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1.
Laryngoscope ; 132(2): 419-421, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527451

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical profile of patients who developed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after full vaccination. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical data were collected through medical records and online patient-reported outcome questionnaire from patients who developed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by nasopharyngeal swab, at least 2 weeks after completion of vaccination. A total of 153 subjects were included. The most frequent symptoms were: asthenia (82.4%), chemosensory dysfunction (63.4%), headache (59.5%), runny nose (58.2%), muscle pain (54.9%), loss of appetite (54.3%), and nasal obstruction (51.6%). Particularly, 62.3% and 53.6% of subjects reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunction, respectively. Symptom severity was mild or moderate in almost all cases. Chemosensory dysfunctions have been observed to be a frequent symptom even in subjects who contracted the infection after full vaccination. For this reason, the sudden loss of smell and taste could continue to represent a useful and specific diagnostic marker to raise the suspicion of COVID-19 even in vaccinated subjects. In the future, it will be necessary to establish what the recovery rate is in these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 132:419-421, 2022.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Smell/drug effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste/drug effects , Vaccination
2.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 912: 174582, 2021 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525777

ABSTRACT

The acute loss of taste and smell following COVID-19 are hallmark symptoms that affect 20-85% of patients. However, the pathophysiology and potential treatments of COVID-19 smell and taste loss are not fully understood. We searched the literature to review the potential pathologic pathways and treatment options for COVID-19 smell and taste loss. The interaction of novel coronavirus with ACE-2 receptors expressed on sustentacular cells and taste buds results in direct damage to the olfactory and gustatory systems. Also, the invasion of the virus to the olfactory neurons and consequent local inflammation are other proposed mechanisms. Therefore, COVID-19 patients with smell or taste loss may benefit from neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, or depolarizing agents. Based on the current evidence, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, insulin, and corticosteroids can be promising for the management of COVID-19 smell and taste loss. This review provided crucial information for treating COVID-19-related smell and/or taste loss, urging to perform large clinical trials to find optimum treatment options.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Smell/drug effects , Taste/drug effects , Ageusia/virology , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013876, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320058

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction is an early and sensitive marker of COVID-19 infection. Although self-limiting in the majority of cases, when hyposmia or anosmia persists it can have a profound effect on quality of life. Little guidance exists on the treatment of post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction, however several strategies have been proposed from the evidence relating to the treatment of post-viral anosmia (such as medication or olfactory training). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of interventions that have been used, or proposed, to treat persisting olfactory dysfunction due to COVID-19 infection. A secondary objective is to keep the evidence up-to-date, using a living systematic review approach.  SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register; Cochrane ENT Register; CENTRAL; Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished studies. The date of the search was 16 December 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials including participants who had symptoms of olfactory disturbance following COVID-19 infection. Only individuals who had symptoms for at least four weeks were included in this review. Studies compared any intervention with no treatment or placebo. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. Primary outcomes were the recovery of sense of smell, disease-related quality of life and serious adverse effects. Secondary outcomes were the change in sense of smell, general quality of life, prevalence of parosmia and other adverse effects (including nosebleeds/bloody discharge). We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We included one study with 18 participants, which compared the use of a 15-day course of oral steroids combined with nasal irrigation (consisting of an intranasal steroid/mucolytic/decongestant solution) with no intervention. Psychophysical testing was used to assess olfactory function at baseline, 20 and 40 days. Systemic corticosteroids plus intranasal steroid/mucolytic/decongestant compared to no intervention Recovery of sense of smell was assessed after 40 days (25 days after cessation of treatment) using the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center (CCCRC) score. This tool has a range of 0 to 100, and a score of ≥ 90 represents normal olfactory function. The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of this intervention on recovery of the sense of smell at one to three months (5/9 participants in the intervention group scored ≥ 90 compared to 0/9 in the control group; risk ratio (RR) 11.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70 to 173.66; 1 study; 18 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Change in sense of smell was assessed using the CCCRC score at 40 days. This study reported an improvement in sense of smell in the intervention group from baseline (median improvement in CCCRC score 60, interquartile range (IQR) 40) compared to the control group (median improvement in CCCRC score 30, IQR 25) (1 study; 18 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Serious adverse events andother adverse events were not identified in any participants of this study; however, it is unclear how these outcomes were assessed and recorded (1 study; 18 participants; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is very limited evidence available on the efficacy and harms of treatments for persistent olfactory dysfunction following COVID-19 infection. However, we have identified other ongoing trials in this area. As this is a living systematic review we will update the data regularly, as new results become available. For this (first) version of the living review we identified only one study with a small sample size, which assessed systemic steroids and nasal irrigation (intranasal steroid/mucolytic/decongestant). However, the evidence regarding the benefits and harms from this intervention to treat persistent post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction is very uncertain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Expectorants/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Nasal Decongestants/administration & dosage , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Administration, Oral , Ambroxol/administration & dosage , Betamethasone/administration & dosage , Bias , Humans , Nasal Lavage/methods , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Recovery of Function , Smell/drug effects , Time Factors
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(11): 4156-4162, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281021

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Approximately 30% of patients with confirmed COVID-19 report persistent smell or taste disorders as long-term sequalae of infection. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with inflammatory changes to the olfactory bulb, and treatments with anti-inflammatory properties are hypothesized to attenuate viral injury and promote recovery of olfaction after infection. Our study investigated the efficacy of a supplement with Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and Luteolin to support recovery of olfaction in COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a randomized-controlled pilot study in outpatients with history of confirmed COVID-19 with post-infection olfactory impairment that persisted ≥ 90 days after SARS-CoV-2 negative testing. Patients were randomized to two times a day olfactory rehabilitation alone or weekly olfactory rehabilitation plus daily oral supplement with PEA and Luteolin. Subjects with preexisting olfactory disorders were excluded. Sniffin' Sticks assessments were performed at baseline and 30 days after treatment.  Data on gender, age, and time since infection were collected. Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test was used to compare variances of Sniff scores between groups over time, and Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to assess for correlations between Sniff Score and gender or duration of infection. RESULTS: Among 12 patients enrolled (n=7, supplement; n=5, controls), patients receiving supplement had greater improvement in olfactory threshold, discrimination, and identification score versus controls (p=0.01). Time since infection was negatively correlated with Sniff Score, and there was no correlation between gender. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment combining olfactory rehabilitation with oral supplementation with PEA and Luteolin was associated with improved recovery of olfactory function, most marked in those patients with longstanding olfactory dysfunction. Further studies are necessary to replicate these findings and to determine whether early intervention including olfactory rehabilitation and PEA+Luteolin oral supplement might prevent SARS-CoV-2 associated olfactory impairment.


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ethanolamines/administration & dosage , Luteolin/administration & dosage , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Palmitic Acids/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pilot Projects , Single-Blind Method , Smell/drug effects , Smell/physiology
5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 98: 107871, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267705

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the usage of mometasone furoate nasal spray in the recovery of patients with severe microsmia or anosmia induced by COVID-19. This was a prospective clinical trial on non-hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 (>18 years) who had severe microsmia or anosmia within two weeks. The subjects were randomly assigned to the mometasone furoate group (100 mcg twice daily) or sodium chloride group (0.9%); both groups also received olfactory training for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was the improvement of the olfactory score at the end of the study. Visual analog scale (VAS) and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) were used to assess primary outcome. A total of 80 patients were recruited, 77 of them completed the study and were analyzed. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of demographics and baseline clinical characteristics. The olfactory scores (based on VAS) at weekly intervals showed a significant difference between the two groups (P:0.318, <0.001, <0.001, <0.001, respectively). The analyses also showed significant within-group differences from baseline. Nevertheless, the changes were not significant between the two groups (P: 0.444, 0.402, 0.267, 0.329). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the UPSIT results (p > 0.239). However, a significant between-group difference was noted in the severity of loss of smell (P < 0.001). Compared to olfactory training, mometasone furoate nasal spray combination with olfactory training showed a higher improvement in severe chronic anosmia by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Mometasone Furoate/administration & dosage , Smell/drug effects , Administration, Intranasal , Adult , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Mometasone Furoate/adverse effects , Nasal Sprays , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
6.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 254(2): 71-80, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262562

ABSTRACT

Olfactory disorders are one of the characteristic symptoms of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), which causes infection and inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tract. To our knowledge, there are no treatments for COVID-19-related olfactory disorder. Here, we report five olfactory disorder cases in COVID-19, treated using the Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, kakkontokasenkyushin'i. We treated five patients with mild COVID-19 at an isolation facility using Kampo medicine, depending on their symptoms. Patients with the olfactory disorder presented with a blocked nose, nasal discharge or taste impairment. Physical examination using Kampo medicine showed similar findings, such as a red tongue with red spots and sublingual vein congestion, which presented as blood stasis and inflammation; thus, we prescribed the Kampo medicine, kakkontokasenkyushin'i. After administration, the numeric rating scale scores of the smell impairment improved within 3 days from 9 to 3 in case 1, from 10 to 0 in case 2, from 9 to 0 in case 3, from 5 to 0 in case 4, and from 9 to 0 within 5 days in case 5. Following the treatment, other common cold symptoms were also alleviated. Kakkontokasenkyushin'i can be used for treating nasal congestion, rhinitis, and inflammation in the nasal mucosa. The olfactory disorder in COVID-19 has been reportedly associated with inflammation and congestion, especially in the olfactory bulb and olfactory cleft. Kakkontokasenkyushin'i may be one of the treatment alternatives for the olfactory disorder with rhinitis in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Kampo/methods , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Plant Preparations/chemistry , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Rhinitis/complications , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Smell/drug effects , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
7.
Pharmacol Rep ; 73(3): 781-785, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The benefits of corticosteroids for the treatment of COVID-19 infection are documented in the literature. The goal of the study is to compare the severity of rhinological symptoms of COVID-19 between patients with nasal steroid use (NSU) and the control group (CG) using the sino-nasal outcome test (SNOT-22) questionnaire. METHODS: A face-to-face survey was conducted at a second referral state hospital between. Patients with a complete recovery from COVID-19 were included in NSU and CG groups. Two subscales of the SNOT-22 were filled by the patients. The frequency and duration of smell and taste loss and SNOT-22 scores were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients were included in the study. Thirty-one patients were in CG and 16 patients in the NSU group. Twenty-four (51.1%) patients were females and 23 (48.9%) were males. The mean age was 41.4 ± 8.6 years. Olfactory dysfunction was detected in 12 (75%) patients in the NSU group, and 31 (93.3%) patients in the control group (CG). Gustatory dysfunction was seen in 10 (62.5%) patients in the NSU group and 24 (77.4%) patients NSU group. (p = 0.071, 0.279, respectively). The duration of the olfactory (6.6 ± 2.5 days) and gustatory dysfunction (6.1 ± 2.6 days) and the mean SNOT-22 total score (11.9 ± 1.6) was significantly lower in the NSU group (p < 0.001, CI 11.1-5.1, CI 9.9-4.6, CI 9.3-5.9, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although nasal steroid use does not prevent olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, it may reduce the severity and duration of these symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Steroids/therapeutic use , Taste Disorders/drug therapy , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sino-Nasal Outcome Test , Smell/drug effects , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Trials ; 21(1): 942, 2020 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a therapeutic role for omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the treatment of olfactory dysfunction associated with COVID-19 infection TRIAL DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial PARTICIPANTS: Eligible patients are adults with self-reported new-onset olfactory dysfunction of any duration associated with laboratory-confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19 patients. Exclusion criteria include patients with pre-existing olfactory dysfunction, history of chronic rhinosinusitis or history of sinus surgery, current use of nasal steroid sprays or omega-3 supplementation, fish allergy, or inability to provide informed consent for any reason. The trial is conducted at Mount Sinai Hospital INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The intervention group will receive 2000 mg daily of omega-3 supplementation in the form of two "Fish Oil, Ultra Omega-3" capsules (product of Pharmavite®) daily. The comparator group will take 2 placebo capsules of identical size, shape, and odor daily for 6 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES: Each subject will take a Brief Smell Identification Test at study enrolment and completion after 6 weeks. The primary outcome will be change in Brief Smell Identification Test over the 6-week period. RANDOMISATION: Patients will be randomized by the Investigational Drug Pharmacy at the Icahn School of Medicine at Sinai via a computer-generated sequence in a 1:1 allocation to treatment or control arms. BLINDING (MASKING): Both participants and researchers will be blinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): There will be 88 participants randomized to each group. A total of 176 participants will be randomized. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Version 1, 8/3/2020 Recruitment is ongoing, started 8/5/2020 with estimated completion 11/30/2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with Protocol Identifier: NCT04495816 . TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04495816 . Registered 3 August 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dietary Supplements/statistics & numerical data , Double-Blind Method , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Humans , New York/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Placebos/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell/drug effects , Smell/physiology
9.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(8): 703-709, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-711981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term recovery rate of chemosensitive functions in coronavirus disease 2019 patients has not yet been determined. METHOD: A multicentre prospective study on 138 coronavirus disease 2019 patients was conducted. Olfactory and gustatory functions were prospectively evaluated for 60 days. RESULTS: Within the first 4 days of coronavirus disease 2019, 84.8 per cent of patients had chemosensitive dysfunction that gradually improved over the observation period. The most significant increase in chemosensitive scores occurred in the first 10 days for taste and between 10 and 20 days for smell. At the end of the observation period (60 days after symptom onset), 7.2 per cent of the patients still had severe dysfunctions. The risk of developing a long-lasting disorder becomes significant at 10 days for taste (odds ratio = 40.2, 95 per cent confidence interval = 2.204-733.2, p = 0.013) and 20 days for smell (odds ratio = 58.5, 95 per cent confidence interval = 3.278-1043.5, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Chemosensitive disturbances persisted in 7.2 per cent of patients 60 days after clinical onset. Specific therapies should be initiated in patients with severe olfactory and gustatory disturbances 20 days after disease onset.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Smell/physiology , Taste/physiology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell/drug effects , Taste/drug effects , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/virology
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