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2.
Lasers Med Sci ; 36(7): 1555-1556, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554591
6.
ANZ J Surg ; 92(1-2): 57-61, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surgical smoke or plume is produced by a variety of surgical coagulators and dissectors. A number of jurisdictions have recently introduced policies to reduce the associated occupational health risks including WorkSafe Victoria and New South Wales Health. METHOD: This paper is a narrative review of potential risks, including any associated with COVID-19, and options for mitigation. RESULTS: Surgical smoke or plume contains potentially toxic chemicals, some of which are carcinogens. Plume may also contain live virus, notably Human Papilloma and Hepatitis B, though any possible viral transmission is limited to a few case reports. Despite identifying COVID-19 ribonucleic acid fragments in various body tissues and fluids there are no current reports of COVID-19 transmission. Although plume is rapidly removed from the atmosphere in modern operating rooms, it is still inhaled by the operative team. Mitigation should include ensuring diathermy devices have evacuators while plume extraction should be standard for laparoscopic procedures. Consideration needs to be given to the potential to compromise the operating field of view, or the noise of the extractor impairing communication. There is an increasing range of suitable products on the market. The future includes pendant systems built into the operating room. CONCLUSION: The potential risks associated with surgical plume cannot be ignored. Health services should invest in plume extraction devices with a view to protecting their staff. The conduct of the operation should not be compromised by the devices chosen. Future operating theatres need to be designed to minimize exposure to plume.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Exposure , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Operating Rooms , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoke/adverse effects
7.
J Bras Pneumol ; 47(5): e20210219, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486867

ABSTRACT

This review study aimed to determine the relationship between exposure to smoke from biomass burning in the Amazon rain forest and its implications on human health in that region in Brazil. A nonsystematic review was carried out by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO, and EMBASE databases for articles published between 2005 and 2021, either in Portuguese or in English, using the search terms "biomass burning" OR "Amazon" OR "burned" AND "human health." The review showed that the negative health effects of exposure to smoke from biomass burning in the Amazon have been poorly studied in that region. There is an urgent need to identify effective public health interventions that can help improve the behavior of vulnerable populations exposed to smoke from biomass burning, reducing morbidity and mortality related to that exposure.


Subject(s)
Rainforest , Smoke , Biomass , Brazil , Humans , Smoke/adverse effects
8.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 16(1): 79, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: British Columbia (BC) is in the midst of an opioid overdose crisis. Since 2017, smoking illicit drugs has been the leading mode of drug administration causing overdose death. Yet, little is known about people who smoke opioids, and factors underlying choice of mode of administration. The study objectives are to identify the prevalence and correlates associated with smoking opioids. METHODS: The Harm Reduction Client Survey is a monitoring tool used by the BC Centre for Disease Control since 2012. This survey is disseminated to harm reduction sites across BC to understand drug use trends and drug-related harms. We examined data from the survey administered October-December 2019 and performed descriptive, univariate, and multivariate analyses to better understand factors associated with smoking opioids. RESULTS: A total of 369 people who used opioids in the past 3 days were included, of whom 251 (68.0%) reported smoking opioids. A total of 109 (29.5%) respondents experienced an overdose in the past 6 months; of these 79 (72.5%) smoked opioids. Factors significantly associated with smoking opioids were: living in a small community (AOR =2.41, CI =1.27-4.58), being a woman (AOR = 1.84, CI = 1.03-3.30), age under 30 (AOR = 5.41, CI = 2.19-13.40) or 30-39 (AOR = 2.77, CI = 1.33-5.78) compared to age ≥ 50, using drugs alone (AOR = 2.98, CI = 1.30-6.83), and owning a take-home naloxone kit (AOR = 2.01, CI = 1.08-3.72). Reported use of methamphetamines within the past 3 days was strongly associated with smoking opioids (AOR = 6.48, CI = 3.51-11.96). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight important correlates associated with smoking opioids, particularly the recent use of methamphetamines. These findings identify actions to better respond to the overdose crisis, such as targeted harm reduction approaches, educating on safer smoking, advocating for consumption sites where people can smoke drugs, and providing a regulated supply of opioids that can be smoked.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Drug Overdose , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , British Columbia/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/drug therapy , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Prevalence , Smoke , Smoking/epidemiology
9.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 31(10): 1106-1113, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475742

ABSTRACT

Background: The smoke created by energy-based devices during surgery may have the potential to transmit viral components to operating room staff. The COVID-19 pandemic has changed staff safety regulations. However, it is not clearly understood whether it can be transmitted via surgical smoke. Laparoscopic approaches have become the standard surgical procedure in many cases, but some of previous investigations have advised to pretermit these approaches due to high risk of COVID-19 transmission. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the English literature that were indexed in the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases by using key words including Virus, viral transmission, surgical smoke, surgical plum, laparoscopy, and COVID-19 both solely and in two-word combination. A total of 87 articles were found relevant, and after reviewing the abstract, 33 articles were shortlisted and summarized. Results: Previous studies have focused on different surgical instruments that generate smoke, methods to collect and analyze the smoke and to understand the implications of its exposure after an analysis. A total of 9 out of 11 studies on the potential transmission of human papilloma virus through surgical smoke found evidence in favor of transmission. There were studies on the possible transmission of HIV, hepatitis B virus, and Sabin poliomyelitis vaccine virus 2. Conclusion: We do not believe that laparoscopic procedures may have extra risk for COVID-19 transmission compared with the open procedures, but it is always advised that the operating room staff adhere to the safety instructions during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laparoscopy , Humans , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoke/adverse effects
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 809: 151158, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475054

ABSTRACT

The 2020 COVID-19 outbreak in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, followed an unprecedented wildfire season that exposed large populations to wildfire smoke. Wildfires release particulate matter (PM), toxic gases and organic and non-organic chemicals that may be associated with increased incidence of COVID-19. This study estimated the association of wildfire smoke exposure with the incidence of COVID-19 in NSW. A Bayesian mixed-effect regression was used to estimate the association of either the average PM10 level or the proportion of wildfire burned area as proxies of wildfire smoke exposure with COVID-19 incidence in NSW, adjusting for sociodemographic risk factors. The analysis followed an ecological design using the 129 NSW Local Government Areas (LGA) as the ecological units. A random effects model and a model including the LGA spatial distribution (spatial model) were compared. A higher proportional wildfire burned area was associated with higher COVID-19 incidence in both the random effects and spatial models after adjustment for sociodemographic factors (posterior mean = 1.32 (99% credible interval: 1.05-1.67) and 1.31 (99% credible interval: 1.03-1.65), respectively). No evidence of an association between the average PM10 level and the COVID-19 incidence was found. LGAs in the greater Sydney and Hunter regions had the highest increase in the risk of COVID-19. This study identified wildfire smoke exposures were associated with increased risk of COVID-19 in NSW. Research on individual responses to specific wildfire airborne particles and pollutants needs to be conducted to further identify the causal links between SARS-Cov-2 infection and wildfire smoke. The identification of LGAs with the highest risk of COVID-19 associated with wildfire smoke exposure can be useful for public health prevention and or mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Wildfires , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Australia , Bayes Theorem , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Incidence , New South Wales/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoke/adverse effects
11.
AORN J ; 114(4): P4-P6, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449913
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430860

ABSTRACT

Wildfire smoke exposure is associated with a range of acute health outcomes, which can be more severe in individuals with underlying health conditions. Currently, there is limited information on the susceptibility of healthcare facilities to smoke infiltration. As part of a larger study to address this gap, a rehabilitation facility in Vancouver, Canada was outfitted with one outdoor and seven indoor low-cost fine particulate matter (PM2.5) sensors in Air Quality Eggs (EGG) during the summer of 2020. Raw measurements were calibrated using temperature, relative humidity, and dew point derived from the EGG data. The infiltration coefficient was quantified using a distributed lag model. Indoor concentrations during the smoke episode were elevated throughout the building, though non-uniformly. After censoring indoor-only peaks, the average infiltration coefficient (range) during typical days was 0.32 (0.22-0.39), compared with 0.37 (0.31-0.47) during the smoke episode, a 19% increase on average. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations quickly reflected outdoor conditions during and after the smoke episode. It is unclear whether these results will be generalizable to other years due to COVID-related changes to building operations, but some of the safety protocols may offer valuable lessons for future wildfire seasons. For example, points of building entry and exit were reduced from eight to two during the pandemic, which likely helped to protect the building from wildfire smoke infiltration. Overall, these results demonstrate the utility of indoor low-cost sensors in understanding the impacts of extreme smoke events on facilities where highly susceptible individuals are present. Furthermore, they highlight the need to employ interventions that enhance indoor air quality in such facilities during smoke events.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Wildfires , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Inpatients , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoke/analysis
14.
J Hosp Infect ; 117: 89-95, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gaseous by-products generated by surgical devices - collectively referred to as 'surgical smoke' - present the hazard of transmitting infective viruses from patients to surgical teams. However, insufficient evidence exists to evaluate and mitigate the risks of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via surgical smoke. AIM: To demonstrate the existence and infectivity of human coronavirus RNA in surgical smoke using a model experiment and to evaluate the possibility of lowering transmission risk by filtration through a surgical mask. METHODS: Pelleted HeLa-ACE2-TMPRSS2 cells infected with human coronavirus were incised by electric scalpel and ultrasonic scalpel, separately. A vacuum system was used to obtain surgical smoke in the form of hydrosol. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyse samples for the presence of viral RNA, and infectivity was determined through plaque assay. Furthermore, a surgical mask was placed centrally in the vacuum line to evaluate its ability to filter viral RNA present in the surgical smoke. FINDINGS: In this model, 1/106 to 1/105 of the viral RNA contained in the incision target was detected in the collected surgical smoke. The virus present in the smoke was unable to induce plaque formation in cultured cells. In addition, filtration of surgical smoke through a surgical mask effectively reduced the amount of viral RNA by at least 99.80%. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that surgical smoke may carry human coronavirus, though viral infectivity was considerably reduced. In clinical settings, surgical mask filtration should provide sufficient additional protection against potential coronavirus, including SARS-CoV-2, infection facilitated by surgical smoke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smoke , Humans , Masks , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoke/adverse effects
15.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 275, 2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: How cigarette smoke (CS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection and severity is controversial. We investigated the effects of COPD and CS on the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 in vivo in COPD patients and controls and in CS-exposed mice, and the effects of CS on SARS-CoV-2 infection in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. METHODS: We quantified: (1) pulmonary ACE2 protein levels by immunostaining and ELISA, and both ACE2 and/or TMPRSS2 mRNA levels by RT-qPCR in two independent human cohorts; and (2) pulmonary ACE2 protein levels by immunostaining and ELISA in C57BL/6 WT mice exposed to air or CS for up to 6 months. The effects of CS exposure on SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated after in vitro infection of Calu-3 cells and differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), respectively. RESULTS: ACE2 protein and mRNA levels were decreased in peripheral airways from COPD patients versus controls but similar in central airways. Mice exposed to CS had decreased ACE2 protein levels in their bronchial and alveolar epithelia versus air-exposed mice. CS treatment decreased viral replication in Calu-3 cells, as determined by immunofluorescence staining for replicative double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and western blot for viral N protein. Acute CS exposure decreased in vitro SARS-CoV-2 replication in HBECs, as determined by plaque assay and RT-qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: ACE2 levels were decreased in both bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells from COPD patients versus controls, and from CS-exposed versus air-exposed mice. CS-pre-exposure potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. These findings urge to investigate further the controversial effects of CS and COPD on SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/enzymology , Cigarette Smoking/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Smoke , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Bronchi , Cell Line, Tumor , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pulmonary Alveoli , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Tobacco , Virus Replication
17.
Natl Med J India ; 33(6): 358-359, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350356
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323266

ABSTRACT

Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and causes remodeling of the small airways. However, the exact smoke-induced effects on the different types of small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) are poorly understood. Here, using air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures, single-cell RNA-sequencing reveals previously unrecognized transcriptional heterogeneity within the small airway epithelium and cell type-specific effects upon acute and chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Smoke triggers detoxification and inflammatory responses and aberrantly activates and alters basal cell differentiation. This results in an increase of inflammatory basal-to-secretory cell intermediates and, particularly after chronic smoke exposure, a massive expansion of a rare inflammatory and squamous metaplasia associated KRT6A+ basal cell state and an altered secretory cell landscape. ALI cultures originating from healthy non-smokers and COPD smokers show similar responses to cigarette smoke exposure, although an increased pro-inflammatory profile is conserved in the latter. Taken together, the in vitro models provide high-resolution insights into the smoke-induced remodeling of the small airways resembling the pathological processes in COPD airways. The data may also help to better understand other lung diseases including COVID-19, as the data reflect the smoke-dependent variable induction of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors across SAEC populations.


Subject(s)
Airway Remodeling/drug effects , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cigarette Smoking/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Humans , Neoplasms, Basal Cell/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Smoke , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/metabolism
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