported that they were more worried about monkeypox than the coronavirus (COVID-19). Participants reported that the key population most in need of monkeypox vaccination were health practitioners (78.2%) and people with immunodeficiency (74.3%), followed by children (65.4%) and older adults (63.2%). CONCLUSION: Awareness of monkeypox was high and attitude towards the promotion of monkeypox vaccination was positive among medical staff in China. Further targeted dissemination of monkeypox common knowledge among health care providers might improve their precaution measures and improve the promotion of monkeypox vaccination among key populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Child , Humans , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , China , Health Personnel , Vaccination , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
15.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279283, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197083

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether the Massachusetts COVID-19 vaccine lottery increased vaccine uptake. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Vaccine Tracker to identify total number of adults aged 18 to 64 who received at least first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine or who were fully vaccinated in Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, and Vermont during the study period of March 6 -July 31, 2021. Each of the five states contributed 148 days of a daily report on cumulative number of vaccinated people, comprising 740 state-days as the total sample size. We conducted multivariable, state-day level difference-in-differences (DID) regression using a negative binomial regression model that compared the change in outcomes for Massachusetts to those of four geographically adjacent comparison states without the lotteries, before and after the Massachusetts vaccine lottery announcement (June 15, 2021). Our analyses controlled for key state-level characteristics obtained from the American Community Survey as well as day fixed-effects to capture secular trends in the outcomes. RESULTS: Massachusetts COVID-19 vaccine lottery was not associated with a significant increase in the number of adults aged 18 to 64 who were fully vaccinated or received at least one dose of the vaccine, compared with other states [Full dose, incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97 to 1.11, P > 0.05; At least one dose, IRR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.06, P > 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: There was insufficient evidence to conclude that Massachusetts COVID-19 vaccine lottery was associated with increased number of adult COVID-19 vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smallpox Vaccine , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Massachusetts/epidemiology
16.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278622, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140713

ABSTRACT

Amidst an unprecedented Monkeypox outbreak, we aimed to measure knowledge, attitudes, practices and Monkeypox vaccination intentions among the U.S. adult population. We conducted an online cross-sectional survey, representative of the U.S. adult general public in June 2022. We asked participants whether they would receive a Monkeypox vaccine, if they were recommended to do so. Participants also answered questions on their self-assessed level of Monkeypox knowledge, risk perception, perceived exaggeration of the threat, and self-efficacy around Monkeypox. Furthermore, we asked about their trusted sources of information, COVID-19 vaccination status and administered the 6-item Vaccine Trust Indicator (VTI). Survey weights were created based on age, gender and race. We analyzed predictors of Monkeypox vaccination intentions using logistic regression, adjusted for education, age, race and ethnicity. A total of 856 respondents completed the survey, of which 51% (n = 436) were female and 41% (n = 348) had a college degree or higher. If recommended, 46% of respondents intended to get vaccinated against Monkeypox, 29% would not get vaccinated and 25% did not know. Almost half the respondents (47%) found their own knowledge level about Monkeypox poor or very poor. The most trusted sources of information about the outbreak were healthcare professionals and officials, but also known doctors and researchers with a large online following. Only 24% indicated that the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention should be in charge of the outbreak response. Being vaccinated against COVID-19 was a strong predictor of intention to receive a Monkeypox if recommended (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 29.2, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 13.1-65.3). Increased risk perception was positively associated with vaccination intentions (aOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.8-3.6), scoring high on the VTI as well (5.4, 95% CI (3.2-9.1). The low levels of self-assessed knowledge, vaccination intentions and influence of COVID-19 vaccination status point to a lack of clear communication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , United States/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Intention , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination
17.
Vaccine ; 40(49): 7022-7031, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119102

ABSTRACT

Historically, virulent variola virus infection caused hundreds of millions of deaths. The smallpox pandemic in human beings has spread for centuries until the advent of the attenuated vaccinia virus (VV) vaccine, which played a crucial role in eradicating the deadly contagious disease. Decades of exploration and utilization have validated the attenuated VV as a promising vaccine vehicle against various lethal viruses. In this review, we focus on the advances in VV-based vaccine vector studies, including construction approaches of recombinant VV, the impact of VV-specific pre-existing immunity on subsequent VV-based vaccines, and antigen-specific immune responses. More specifically, the recombinant VV-based flaviviruses are intensively discussed. Based on the publication data, this review aims to provide valuable insights and guidance for future VV-based vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Flavivirus , Smallpox Vaccine , Vaccines , Vaccinia , Humans , Vaccinia virus , Flavivirus/genetics , Vaccine Development , Genetic Vectors
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1050309, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115026

ABSTRACT

Until May 2022, zoonotic infectious disease monkeypox (MPX) caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV) was one of the forgotten viruses considered to be geographically limited in African countries even though few cases outside of Africa were identified. Central and West African countries are known to be endemic for MPXV. However, since the number of human MPX cases has rapidly increased outside of Africa the global interest in this virus has markedly grown. The majority of infected people with MPXV have never been vaccinated against smallpox virus. Noteworthily, the MPXV spreads fast in men who have sex with men (MSM). Preventive measures against MPXV are essential to be taken, indeed, vaccination is the key. Due to the antigenic similarities, the smallpox vaccine is efficient against MPXV. Nevertheless, there is no specific MPXV vaccine until now. Nucleic acid vaccines deserve special attention since the emergency approval of two messenger RNA (mRNA)-based coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in 2020. This milestone in vaccinology has opened a new platform for developing more mRNA- or DNA-based vaccines. Certainly, this type of vaccine has a number of advantages including time- and cost-effectiveness over conventional vaccines. The platform of nucleic acid-based vaccines gives humankind a huge opportunity. Ultimately, there is a strong need for developing a universal vaccine against MPXV. This review will shed the light on the strategies for developing nucleic acid vaccines against MPXV in a timely manner. Consequently, developing nucleic acid-based vaccines may alleviate the global threat against MPXV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Smallpox Vaccine , Male , Humans , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Nucleic Acid-Based Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Monkeypox virus/genetics , RNA, Messenger
19.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110274

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of monkeypox, coupled with the onslaught of the COVID-19 pandemic is a critical communicable disease. This study aimed to systematically identify and review research done on preclinical studies focusing on the potential monkeypox treatment and immunization. The presented juxtaposition of efficacy of potential treatments and vaccination that had been tested in preclinical trials could serve as a useful primer of monkeypox virus. The literature identified using key terms such as monkeypox virus or management or vaccine stringed using Boolean operators was systematically reviewed. Pubmed, SCOPUS, Cochrane, and preprint databases were used, and screening was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. A total of 467 results from registered databases and 116 from grey literature databases were screened. Of these results, 72 studies from registered databases and three grey literature studies underwent full-text screening for eligibility. In this systematic review, a total of 27 articles were eligible according to the inclusion criteria and were used. Tecovirimat, known as TPOXX or ST-246, is an antiviral drug indicated for smallpox infection whereas brincidofovir inhibits the viral DNA polymerase after incorporation into viral DNA. The ability of tecovirimat in providing protection to poxvirus-challenged animals from death had been demonstrated in a number of animal studies. Non-inferior with regard to immunogenicity was reported for the live smallpox/monkeypox vaccine compared with a single dose of a licensed live smallpox vaccine. The trial involving the live vaccine showed a geometric mean titre of vaccinia-neutralizing antibodies post two weeks of the second dose of the live smallpox/monkeypox vaccine. Of note, up to the third generation of smallpox vaccines-particularly JYNNEOS and Lc16m8-have been developed as preventive measures for MPXV infection and these vaccines had been demonstrated to have improved safety compared to the earlier generations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Smallpox , Variola virus , Animals , Humans , Monkeypox/drug therapy , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Smallpox/prevention & control , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Monkeypox virus , Vaccinia virus , Vaccines, Attenuated
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2359-2370, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2070053

ABSTRACT

Viral vectors are a potent vaccine platform for inducing humoral and T-cell immune responses. Among the various viral vectors, replication-competent ones are less commonly used for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine development compared with replication-deficient ones. Here, we show the availability of a smallpox vaccine LC16m8Δ (m8Δ) as a replication-competent viral vector for a COVID-19 vaccine. M8Δ is a genetically stable variant of the licensed and highly effective Japanese smallpox vaccine LC16m8. Here, we generated two m8Δ recombinants: one harbouring a gene cassette encoding the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) glycoprotein, named m8Δ-SARS2(P7.5-S)-HA; and one encoding the S protein with a highly polybasic motif at the S1/S2 cleavage site, named m8Δ-SARS2(P7.5-SHN)-HA. M8Δ-SARS2(P7.5-S)-HA induced S-specific antibodies in mice that persisted for at least six weeks after a homologous boost immunization. All eight analysed serum samples displayed neutralizing activity against an S-pseudotyped virus at a level similar to that of serum samples from patients with COVID-19, and more than half (5/8) also had neutralizing activity against the Delta/B.1.617.2 variant of concern. Importantly, most serum samples also neutralized the infectious SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan and Delta/B.1.617.2 strains. In contrast, immunization with m8Δ-SARS2(P7.5-SHN)-HA elicited significantly lower antibody titres, and the induced antibodies had less neutralizing activity. Regarding T-cell immunity, both m8Δ recombinants elicited S-specific multifunctional CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses even after just a primary immunization. Thus, m8Δ provides an alternative method for developing a novel COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smallpox Vaccine , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Smallpox Vaccine/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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