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1.
Physiol Rep ; 10(22): e15486, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145531

ABSTRACT

The spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus produces a new disease termed COVID-19, the underlying physiological mechanisms of which are still being understood. Characteristic of the infection is the compromising of taste and smell. There is a persistent need to discriminate the dysfunctions and correlation between taste and smell, which are probably epiphenomena of other concealed conditions. Anosmic and ageusic long-term COVID-19 patients were re-evaluated after 1 year using a Volabolomic approach with an e-nose recording system coupled with olfactometric and gustometric tests. Here a range of sensory arrangements was found, from normal taste and smell to complete losses. The following patterns of olfactory threshold (OT)-taste threshold-olfactory uni- and cross-modal perception were found anosmia-severe hypogeusia-anosmia; hyposmia-hypogeusia-severe hyposmia; normosmia-ageusia-hyposmia; severe hyposmia -normogeusia-normosmia. There is a strong correlation between OT and olfactory uni- and cross-modal perception, a moderate correlation between olfactory and taste threshold and no correlation between OT and taste threshold. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the feasibility of testing the chemical senses to directly objectify function in order to discriminate taste from olfactory impairment. Furthermore, it allows to hypothesize a long-term effect of the virus due to neuroinvasion through, probably, the olfactory system with injury in the related multisensory areas of taste and smell.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Humans , Smell/physiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders
2.
Cells ; 11(19)2022 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065728

ABSTRACT

Loss of the sense of smell (anosmia) has been included as a COVID-19 symptom by the World Health Organization. The majority of patients recover the sense of smell within a few weeks postinfection (short-term anosmia), while others report persistent anosmia. Several studies have investigated the mechanisms leading to anosmia in COVID-19; however, the evidence is scattered, and the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, we aim here to evaluate the current knowledge and uncertainties regarding the mechanisms leading to short-term anosmia following SARS-CoV-2 infection. We applied an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework, well established in toxicology, to propose a sequence of measurable key events (KEs) leading to short-term anosmia in COVID-19. Those KEs are (1) SARS-CoV-2 Spike proteins binding to ACE-2 expressed by the sustentacular (SUS) cells in the olfactory epithelium (OE); (2) viral entry into SUS cells; (3) viral replication in the SUS cells; (4) SUS cell death; (5) damage to the olfactory sensory neurons and the olfactory epithelium (OE). This AOP-aligned approach allows for the identification of gaps where more research should be conducted and where therapeutic intervention could act. Finally, this AOP gives a frame to explain several disease features and can be linked to specific factors that lead to interindividual differences in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Adverse Outcome Pathways , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e936496, 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Anosmia, which is loss of smell, is a recognized complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which may persist after recovery from infection. Retronasal olfactory testing includes both subjective questionnaires and physiological tests that can be used to evaluate recovery of smell. This report presents the case of a 32-year-old man with persistent loss of smell following COVID-19 whose recovery was evaluated by retronasal olfactory testing. CASE REPORT The patient was a 32-year-old man with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. He was aware of his olfactory dysfunction. Using the orthonasal test, a T&T Olfactometer 2 months after disease onset showed an olfactory threshold score of 2.2 points (mild decrease) and olfactory identification result of 3.4 points (moderate decrease). However, the retronasal intravenous olfactory test showed no response, indicating severe olfactory dysfunction. After 3 months of olfactory training and therapy with steroidal nasal drops (Fluticasone Furoate, 27.5 µg/day) and oral vitamins (Mecobalamin, 1500 µg/day), the patient's orthonasal test olfactory threshold score improved to 0.6 points (normal), and his olfactory identification result improved to 1.2 points (mild decrease). Although the retronasal intravenous olfactory test showed a weak response, a reaction did occur. At this time, the patient did not report any improvement in his symptoms. CONCLUSIONS This report has shown that in cases of persistent anosmia following COVID-19, retronasal olfactory testing can be used to evaluate recovery of the sense of smell.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adult , Anosmia , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell/physiology
4.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 36(6): 780-787, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957011

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction (OD)-including anosmia and hyposmia-is a common symptom of COVID-19. Previous studies have identified olfactory training (OT) as an important treatment for postinfectious OD; however, little is known about its benefits and optimizations after SARS-CoV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess whether olfactory training performance can be optimized using more fragrances over a shorter period of time in patients with persistent OD after COVID-19. In addition, we determined the presence of other variables related to OD and treatment response in this population. METHODS: This multicenter randomized clinical trial recruited 80 patients with persistent OD and prior COVID-19 infection for less than 3 months. The patients were divided into 2 groups receiving either 4 or 8 essences over 4 weeks. Subjective assessments and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) were performed before and after the treatment. RESULTS: Significant olfactory improvement was measured subjectively and using the UPSIT in both groups; however, no significant differences between the groups were observed. Additionally, the presence of olfactory fluctuations was associated with higher UPSIT scores. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that training intensification by increasing the number of essences for 4 weeks does not show superiority over the classical method. Moreover, fluctuant olfaction seems to be related to a higher score on the UPSIT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Odorants , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell/physiology
5.
Brain Nerve ; 74(7): 873-878, 2022 Jul.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954941

ABSTRACT

Olfactory and taste dysfunctions are characteristic symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, their frequencies and pathogeneses keep changing because of rapid mutations of the viral strains. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, a receptor for the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 in the olfactory epithelium, is involved in the development of olfactory dysfunction. In general, olfactory dysfunctions resolve in a few weeks. However, there are cases wherein the symptoms persist for several months or longer, and parosmia or phantosmia affects the patient's quality of life. It is also assumed that the damage owing to COVID-19 extends to olfactory nerve cells, resulting in sensorineural olfactory dysfunction similar to post-infectious olfactory dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell/physiology , Taste , Taste Disorders/complications
6.
Nature ; 606(7915): S18-S20, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908125
7.
Nature ; 606(7915): S12-S13, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908124
8.
JAMA Neurol ; 79(6): 544-553, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782548

ABSTRACT

Importance: Loss of smell is an early and common presentation of COVID-19 infection. Although it has been speculated that viral infection of olfactory neurons may be the culprit, it is unclear whether viral infection causes injuries in the olfactory bulb region. Objective: To characterize the olfactory pathology associated with COVID-19 infection in a postmortem study. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter postmortem cohort study was conducted from April 7, 2020, to September 11, 2021. Deceased patients with COVID-19 and control individuals were included in the cohort. One infant with congenital anomalies was excluded. Olfactory bulb and tract tissue was collected from deceased patients with COVID-19 and appropriate controls. Histopathology, electron microscopy, droplet digital polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence/immunohistochemistry studies were performed. Data analysis was conducted from February 7 to October 19, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: (1) Severity of degeneration, (2) losses of olfactory axons, and (3) severity of microvasculopathy in olfactory tissue. Results: Olfactory tissue from 23 deceased patients with COVID-19 (median [IQR] age, 62 [49-69] years; 14 men [60.9%]) and 14 control individuals (median [IQR] age, 53.5 [33.25-65] years; 7 men [50%]) was included in the analysis. The mean (SD) axon pathology score (range, 1-3) was 1.921 (0.569) in patients with COVID-19 and 1.198 (0.208) in controls (P < .001), whereas axon density was 2.973 (0.963) × 104/mm2 in patients with COVID-19 and 3.867 (0.670) × 104/mm2 in controls (P = .002). Concomitant endothelial injury of the microvasculature was also noted in olfactory tissue. The mean (SD) microvasculopathy score (range, 1-3) was 1.907 (0.490) in patients with COVID-19 and 1.405 (0.233) in control individuals (P < .001). Both the axon and microvascular pathology was worse in patients with COVID-19 with smell alterations than those with intact smell (mean [SD] axon pathology score, 2.260 [0.457] vs 1.63 [0.426]; P = .002; mean [SD] microvasculopathy score, 2.154 [0.528] vs 1.694 [0.329]; P = .02) but was not associated with clinical severity, timing of infection, or presence of virus. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that COVID-19 infection is associated with axon injuries and microvasculopathy in olfactory tissue. The striking axonal pathology in some cases indicates that olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19 infection may be severe and permanent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell/physiology
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(3)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732119

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Since the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of cases of post-infectious olfactory dysfunction (PIOD) has substantially increased. Despite a good recovery rate, olfactory dysfunction (OD) becomes persistent in up to 15% of cases and further research is needed to find new treatment modalities for those patients who have not improved on currently available treatments. Social media has emerged as a potential avenue for patient recruitment, but its role in recruiting patients with smell dysfunction remains unexplored. We conducted a survey using the AbScent Facebook page to evaluate the feasibility of using this platform for future studies on smell dysfunction. Materials and Methods: Between 26 October and 4 November 2021, we conducted an online survey to evaluate propensity of patients with PIOD who would be willing to participate in research studies on smell dysfunction. Results: Sixty-five subjects were surveyed with a response rate of 90.7%. The median visual analogue scale (VAS) for sense of smell was 0 at infection and 2 at survey completion. The median length of OD was 1.6 years, and the main cause of OD was SARS-CoV-2 (57.6%). Parosmia was reported in 41 subjects (69.5%) whilst phantosmia in 22 (37.3%). The median length of olfactory training (OT) was 6 months but subjectively effective in 15 subjects (25.4%). Twenty-seven subjects (45.8%) tried other medications to improve olfaction, but only 6 participants (22.2%) reported an improvement. All subjects expressed their propensity to participate in future studies with most of them (38; 64.4%) willing to be enrolled either in medical and surgical studies or to be part of a randomised study design (11; 18.6%). Conclusions: Using the AbScent Facebook platform we successfully selected a population of subjects with persistent and severe OD that have failed to improve on available treatments and are willing to participate in further clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Social Media , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Patient Selection , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell/physiology
10.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262631, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690736

ABSTRACT

There is an increasing need for rapid, reliable, non-invasive, and inexpensive mass testing methods as the global COVID-19 pandemic continues. Detection dogs could be a possible solution to identify individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2. Previous studies have shown that dogs can detect SARS-CoV-2 on sweat samples. This study aims to establish the dogs' sensitivity (true positive rate) which measures the proportion of people with COVID-19 that are correctly identified, and specificity (true negative rate) which measures the proportion of people without COVID-19 that are correctly identified. Seven search and rescue dogs were tested using a total of 218 axillary sweat samples (62 positive and 156 negative) in olfaction cones following a randomised and double-blind protocol. Sensitivity ranged from 87% to 94%, and specificity ranged from 78% to 92%, with four dogs over 90%. These results were used to calculate the positive predictive value and negative predictive value for each dog for different infection probabilities (how likely it is for an individual to be SARS-CoV-2 positive), ranging from 10-50%. These results were compared with a reference diagnostic tool which has 95% specificity and sensitivity. Negative predictive values for six dogs ranged from ≥98% at 10% infection probability to ≥88% at 50% infection probability compared with the reference tool which ranged from 99% to 95%. Positive predictive values ranged from ≥40% at 10% infection probability to ≥80% at 50% infection probability compared with the reference tool which ranged from 68% to 95%. This study confirms previous results, suggesting that dogs could play an important role in mass-testing situations. Future challenges include optimal training methods and standardisation for large numbers of detection dogs and infrastructure supporting their deployment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Smell/physiology , Sweat/virology , Animals , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 43(5): 1548-1560, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653231

ABSTRACT

To address the impact of COVID-19 olfactory loss on the brain, we analyzed the neural connectivity of the central olfactory system in recently SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects with persisting olfactory impairment (hyposmia). Twenty-seven previously SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects (10 males, mean age ± SD 40.0 ± 7.6 years) with clinically confirmed COVID-19 related hyposmia, and eighteen healthy, never SARS-CoV-2 infected, normosmic subjects (6 males, mean age ± SD 36.0 ± 7.1 years), were recruited in a 3 Tesla MRI study including high angular resolution diffusion and resting-state functional MRI acquisitions. Specialized metrics of structural and functional connectivity were derived from a standard parcellation of olfactory brain areas and a previously validated graph-theoretic model of the human olfactory functional network. These metrics were compared between groups and correlated to a clinical index of olfactory impairment. On the scanning day, all subjects were virus-free and cognitively unimpaired. Compared to control, both structural and functional connectivity metrics were found significantly increased in previously SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects. Greater residual olfactory impairment was associated with more segregated processing within regions more functionally connected to the anterior piriform cortex. An increased neural connectivity within the olfactory cortex was associated with a recent SARS-CoV-2 infection when the olfactory loss was a residual COVID-19 symptom. The functional connectivity of the anterior piriform cortex, the largest cortical recipient of afferent fibers from the olfactory bulb, accounted for the inter-individual variability in the sensory impairment. Albeit preliminary, these findings could feature a characteristic brain connectivity response in the presence of COVID-19 related residual hyposmia.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Nerve Net/diagnostic imaging , Smell/physiology , Adult , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male
12.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(9): 753-761, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which any upper respiratory virus, including SARS-CoV-2, impairs chemosensory function are not known. COVID-19 is frequently associated with olfactory dysfunction after viral infection, which provides a research opportunity to evaluate the natural course of this neurological finding. Clinical trials and prospective and histological studies of new-onset post-viral olfactory dysfunction have been limited by small sample sizes and a paucity of advanced neuroimaging data and neuropathological samples. Although data from neuropathological specimens are now available, neuroimaging of the olfactory system during the acute phase of infection is still rare due to infection control concerns and critical illness and represents a substantial gap in knowledge. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS: The active replication of SARS-CoV-2 within the brain parenchyma (ie, in neurons and glia) has not been proven. Nevertheless, post-viral olfactory dysfunction can be viewed as a focal neurological deficit in patients with COVID-19. Evidence is also sparse for a direct causal relation between SARS-CoV-2 infection and abnormal brain findings at autopsy, and for trans-synaptic spread of the virus from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb. Taken together, clinical, radiological, histological, ultrastructural, and molecular data implicate inflammation, with or without infection, in either the olfactory epithelium, the olfactory bulb, or both. This inflammation leads to persistent olfactory deficits in a subset of people who have recovered from COVID-19. Neuroimaging has revealed localised inflammation in intracranial olfactory structures. To date, histopathological, ultrastructural, and molecular evidence does not suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is an obligate neuropathogen. WHERE NEXT?: The prevalence of CNS and olfactory bulb pathosis in patients with COVID-19 is not known. We postulate that, in people who have recovered from COVID-19, a chronic, recrudescent, or permanent olfactory deficit could be prognostic for an increased likelihood of neurological sequelae or neurodegenerative disorders in the long term. An inflammatory stimulus from the nasal olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulbs and connected brain regions might accelerate pathological processes and symptomatic progression of neurodegenerative disease. Persistent olfactory impairment with or without perceptual distortions (ie, parosmias or phantosmias) after SARS-CoV-2 infection could, therefore, serve as a marker to identify people with an increased long-term risk of neurological disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Olfaction Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfactory Mucosa/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Olfactory Mucosa/physiopathology , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , Prospective Studies , Smell/physiology
13.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259321, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506148

ABSTRACT

Olfactory loss has been identified as one of the common symptoms related to COVID-19 infection. Although olfactory loss is recognized, our understanding of both the extent of loss and time to olfactory recovery following infection is less well known. Similarly, knowledge of potential impactful patient factors and therapies that influence olfactory recovery is desirable but is not overtly clear in the literature. Our systematic review sought to fill this knowledge gap. We included studies that: involved either an observational or an interventional design that reported data on patients with olfactory dysfunction due to Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) diagnosed COVID-19 infection; and reported data regarding olfactory recovery measured by an objective olfactory test, Likert scale and/or visual analog scale (VAS). The study methods were determined a priori and registered in PROSPERO (Registration Number CRD42020204354). An information specialist searched Medline, Embase, LitCovid and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials up to March 2021, and two reviewers were involved in all aspects of study selection and data collection. After screening 2788 citations, a total of 44 studies of assorted observational designs were included. Patients had undergone objective COVID-19 testing, and most were adult patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Olfactory recovery was found to occur as early as 7 days, with most patients recovering olfaction within 30 days. Few studies included prolonged follow-up to 6 months or longer duration. Poor olfaction at initial presentation was associated with poor recovery rates. Only a small number of studies assessed olfactory retraining and steroid therapy. Additional trials are underway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Smell/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Visual Analog Scale
14.
Dev Psychobiol ; 63(7): e22201, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482123

ABSTRACT

Fetuses are able to process olfactory stimuli present in the womb and continue to show a preference for these odors for months after birth. Despite the accumulated knowledge about their early ability to perceive odors, there is a lack of validated scales for odor response in newborns. The evaluation of reactions of the olfactory system to environmental stimuli in infants has been defined by methodological theoretical approaches of experimental and clinical assessment tools. These approaches are mainly based on psychophysical approaches and predominantly use behavioral and physiological measures. Examples can be found in studies describing early abilities of newborn babies for behaviors or heart rate variability showing memory of maternal food preferences or mother's breast milk. This systematic review aimed to determine whether validated odor assessment tools can be feasibly used in studies. Particularly in light of the current COVID-19 pandemic and evidence of associated olfactory impairment resulting from SARS-COV-2 infection, the study is also motivated by the need for tools to assess olfactory function in neonates.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn/physiology , Smell , Anosmia/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Odorants , Smell/physiology
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5924-5930, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432426

ABSTRACT

The introduction of trained sniffer dogs for COVID-19 detection could be an opportunity, as previously described for other diseases. Dogs could be trained to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the whiff of COVID-19. Dogs involved in the study were three, one male and two females from different breeds, Black German Shepherd, German Shepherd, and Dutch Shepherd. The training was performed using sweat samples from SARS-CoV2 positive patients and from SARS-Cov2 free patients admitted at the University Hospital Campus Bio-medico of Rome. Gauze with sweat was collected in a glass jar with a metal top and put in metal boxes used for dog training. The dog training protocol was performed in two phases: the olfactory conditioning and the olfactory discrimination research. The training planning was focused on the switch moment for the sniffer dog, the moment when the dog was able to identify VOCs specific for COVID-19. At this time, the dog was able to identify VOCs specific for COVID-19 with significant reliability, in terms of the number of correct versus incorrect (p < 0.0001) reporting. In conclusion, this protocol could provide a useful tool for sniffer dogs' training and their introduction in a mass screening context. It could be cheaper and faster than a conventional testing method.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Learning/physiology , Smell/physiology , Working Dogs/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sweat/chemistry , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Volatile Organic Compounds/isolation & purification
16.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 49(1): 147-151, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347482

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Next to olfactory function, the nose can also perceive chemestetic sensations mediated by the trigeminal nerve. While olfactory dysfunction as a symptom of COVID-19 is well described, there has been little research on the limitation of other nasal sensory inputs due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this study was to determine possible limitations of nasal chemesthesis after COVID-19 infection by a psychophysiological diagnostic tool. METHODS: In 65 patients with a PCR-confirmed, former COVID-19 disease, olfaction was tested by means of a sniffin' sticks test, tasting by taste sprays and chemesthesis with a menthol dilution series. The subjective self-assessment of the patients was recorded via a questionnaire. RESULTS: We found a restriction of nasal chemesthesis and the extent correlated with the loss of smell, as well as with the values of the taste score, but not with subjective self-assessment. CONCLUSION: Not only the ability to smell and taste, but also nasal chemesthesis is affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Sensory Thresholds/physiology , Smell/physiology , Trigeminal Nerve/physiopathology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(11): 4156-4162, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281021

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Approximately 30% of patients with confirmed COVID-19 report persistent smell or taste disorders as long-term sequalae of infection. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with inflammatory changes to the olfactory bulb, and treatments with anti-inflammatory properties are hypothesized to attenuate viral injury and promote recovery of olfaction after infection. Our study investigated the efficacy of a supplement with Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and Luteolin to support recovery of olfaction in COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a randomized-controlled pilot study in outpatients with history of confirmed COVID-19 with post-infection olfactory impairment that persisted ≥ 90 days after SARS-CoV-2 negative testing. Patients were randomized to two times a day olfactory rehabilitation alone or weekly olfactory rehabilitation plus daily oral supplement with PEA and Luteolin. Subjects with preexisting olfactory disorders were excluded. Sniffin' Sticks assessments were performed at baseline and 30 days after treatment.  Data on gender, age, and time since infection were collected. Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test was used to compare variances of Sniff scores between groups over time, and Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to assess for correlations between Sniff Score and gender or duration of infection. RESULTS: Among 12 patients enrolled (n=7, supplement; n=5, controls), patients receiving supplement had greater improvement in olfactory threshold, discrimination, and identification score versus controls (p=0.01). Time since infection was negatively correlated with Sniff Score, and there was no correlation between gender. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment combining olfactory rehabilitation with oral supplementation with PEA and Luteolin was associated with improved recovery of olfactory function, most marked in those patients with longstanding olfactory dysfunction. Further studies are necessary to replicate these findings and to determine whether early intervention including olfactory rehabilitation and PEA+Luteolin oral supplement might prevent SARS-CoV-2 associated olfactory impairment.


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ethanolamines/administration & dosage , Luteolin/administration & dosage , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Palmitic Acids/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pilot Projects , Single-Blind Method , Smell/drug effects , Smell/physiology
18.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 275: 295-319, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245536

ABSTRACT

Taste disorders, impacting well-being and physical health, can be caused by many etiologies including the use of medication. Recently, taste disturbance is also considered as one of the predominant symptoms of COVID-19 although its pathogenesis requires further research. Localized taste disorders may be overlooked considering that whole-mouth taste perception is insured through several mechanisms. Individuals often fail to discern taste from flavor, and interviews/surveys are insufficient to properly assess taste function. Hence, various taste assessment methods have been developed. Among them, psychophysical methods are most widely applied in a clinical context. Less-biased electrophysiological, imaging, or morphological methods are used to a much lesser degree. Overall, more research is needed in the field of taste.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Taste , Humans , Smell/physiology , Taste/physiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e29583, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Persistent olfactory dysfunction is a significant complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Olfactory training involving aromatic oils has been recommended to improve olfactory recovery, but quantitative data are missing. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify the benefit of olfactory training and visual stimulation assisted by a dedicated web application for patients who experienced olfactory dysfunction for ≥1 month. METHODS: We performed an observational, real-life, data-based study on a cohort of patients who experienced at least 1 month of persistent olfactory dysfunction between January 30 and March 26, 2021. An analysis was performed after a mean olfactory training time of 4 weeks, and at least 500 patients were assessable for primary outcome assessment. Participants exposed themselves twice daily to odors from 4 high-concentration oils and visual stimulation assisted by a dedicated web application. Improvement was defined as a 2-point increase on a 10-point, self-assessed olfactory visual analogue scale. RESULTS: In total, 548 patients were assessable for primary outcome assessment. The mean baseline, self-assessed olfactory score was 1.9 (SD 1.7), and this increased to 4.6 (SD 2.8) after a mean olfactory training time of 27.7 days (SD 17.2). Olfactory training was associated with at least a 2-point increase in 64.2% (352/548) of patients. The rate of patients' olfactory improvement was higher for patients who trained for more than 28 days than that rate for patients who trained for less than 28 days (73.3% vs 59%; P=.002). The time to olfactory improvement was 8 days faster for patients with hyposmia compared to the time to improvement for patients with anosmia (P<.001). This benefit was observed regardless of the duration of the olfactory dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory training and visual stimulation assisted by a dedicated web application was associated with significant improvement in olfaction, especially after 28 days of olfactory training.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Internet-Based Intervention , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/rehabilitation , Anosmia/complications , Anosmia/rehabilitation , Anosmia/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/therapy , Photic Stimulation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Smell/physiology
20.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(6): 103068, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210791

ABSTRACT

The effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) exist on a spectrum. Clinical symptoms of smell and taste dysfunction are prominent features of COVID-19. The objective of this study was to elucidate the factors associated with smell and taste dysfunction amongst hospitalized COVID-19 patients. A retrospective review of a multi-hospital health network's COVID-19 database between March and June 2020 was performed. Patients with self-reported smell or taste loss were included. Demographic information, patient comorbidities, and mortality data was obtained. There were 2892 patients included in this analysis and 117 reported smell or taste loss (4.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4%-4.8%). The proportion of females with smell or taste loss was significantly higher than males (6.3% vs. 2.5%, P < 0.001), whereas no differences existed between ethnicity or smoking status. When compared with age of 30-40 years, the age group of 10-20 years were most likely to present with smell or taste dysfunction (odds ratio [OR] 6.59, 95% CI 1.32-26.12; P = 0.01). The majority of specific comorbidities were not associated with increased incidence of smell or taste dysfunction. Outpatient healthcare workers were more likely to present with smell or taste loss (OR 3.2, CI 1.8-5.47; P < 0.001). The mortality rate among COVID-19 patients with smell or taste dysfunction was significantly lower than those without (0% vs. 20.3%; P < 0.001). Smell or taste loss is more prevalent in women, younger age groups, and healthier individuals. It may be associated with lower mortality and a milder disease trajectory compared to the overall cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Smell/physiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Taste/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/mortality , Young Adult
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