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2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 638, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increased risk of loss to follow-up among TB smokers raises concern over the secondary spread within the community. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with loss to follow-up among TB patients who smoke. METHODS: All registered TB patients who smoke in the state of Selangor between 2013 and 2017 via the Malaysian Tuberculosis Information System (MyTB) database were included for analysis. TB patients who smoke were considered those who are "current smoker" during the notification, while loss to follow-up was defined as a TB patient who had interrupted treatment for 2 months or longer. There were 3 main variable domains included for analysis: sociodemographic profiles, disease profiles, and comorbidities. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of loss to follow-up among TB patients who smoke. RESULTS: A total of 14.1% (N = 813) of TB patients who smoke loss to follow-up. The determinants of loss to follow-up among TB smokers were working age population aged 32-41 and 42-53 years old (AOR 1.08; 95%CI 1.23,2.08) and (AOR 1.44; 95%CI 1.11,1.87) respectively, Malaysian nationality (AOR 2.34; 95%CI 1.66,3.30), patients staying in urban area (AOR 1.55; 95% CI 1.23,1.97), income level less than RM2160 (AOR 1.59; 95% CI 1.14,2.20), un-employed (AOR 1.30; 95%CI 1.09-1.55), have low education level i.e., secondary school education, primary school education and no formal education (AOR 1.60; 95%CI 1.22,2.10), (AOR 1.73; 95%CI 1.16,2.57) and (AOR 2.29; 95% CI 1.57,3.33) respectively, previously treated TB cases (AOR 2.19; 95% CI 1.71,2.81), active TB case detection methods (AOR 2.06; 95%CI 1.40,3.02), moderate lesion x-ray (AOR 1.60; 95%CI 1.13,2.27) and HIV positive (AOR 1.36; 95%CI 1.02,1.82). All the significant factors gave rise to the final model of determinants, with a predictability of 67.2% (95% CI 65.0,69.3). CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of loss to follow-up among TB patients who smoke highlight the importance of providing early risk detection that examines the three main domains of risk factors such as socioeconomic, disease profiles and comorbidities. Potential integrated intervention should aim to reduce the proportion of smoking among TB patients through the stop smoking programme together with directly observed therapy (DOT).


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Registries , Smoking/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
3.
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776198

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has significant impacts on young smokers in their smoking behaviors. This qualitative study summarises the lived experience of young smokers during COVID-19. Moreover, through their lived experience, we aim to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic influence tobacco use behaviours in this population. A purposive sampling of 48 smokers aged between 17-25 years old is individually interviewed for 30 to 45 min. All interviews are transcribed in verbatim and analysed by two researchers separately using Colaizzi's method of descriptive phenomenology. The results reveal the following six important themes, which could explain the mixed pattern of smoking behaviour changes in young smokers: (1) perceptions of COVID-19 and its association with smoking, (2) more time at home, (3) taking masks off to smoke, (4) the effects of COVID-19 on smokers' financial status and academic performance, (5) reduced social gatherings, and (6) restricted access to tobacco products. To conclude, this pandemic and the anti-pandemic measures, i.e., mask mandates, stay-at-home and work-from-home orders, and class suspension, result in both new obstacles and new advantages for smoking cessation among young people. More studies should be performed to monitor any transition of tobacco products and the trajectory of use in this population during this pandemic, thus informing public health policy making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Smokers , Smoking/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 824587, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776022

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare and analyse the differences in smoking prevalence, and knowledge, attitudes, and factors associated with smoking between the rural and urban elderly population in China. In total, 6,966 participants aged 60 and above were included in this study, which assessed their smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions toward tobacco control. The Chi-square test and logistic regression model were used for statistical analysis, and the Fairlie model was used for decomposition analysis. The overall prevalence of smoking was 25.6%; the rate was much higher in men than in women (overall: OR = 26.234; urban: OR = 31.260; rural: OR = 23.889). The rate of correct responses to all questions on smoking problems was significantly higher among the urban elderly than the rural elderly. Further, 64.18% of the participants supported printing photos of the health hazards of smoking on the cover of cigarette packs, and the rural elderly were more supportive of this. Moreover, only 36.52% of the participants supported increasing taxation and retail price of cigarettes; the urban elderly showed more support for this. Rules about smoking at home also played an important role, especially for families where smoking was not allowed at home, but with exceptions to the rule; however, this factor was only meaningful in urban families (urban: OR = 0.117). Through the Fairlie decomposition analysis, gender (-1.62%), age (-2.03%), region (13.68%), knowing about e-cigarettes (5.17%), rules about smoking at home (3.95%), and smoking-related knowledge scores (42.85%) were found to be associated with rural-urban disparities. This study focused on the differences in smoking between urban and rural areas in China. Smoking among the urban elderly was significantly less prevalent compared with the rural population. Factors including education, region, and smoking-related knowledge need to be addressed to reduce the gap between urban and rural health hazards in China.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Smoking Prevention , Smoking , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Rural Population , Smoking/epidemiology , Urban Population
6.
Int J Drug Policy ; 102: 103607, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Smoking cigarettes worsens COVID-19 outcomes, and news media and health agencies have been communicating about that. However, few studies have examined how these messages affect attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions of people who smoke. These are critical variables that can inform public health campaigns to motivate quitting smoking during the COVID-19 crisis. METHODS: In August 2020, we conducted an online experiment in the U.S. with 1,004 adults who smoke. Participants were randomized to one of four message conditions: COVID-19 risk, smoking risk, combined risk of smoking for COVID-19 severity, or a non-risk control. Outcomes were message reactions (emotions and reactance), attitudes and beliefs (severity, susceptibility, self-efficacy, response efficacy for smoking and COVID-19, and conspiracy beliefs), and behavioral intentions (smoking intentions, COVID-protective intentions, and information-seeking). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed that combined risk messages elicited higher perceived severity of smoking-related disease than control messages. Similarly, the combined risk condition resulted in greater intentions to quit smoking in the next month (vs. COVID-19 risk condition) and intentions to reduce smoking in the next 6 months (vs. smoking risk and control; ps < .05). Multivariate logistic regression found that exposure to the combined risk messages (vs. control as referent) was associated with higher odds of mask-wearing intentions in the next 2 weeks (AOR = 1.97). CONCLUSIONS: Health agencies can possibly use messages that communicate about the combined risk of smoking and COVID-19 as a novel strategy to motivate people who smoke to quit and take protective action for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smoking Cessation , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Intention , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking Cessation/methods
7.
Am J Public Health ; 112(4): 595-597, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760050
9.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 184-187, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719353

ABSTRACT

We conducted the first large-scale general population study on lifestyle risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, and excessive alcohol intake) for COVID-19 using prospective cohort data with national registry linkage to hospitalisation. Participants were 387,109 men and women (56.4 ± 8.8 yr; 55.1% women) residing in England from UK Biobank study. Physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake, were assessed by questionnaire at baseline (2006-2010). Body mass index, from measured height and weight, was used as an indicator of overall obesity. Outcome was cases of COVID-19 serious enough to warrant a hospital admission from 16-March-2020 to 26-April-2020. There were 760 COVID-19 cases. After adjustment for age, sex and mutually for each lifestyle factor, physical inactivity (Relative risk, 1.32, 95% confidence interval, 1.10, 1.58), smoking (1.42;1.12, 1.79) and obesity (2.05 ;1.68, 2.49) but not heavy alcohol consumption (1.12; 0.93, 1.35) were all related to COVID-19. We also found a dose-dependent increase in risk of COVID-19 with less favourable lifestyle scores, such that participants in the most adverse category had 4-fold higher risk (4.41; 2.52-7.71) compared to people with the most optimal lifestyle. C-reactive protein levels were associated with elevated risk of COVID-19 in a dose-dependent manner, and partly (10-16%) explained associations between adverse lifestyle and COVID-19. Based on UK risk factor prevalence estimates, unhealthy behaviours in combination accounted for up to 51% of the population attributable fraction of severe COVID-19. Our findings suggest that an unhealthy lifestyle synonymous with an elevated risk of non-communicable disease is also a risk factor for COVID-19 hospital admission, which might be partly explained by low grade inflammation. Adopting simple lifestyle changes could lower the risk of severe infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Body Mass Index , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Exercise/psychology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/psychology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology
10.
Indian J Tuberc ; 68S: S86-S88, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720099

ABSTRACT

Smoking, TB and Covid-19 are high prevalence entities with public health consequences. All three of them have a possible complex interaction at cellular level. Smoking behavior makes it difficult to maintain infection control measures. Smoking is known to increase TB infection and also adversely affect treatment outcomes in TB. There is also upcoming evidence which suggests that smoking and TB increase the risk of severe Covid-19 symptoms. Simple infection control measures like, social distancing, cough etiquette, isolation, hand hygiene, quarantine, use of masks etc. play a pivotal role in prevention of these diseases. There is need of strengthening of the public health policies and incorporation of the Covid-19 safety awareness measures into the various national programmes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Smoking/adverse effects , Tuberculosis/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1195-1197, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718345
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715363

ABSTRACT

The societal disruptions resulting from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have caused changes in smoking and alcohol consumption. Using data from the Koreans' Happiness Survey, a nationally representative survey in South Korea, we (1) described population-level smoking and drinking behaviors; (2) assessed changes in smoking and drinking behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic; and (3) identified employment, economic, and sociodemographic factors associated with these changes using multinomial logistic regression. The overall amount of smoking and drinking decreased during the pandemic, but the changes were heterogeneous across subgroups. Male gender, receipt of the basic living allowance, self-employment, unemployment, and chronic disease status were associated with increased smoking, while higher household income, temporary worker status, living with someone (versus alone), and having fewer offline friends were associated with decreased smoking. Male gender, self-employment, living alone, having more offline friends, and chronic disease status were associated with increased drinking, while younger age, male gender, low and high household income (i.e., a U-shaped relationship), long-term rent with a deposit, temporary worker status, and chronic disease status were associated with decreased drinking. Our findings provide evidence on changes in smoking and drinking during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea and differential changes across subgroups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/epidemiology
13.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264172, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708123

ABSTRACT

During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, chest X-Ray (CXR) scores are essential to rapidly assess patients' prognoses. This study evaluates a published CXR score in a different national healthcare system. In our study, this CXR score maintains a prognostic role in predicting length of hospital stay, but not disease severity. However, our results show that the predictive role of CXR score could be influenced by socioeconomic status and healthcare system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking
14.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 44, 2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate how general family relations, reported changes in family interaction and involvement with peers during the Covid-19 pandemic, and following rules and recommendations during the pandemic relate to adolescent smoking, alcohol use, inebriation, and use of narcotics during Covid-19. METHODS: An online national survey of Swedish adolescents (n = 1818) aged 15-19 years was conducted in June 2020. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to predict adolescents' reported change in substance use during the pandemic. Person-oriented analyses, were used to identify clusters of participants characterized by similar patterns of substance use following ANOVA analysis with Scheffe post hoc tests testing differences between clusters in terms of family relations, reported changes in family interaction and involvement with peers during the Covid-19 pandemic, and following rules and recommendations during the pandemic. RESULTS: Higher general family conflict, increased involvement with peers, a strained relationship with parents, and less compliance with rules and restrictions during the pandemic predicted a reported increase in adolescent substance use during this period. The grouping of scores for adolescent smoking, alcohol use, inebriation, and use of narcotics resulted in a six-cluster solution. One cluster (n = 767) either did not use or had decreased use of substances during the Covid-19 pandemic. Five other clusters, thus risk clusters, had retained or increased use of substances during the pandemic. Poor general family relations, increased peer involvement, and difficulties to conform to the rules and restrictions during the covid-19 pandemic were characteristics of risk clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Most of adolescents in our study did not increase their substance use during the pandemic. However, adolescents with poor family relations who turn to peers during stressful times and who have difficulty following the government's rules and restrictions, are at risk of increased substance use during the pandemic. This is a potential threat both to adolescents themselves and others in their surroundings which is why at-risk adolescents and their families need more attention from public health and social services during this time of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Narcotics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Addiction ; 117(3): 772-783, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685179

ABSTRACT

AIM: To estimate changes in smoking, drinking and quitting behaviour from before to during the first COVID-19 lockdown in England, and whether changes differed by age, sex or social grade. DESIGN: Representative cross-sectional surveys of adults, collected monthly between August 2018 and July 2020. SETTING: England. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 36 980 adults (≥ 18 years). MEASUREMENTS: Independent variables were survey month (pre-lockdown: August-February versus lockdown months: April-July) and year (pandemic: 2019/20 versus comparator: 2018/19). Smoking outcomes were smoking prevalence, cessation, quit attempts, quit success and use of evidence-based or remote cessation support. Drinking outcomes were high-risk drinking prevalence, alcohol reduction attempts and use of evidence-based or remote support. Moderators were age, sex and occupational social grade (ABC1 = more advantaged/C2DE = less advantaged). FINDINGS: Relative to changes during the same time period in 2018/19, lockdown was associated with significant increases in smoking prevalence [+24.7% in 2019/20 versus 0.0% in 2018/19, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12-1.63] and quit attempts (+39.9 versus -22.2%, aOR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.76-3.50) among 18-34-year-olds, but not older groups. Increases in cessation (+156.4 versus -12.5%, aOR = 3.08, 95% CI = 1.86-5.09) and the success rate of quit attempts (+99.2 versus +0.8%, aOR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.31-3.98) were also observed, and did not differ significantly by age, sex or social grade. Lockdown was associated with a significant increase in high-risk drinking prevalence among all socio-demographic groups (+39.5 versus -7.8%, aOR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.64-1.98), with particularly high increases among women (aOR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.87-2.53) and social grades C2DE (aOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 2.00-2.74). Alcohol reduction attempts increased significantly among high-risk drinkers from social grades ABC1 (aOR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.78-3.00) but not C2DE (aOR = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.83-1.88). There were few significant changes in use of support for smoking cessation or alcohol reduction, although samples were small. CONCLUSIONS: In England, the first COVID-19 lockdown was associated with increased smoking prevalence among younger adults and increased high-risk drinking prevalence among all adults. Smoking cessation activity also increased: more younger smokers made quit attempts during lockdown and more smokers quit successfully. Socio-economic disparities in drinking behaviour were evident: high-risk drinking increased by more among women and those from less advantaged social grades (C2DE), but the rate of reduction attempts increased only among the more advantaged social grades (ABC1).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/epidemiology
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1891, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671627

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has produced broad clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic infection to hospitalization and death. Despite progress from genomic and clinical epidemiology research, risk factors for developing severe COVID-19 are incompletely understood and identification of modifiable risk factors is desperately needed. We conducted linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSR) analysis to estimate cross-trait genetic correlation between COVID-19 severity and various polygenic phenotypes. To attenuate the genetic contribution of smoking and BMI, we further conducted sensitivity analyses by pruning genomic regions associated with smoking/BMI and repeating LDSR analyses. We identified robust positive associations between the genetic architecture of severe COVID-19 and both BMI and smoking. We observed strong positive genetic correlation (rg) with diabetes (rg = 0.25) and shortness of breath walking on level ground (rg = 0.28) and novel protective associations with vitamin E (rg = - 0.53), calcium (rg = - 0.33), retinol (rg = - 0.59), Apolipoprotein A (rg = - 0.13), and HDL (rg = - 0.17), but no association with vitamin D (rg = - 0.02). Removing genomic regions associated with smoking and BMI generally attenuated the associations, but the associations with nutrient biomarkers persisted. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the shared genetic architecture of COVID-19 severity and numerous clinical/physiologic parameters. Associations with blood and plasma-derived traits identified biomarkers for Mendelian randomization studies to explore causality and nominates therapeutic targets for clinical evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Linkage Disequilibrium/genetics , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Dyspnea/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Multifactorial Inheritance , Nutrients , Patient Acuity , Phenotype , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Smoking/genetics
17.
Prev Med ; 156: 106992, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671319

ABSTRACT

In Spring 2020, most US states and territories implemented stay-at-home orders to slow transmission of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV2, the cause of COVID-19. Little is known about the impact of stay-at-home orders on tobacco and nicotine use including among young adults. The current study examined participants (N = 1727) completing three recent survey waves from a longitudinal cohort of young adults recruited in 2010 from North Carolina and Virginia, USA: Wave 13 (Spring 2019), Wave 14 (Fall 2019), and Wave 15 (Spring 2020) to assess changes in cigarette and e-cigarette use. We conducted logistic regression analyses to compare the odds that participants reported smoking or vaping in Wave 14 relative to Wave 13 to establish if there was a trend of use pre-pandemic. Then, we conducted logistic regression analyses to compare the odds that participants reported smoking or vaping in Wave 15 relative to Wave 14 to determine the impact of COVID-19 stay-at-home orders. When comparing the odds of reporting tobacco use at Wave 14 to Wave 13, no differences emerged (p > 0.05). However, when comparing tobacco use at Wave 15 to Wave 14, participants had 40% lower odds of reporting past 30-day cigarette use (p = 0.02) and 50% lower odds of reporting past 30-day e-cigarette use (p < 0.01). The current study provides initial evidence that young adults may have reduced their tobacco and nicotine use during the stay-at-home orders. However, more work is needed to determine the long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tobacco use and cessation in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Vaping , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking , United States/epidemiology , Vaping/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 189-196, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the association between smoking and the severity of COVID-19 infection during the initial wave of this pandemic in Malaysia. METHODS: This is a multi-center observational study using secondary hospital data collected retrospectively from February 1, 2020, until May 30, 2020. Clinical records of all real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 cases with smoking status, co-morbidities, clinical features, and disease management were retrieved. Severity was assessed by the presence of complications and outcomes of COVID-19 infection. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between COVID-19 disease severity and smoking status. RESULTS: A total of 5,889 COVID-19 cases were included in the analysis. Ever smokers had a higher risk of having COVID-19 complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-2.55), renal injury (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.10-2.14), and acute liver injury (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.01-1.74), compared with never smokers. However, in terms of disease outcomes, there were no differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Although no significant association was found in terms of disease outcomes, smoking is associated with a higher risk of having complications owing to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667184

ABSTRACT

Smoking topography (ST) is a set of measures profiling the behavioral characteristics of smoking in various settings. The CReSS portable device can measure ST in the natural environment. No standard protocol exists for measuring ST longitudinally with the CReSS. This study examined the utilization of the CReSS to measure ST and highlights challenges and opportunities in a naturalistic setting. This study is part of a randomized cross-over clinical trial of smoking filtered or unfiltered cigarettes. Participants (n = 43) smoked in each study condition for two weeks using the CReSS device for five days in their naturalistic smoking setting. The devices were calibrated and cleaned during the washout period, and data were downloaded every visit. Five test puffs were administered to calibrate each device. Moderate compliance rates (74.1%) were found with device usage, and the issues encountered were overheating/clogging, incorrectly registered date/time-stamped data, and device repair/replacement. Routine inspection/cleaning and training in device usage were instrumental in mitigating device malfunctioning. The CReSS device proved to be a feasible tool to examine naturalistic smoking topography and the potential impact of changes in tobacco product design on smoking unfiltered cigarettes. This is the first study to examine ST variables longitudinally, measured at multiple time points, and using unfiltered cigarettes.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Products , Humans , Smoking , Tobacco Smoking
20.
QJM ; 114(11): 767-769, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666180

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has severely affected the whole world. Considerable evidence suggests that tobacco smoking is associated with increased severity of COVID-19 and death in COVID-19 patients. Tobacco smoking cessation is necessary to decrease COVID-19-related hospitalizations and deaths. In this commentary, I suggest that tobacco smoking cessation is also needed to reduce suicidal behavior during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Significant evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic leads to increased tobacco consumption as smokers use more tobacco to cope with pandemic-related stress, anxiety, depression and loneliness. Multiple studies have demonstrated that tobacco smoking is associated with suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, suicide death and a contributing factor in the pathophysiology of suicide. Smoking may increase the probability of development of post-COVID syndrome because it increases severity of COVID-19. Suicide risk may be increased in individuals with post-COVID syndrome. Smoking prevention and cessation should be a target of suicide prevention interventions during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic enhances the need to act to integrate tobacco smoking cessation in the health care as a standard of patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Suicidal Ideation , Tobacco Smoking
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