Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 415
Filter
3.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 74(11): 1737-1745, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127571

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We developed a smartphone application for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that allows them to self-monitor their disease activity in between clinic visits by answering a weekly Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3. This study was undertaken to assess the safety (noninferiority in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate [DAS28-ESR]) and efficacy (reduction in number of visits) of patient-initiated care assisted using a smartphone app, compared to usual care. METHODS: A 12-month, randomized, noninferiority clinical trial was conducted in RA patients with low disease activity and without treatment changes in the past 6 months. Patients were randomized 1:1 to either app-supported patient-initiated care with a scheduled follow-up consultation after a year (app intervention group) or usual care. The coprimary outcome measures were noninferiority in terms of change in DAS28-ESR score after 12 months and the ratio of the mean number of consultations with rheumatologists between the groups. The noninferiority limit was 0.5 difference in DAS28-ESR between the groups. RESULTS: Of the 103 randomized patients, 102 completed the study. After a year, noninferiority in terms of the DAS28-ESR score was established, as the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the mean ΔDAS28-ESR between the groups was within the noninferiority limit: -0.04 in favor of the app intervention group (95% CI -0.39, 0.30). The number of rheumatologist consultations was significantly lower in the app intervention group compared to the usual care group (mean ± SD 1.7 ± 1.8 versus 2.8 ± 1.4; visit ratio 0.62 [95% CI 0.47, 0.81]). CONCLUSION: Patient-initiated care supported by smartphone self-monitoring was noninferior to usual care in terms of the ΔDAS28-ESR and led to a 38% reduction in rheumatologist consultations in RA patients with stable low disease activity.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Humans , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Smartphone , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy
4.
Anal Chem ; 94(47): 16361-16368, 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119248

ABSTRACT

The unstoppable spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has severely threatened public health over the past 2 years. The current ubiquitously accepted method for its diagnosis provides sensitive detection of the virus; however, it is relatively time-consuming and costly, not to mention the need for highly skilled personnel. There is a clear need to develop novel computer-based diagnostic tools to provide rapid, cost-efficient, and time-saving detection in places where massive traditional testing is not practical. Here, we develop an electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based detection system whose results are quantified as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) cyclic threshold (CT) values. A concentration-dependent signal is generated upon the introduction of the virus to the electrode and is recorded with a smartphone camera. The ECL images are used to train machine learning algorithms, and a model using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for 45 samples was developed. The model demonstrated more than 90% accuracy in the diagnosis of 50 unknown real samples, detecting up to a CT value of 32 and a limit of detection (LOD) of 10-12 g mL-1 in the testing of artificial samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Smartphone , Sensitivity and Specificity , Machine Learning , Immunoassay , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(1): 53, 2022 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adherence to disease-modifying therapy is important in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) to increase the positive outcomes and improve the quality of life. This study aimed to determine the effects of Continuous Care Model (CCM) using a smartphone application on adherence to treatment and self-efficacy among MS patients. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study with pre/posttest design was conducted on 72 MS patients in Shiraz, Iran from June 2020 to August 2021. The samples were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 36) and control (n = 36) groups. In the intervention group, the CCM using a smartphone application was implemented during two months. However, no intervention was performed for the control group. The data were collected using the self-report Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Adherence Questionnaire (MS-TAQ) and MS Self-Efficacy Scale (MSSS) at baseline and two and four months after the intervention. RESULTS: The results showed an improvement in adherence to treatment and self-efficacy in the intervention group compared to the control group after implementing the virtual CCM and at the two-month follow-up (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Implementing the CCM using a smartphone application resulted in improvements in the MS patients' adherence to treatment and self-efficacy. It can be concluded that providing care using an interactive multimedia application can improve the outcomes as well as patients' satisfaction, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this approach is recommended to be used for nurses, healthcare providers, and clinicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Efficacy , Smartphone
6.
Yonsei Med J ; 63(11): 1050-1057, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109728

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Maintaining or increasing user adherence to digital healthcare services is of great concern to service providers. This study aims to verify whether the donation model is an effective strategy to increase adherence to physical exercise using a mobile application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 5618 users of a motion-detecting mobile exercise coaching application participated in a donation or self-reward exercise challenge with the same exercise protocol. The workout consisted of 50 squats daily for 14 days. The user's exercise was monitored through a smartphone camera, providing real-time visual and audio feedback. In the donation group, 6 USD was donated to the economically disadvantaged if a participant completed their workout each day. In the self-reward group, three people who completed the program and 20 people who completed ≥12 days of exercise were randomly selected and provided with goods worth 60 USD and 4.3 USD of online currency, respectively. RESULTS: The average daily exercise completion rate (% of participants who completed daily exercise) in the donation group was 1.8 times higher than that of the self-reward group (donation, 41.7%; self-reward, 22.7%; p<0.0001). The donation group completed more days of the program (donation, 5.8; self-reward, 3.2; p<0.0001). The completion rate of both groups decreased with time and decreased most on day two (donation, -9.9%; self-reward, -14.5%). CONCLUSION: The donation model effectively promoted adherence to mobile app-based exercise. This donation model is expected to effectively enhance user adherence to digital healthcare services.


Subject(s)
Mentoring , Mobile Applications , Humans , Mentoring/methods , Smartphone , Exercise
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(11): e41566, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Meditation apps have surged in popularity in recent years, with an increasing number of individuals turning to these apps to cope with stress, including during the COVID-19 pandemic. Meditation apps are the most commonly used mental health apps for depression and anxiety. However, little is known about who is well suited to these apps. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop and test a data-driven algorithm to predict which individuals are most likely to benefit from app-based meditation training. METHODS: Using randomized controlled trial data comparing a 4-week meditation app (Healthy Minds Program [HMP]) with an assessment-only control condition in school system employees (n=662), we developed an algorithm to predict who is most likely to benefit from HMP. Baseline clinical and demographic characteristics were submitted to a machine learning model to develop a "Personalized Advantage Index" (PAI) reflecting an individual's expected reduction in distress (primary outcome) from HMP versus control. RESULTS: A significant group × PAI interaction emerged (t658=3.30; P=.001), indicating that PAI scores moderated group differences in outcomes. A regression model that included repetitive negative thinking as the sole baseline predictor performed comparably well. Finally, we demonstrate the translation of a predictive model into personalized recommendations of expected benefit. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results revealed the potential of a data-driven algorithm to inform which individuals are most likely to benefit from a meditation app. Such an algorithm could be used to objectively communicate expected benefits to individuals, allowing them to make more informed decisions about whether a meditation app is appropriate for them. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04426318; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04426318.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meditation , Mobile Applications , Humans , Smartphone , Meditation/methods , Meditation/psychology , Pandemics
8.
ANZ J Surg ; 92(11): 3029-3032, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the online medium has gained in popularity due to the recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, video recording of surgical procedures has become crucial in medical education. Various methods for recording are available but many require professional equipment and experienced personnel. Here, we propose a feasible and acceptable method for video recording of surgeries. METHODS: An M12 mount USB camera, which is based on an Android micro-USB, was utilized. The device was purchased from a website for $32-$40. The camera was mounted between the eyes of the binocular loupes. Surgical procedures were recorded with the camera. The optimal settings were determined according to the types of surgeries. RESULTS: We recorded the following surgical procedures: radial artery superficial palmar branch (RASP) free flap harvest, carpal tunnel release, and free flap operation. The default values were retained for all settings, but the highest image quality (1080 p) was selected with an 8 mm lens. The camera battery was sufficient to record each surgery in its entirety. CONCLUSIONS: The USB camera produced high-quality videos that perfectly matched the surgeon's field of view without the need for additional staff for recording. This low-cost equipment could be widely employed for the recording of educational videos for surgeons, especially in the era of COVID 19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Surgeons , Humans , Smartphone , COVID-19/epidemiology , Video Recording/methods
10.
Anal Chem ; 94(43): 15155-15161, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076960

ABSTRACT

Large-scale, rapid, and inexpensive serological diagnoses of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are of great interest in reducing virus transmission at the population level; however, their development is greatly plagued by the lack of available point-of-care methods, leading to low detection efficiency. Herein, an ultrasensitive smartphone-based electrochemical immunoassay is reported for rapid (less than 5 min), low-cost, easy-to-implement detection of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (SARS-CoV-2 N protein). Specifically, the electrochemical immunoassay was fabricated on a screen-printed carbon electrode coated with electrodeposited gold nanoparticles, followed by incubation of anti-N antibody (Ab) and bovine serum albumin as the working electrode. Accompanied by the antigen-antibody reaction between the SARS-CoV-2 N protein and the Ab, the electron transfer between the electroactive species [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- and the electrode surface is disturbed, resulting in reduced square-wave voltammetry currents at 0.075 V versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The proposed immunoassay provided a good linear range with SARS-CoV-2 N protein concentrations within the scope of 0.01-1000 ng/mL (R2 = 0.9992) and the limit of detection down to 2.6 pg/mL. Moreover, the detection data are wirelessly transmitted to the interface of the smartphone, and the corresponding SARS-CoV-2 N protein concentration value is calculated and displayed. Therefore, the proposed portable detection mode offers great potential for self-differential diagnosis of residents, which will greatly facilitate the effective control and large-scale screening of virus transmission in resource-limited areas.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Gold , Point-of-Care Systems , Smartphone , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Biosensing Techniques/methods
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(20)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071713

ABSTRACT

This paper presents an improved IoT-based system designed to help teachers handle lessons in the classroom in line with COVID-19 restrictions. The system counts the number of people in the classroom as well as their distribution within the classroom. The proposed IoT system consists of three parts: a Gate node, IoT nodes, and server. The Gate node, installed at the door, can provide information about the number of persons entering or leaving the room using door crossing detection. The Arduino-based module NodeMCU was used as an IoT node and sets of ultrasonic distance sensors were used to obtain information about seat occupancy. The system server runs locally on a Raspberry Pi and the teacher can connect to it using a web application from the computer in the classroom or a smartphone. The teacher is able to set up and change the settings of the system through its GUI. A simple algorithm was designed to check the distance between occupied seats and evaluate the accordance with imposed restrictions. This system can provide high privacy, unlike camera-based systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Privacy , Smartphone , Software , Algorithms
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066348

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of COVID-19, social distancing detection is a crucial technique for epidemic prevention and control. However, the current mainstream detection technology cannot obtain accurate social distance in real-time. To address this problem, this paper presents a first study on smartphone-based social distance detection technology based on near-ultrasonic signals. Firstly, according to auditory characteristics of the human ear and smartphone frequency response characteristics, a group of 18 kHz-23 kHz inaudible Chirp signals accompanied with single frequency signals are designed to complete ranging and ID identification in a short time. Secondly, an improved mutual ranging algorithm is proposed by combining the cubic spline interpolation and a two-stage search to obtain robust mutual ranging performance against multipath and NLoS affect. Thirdly, a hybrid channel access protocol is proposed consisting of Chirp BOK, FDMA, and CSMA/CA to increase the number of concurrencies and reduce the probability of collision. The results show that in our ranging algorithm, 95% of the mutual ranging error within 5 m is less than 10 cm and gets the best performance compared to the other traditional methods in both LoS and NLoS. The protocol can efficiently utilize the limited near-ultrasonic channel resources and achieve a high refresh rate ranging under the premise of reducing the collision probability. Our study can realize high-precision, high-refresh-rate social distance detection on smartphones and has significant application value during an epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smartphone , Humans , Physical Distancing , Technology , Ultrasonics
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065988

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed how our global societies rely upon the care and support of informal (unpaid) caregivers: in the UK alone, there are an estimated 6.5 million informal carers. The caring role is not just precarious, it is often associated with high levels of stress, poor/deteriorating health and crisis points (hospitalisations, worsening of health). Fittingly, there has been much research in recent years focusing on mental health supports. A lesser explored area is physical health and physical activity. To address this, we conducted a real-world feasibility, usability and acceptability study of a novel codesigned digital health app for caregivers to improve levels of physical activity. Our study was designed to test the prototype app use for three weeks, following participants across questionnaires/in app data/qualitative data. Our findings (from 27 caregivers) highlights key knowledge gaps around physical activity-national guidelines were not reaching populations studies and behavioural change techniques hold promise to help support caregivers in the longer term. Our collective results support the acceptability, usability and feasibility of the Carefit app and warrant further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Exercise , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Smartphone
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e051807, 2022 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064147

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Suicide is one of the leading public health issues worldwide. Mobile health can help us to combat suicide through monitoring and treatment. The SmartCrisis V.2.0 randomised clinical trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a smartphone-based Ecological Momentary Intervention to prevent suicidal thoughts and behaviour. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The SmartCrisis V.2.0 study is a randomised clinical trial with two parallel groups, conducted among patients with a history of suicidal behaviour treated at five sites in France and Spain. The intervention group will be monitored using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) and will receive an Ecological Momentary Intervention called 'SmartSafe' in addition to their treatment as usual (TAU). TAU will consist of mental health follow-up of the patient (scheduled appointments with a psychiatrist) in an outpatient Suicide Prevention programme, with predetermined clinical appointments according to the Brief Intervention Contact recommendations (1, 2, 4, 7 and 11 weeks and 4, 6, 9 and 12 months). The control group would receive TAU and be monitored using EMA. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the Ethics Committee of the University Hospital Fundación Jiménez Díaz. It is expected that, in the near future, our mobile health intervention and monitoring system can be implemented in routine clinical practice. Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and psychiatric congresses. Reference number EC005-21_FJD. Participants gave informed consent to participate in the study before taking part. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04775160.


Subject(s)
Smartphone , Telemedicine , Ecological Momentary Assessment , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Secondary Prevention , Suicidal Ideation
15.
Trials ; 23(1): 849, 2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Men who present to the emergency department (ED) with self-harm are at high risk of dying by suicide, with 2.7% of men dying in the year following their presentation, more than double the rate for women (1.2%). Despite this, care received after an ED visit is highly variable and many are not assessed for psychological needs. Furthermore, the limited psychological care that is available is often not covered by provincial health insurance. Even when referrals for follow-up care are made, engagement rates are low. Previous recommendations to improve engagement include written discharge plans, caring contacts, and focused interventions targeting middle-aged men at elevated risk of dying by suicide. Blended care, the incorporation of technology into traditional care, has also been proposed as a method to increase engagement in and clinical benefits from psychotherapy. This project aims to determine whether the delivery of an evidence based treatment (problem-solving therapy (PST)) is enhanced by the addition of a custom smartphone application (BEACON) compared to usual care. Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on site participation and the planned implementation, we have made several changes to the study design, primary outcome, and implementation. METHOD: We originally proposed a cohort study nested within a larger cluster randomized trial wherein intervention sites would deliver the blended care, and control sites, whose personnel were not aware of their participation, would continue delivering usual care. The cohort study evaluated participant level outcomes as previously described by Hatcher et al. (2020). Due to pandemic-related constraints, our number of participating sites dropped to five potential sites which left the cohort study underpowered. As such, we changed the study design to a multi-site, individual randomized controlled trial (RCT) among the five remaining sites. Participants will be randomized to six sessions of therapy (PST) alone, or to the therapy plus BEACON, and followed up for 6 months. Our primary outcome was changed to evaluate feasibility and acceptability with the aim of designing a definitive RCT. Study implementation was reimagined to allow for completely virtual/online conduct to comply with local COVID-19 and institutional restrictions on in-person activities. CONCLUSION: This updated protocol will provide strong results for the planning of a definitive RCT of the blended care intervention in the future, addressing areas of difficulty and concern prior to its implementation. We will evaluate the feasibility of the study intervention, assess recruitment and retention of participants, and address challenges with implementing the protocol. Lastly, we will evaluate the appropriateness of our primary outcome measure and accurately determine a sample size for a definitive RCT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03473535 . Registered on March 22, 2018.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario , Psychotherapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Self-Injurious Behavior/diagnosis , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/therapy , Smartphone
16.
Sex Health ; 19(4): 278-285, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050705

ABSTRACT

Increased demand for sexual health services (including prevention and treatment) have spurred the development of digital STI/HIV services. Earlier advances in testing technologies opened the door for self-testing and self-sampling approaches, in line with broader self-care strategies. Advances in HIV management mean that many people are living well with HIV and no longer need intensive in-person monitoring, whereas those at-risk of HIV are recommended to have regular asymptomatic STI screening and pre-exposure prophylaxis. This narrative review examines the evidence and implications of digital STI/HIV services, focused on promoting testing, facilitating testing, clinical management and referrals, partner services, and prevention. We have used a prevention and care continuum to structure the review to increase utility to policy as well as practice. Digital STI/HIV services can be interwoven into existing clinical pathways to enhance face-to-face services or standalone digital STI/HIV services. A growing evidence base, including randomised controlled trials and observational studies, should help inform strategies for designing effective digital STI/HIV services. However, most studies to date have focused on high-income countries and people with smartphones, despite a substantial burden of STI/HIV in low- and middle-income countries. There are also important differences between digital STI and HIV services that require careful consideration. We discuss digital STI/HIV service evidence and implications to inform research and programs in this exciting field.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Self Care , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Smartphone
17.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(8)2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043578

ABSTRACT

Many emerging technologies have the potential to improve health care by providing more personalized approaches or early diagnostic methods. In this review, we cover smartphone-based multiplexed sensors as affordable and portable sensing platforms for point-of-care devices. Multiplexing has been gaining attention recently for clinical diagnosis considering certain diseases require analysis of complex biological networks instead of single-marker analysis. Smartphones offer tremendous possibilities for on-site detection analysis due to their portability, high accessibility, fast sample processing, and robust imaging capabilities. Straightforward digital analysis and convenient user interfaces support networked health care systems and individualized health monitoring. Detailed biomarker profiling provides fast and accurate analysis for disease diagnosis for limited sample volume collection. Here, multiplexed smartphone-based assays with optical and electrochemical components are covered. Possible wireless or wired communication actuators and portable and wearable sensing integration for various sensing applications are discussed. The crucial features and the weaknesses of these devices are critically evaluated.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Smartphone , Biomarkers/analysis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Delivery of Health Care , Point-of-Care Systems
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(9): e38497, 2022 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Shift is a novel smartphone app for providing a digital-first mental health resource to junior doctors. It contains psychoeducational material, cognitive behavioral modules, guided mediations, information on common work stressors, and a section on help-seeking options for psychological problems through workplace and private avenues. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to conduct a preliminary investigation of the use and potential effectiveness of Shift on depressive and anxiety symptoms (primary outcomes) and work and social functioning, COVID-19 safety concerns, and help seeking (secondary outcomes). This study also sought feedback on whether Shift was seen as an acceptable tool. METHODS: Junior doctors in New South Wales, Australia, were approached through promotional activities from the Ministry of Health, specialist medical colleges, and social media advertisements between June and August 2020. Consenting participants provided web-based baseline data, used the Shift app for 30 days, and were asked to complete a poststudy web-based questionnaire. Outcomes were analyzed under the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: A total of 222 female (n=156, 70.3%; mean age 29.2, SD 4.61 years) junior doctors provided full baseline data. Of these, 89.2% (198/222) downloaded the app, logged into the app approximately 6 times (mean 5.68, SD 7.51), completed 4 in-app activities (mean 3.77, SD 4.36), and spent a total of 1 hour on in-app activities (mean 52:23, SD 6:00:18) over 30 days. Postintervention and app use data were provided by 24.3% (54/222) of participants. Depressive and anxiety symptoms significantly decreased between the pre- and postassessment points as expected; however, physicians' COVID-19 safety concerns significantly increased. Work and social functioning, COVID-19 concerns for family and friends, and help seeking did not change significantly. There was no significant relationship between symptom changes and app use (number of log-ins, days between first and last log-in, and total activity time). Most poststudy completers (31/54, 57%) rated Shift highly or very highly. CONCLUSIONS: Despite high levels of nonresponse to the poststudy assessment and increases in COVID-19 safety concerns, junior doctors who used the app reported some improvements in depression and anxiety, which warrant further exploration in a robust manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Adult , Female , Humans , Medical Staff, Hospital , Mental Health , Smartphone , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Int J Health Geogr ; 21(1): 10, 2022 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Widespread use of smartphones has enabled the continuous monitoring of people's movements and physical activity. Linking global positioning systems (GPS) data obtained via smartphone applications to physical activity data may allow for large-scale and retrospective evaluation of where and how much physical activity has increased or decreased due to environmental, social, or individual changes caused by policy interventions, disasters, and infectious disease outbreaks. However, little attention has been paid to the use of large-scale commercial GPS data for physical activity research due to limitations in data specifications, including limited personal attribute and physical activity information. Using GPS logs with step counts measured by a smartphone application, we developed a simple method for daily walking step estimation based on large-scale GPS data. METHODS: The samples of this study were users whose GPS logs were obtained in Sendai City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, during October 2019 (37,460 users, 36,059,000 logs), and some logs included information on daily step counts (731 users, 450,307 logs). The relationship between land use exposure and daily step counts in the activity space was modeled using the small-scale GPS logs with daily step counts. Furthermore, we visualized the geographic distribution of estimated step counts using a large set of GPS logs with no step count information. RESULTS: The estimated model showed positive relationships between visiting high-rise buildings, parks and public spaces, and railway areas and step counts, and negative relationships between low-rise buildings and factory areas and daily step counts. The estimated daily step counts tended to be higher in urban areas than in suburban areas. Decreased step counts were mitigated in areas close to train stations. In addition, a clear temporal drop in step counts was observed in the suburbs during heavy rainfall. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between land use exposure and step counts observed in this study was consistent with previous findings, suggesting that the assessment of walking steps based on large-scale GPS logs is feasible. The methodology of this study can contribute to future policy interventions and public health measures by enabling the retrospective and large-scale observation of physical activity by walking.


Subject(s)
Geographic Information Systems , Walking , Exercise , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Smartphone
20.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273575, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021926

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Medical students have made particular use of smartphones during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although higher smartphone overuse has been observed, its effect on mental disorders is unclear. This study aimed to assess the association between smartphone overuse and mental disorders in Peruvian medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 370 students aged between 16 and 41 years (median age: 20) in three universities from July to October 2020. A survey including Smartphone Dependence and Addiction Scale, PHQ-9, and GAD-7 was applied. Prevalence ratios were estimated using generalized linear models. RESULTS: Smartphone overuse was a common feature among students (n = 291, 79%). Depressive symptoms were present in 290 (78%) students and anxiety symptoms in 255 (69%). Adjusted for confounders, addictive/dependent smartphone use was significantly associated with presence of depressive symptoms (PR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.20-1.38 for dependent use; PR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.12-1.50 for addictive use). Also, addictive/dependent smartphone use was significantly associated with presence of anxiety symptoms (PR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.14-2.23 for dependent use; PR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.07-2.41 for addictive use). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that medical students exposed to smartphone overuse are vulnerable to mental disorders. Overuse may reflect an inappropriate way of finding emotional relief, which may significantly affect quality of life and academic performance. Findings would assist faculties to establish effective measures for prevention of smartphone overuse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Smartphone , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL