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2.
Indian J Tuberc ; 68S: S86-S88, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720099

ABSTRACT

Smoking, TB and Covid-19 are high prevalence entities with public health consequences. All three of them have a possible complex interaction at cellular level. Smoking behavior makes it difficult to maintain infection control measures. Smoking is known to increase TB infection and also adversely affect treatment outcomes in TB. There is also upcoming evidence which suggests that smoking and TB increase the risk of severe Covid-19 symptoms. Simple infection control measures like, social distancing, cough etiquette, isolation, hand hygiene, quarantine, use of masks etc. play a pivotal role in prevention of these diseases. There is need of strengthening of the public health policies and incorporation of the Covid-19 safety awareness measures into the various national programmes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Smoking/adverse effects , Tuberculosis/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 189-196, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the association between smoking and the severity of COVID-19 infection during the initial wave of this pandemic in Malaysia. METHODS: This is a multi-center observational study using secondary hospital data collected retrospectively from February 1, 2020, until May 30, 2020. Clinical records of all real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 cases with smoking status, co-morbidities, clinical features, and disease management were retrieved. Severity was assessed by the presence of complications and outcomes of COVID-19 infection. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between COVID-19 disease severity and smoking status. RESULTS: A total of 5,889 COVID-19 cases were included in the analysis. Ever smokers had a higher risk of having COVID-19 complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-2.55), renal injury (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.10-2.14), and acute liver injury (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.01-1.74), compared with never smokers. However, in terms of disease outcomes, there were no differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Although no significant association was found in terms of disease outcomes, smoking is associated with a higher risk of having complications owing to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology
4.
QJM ; 114(11): 767-769, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666180

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has severely affected the whole world. Considerable evidence suggests that tobacco smoking is associated with increased severity of COVID-19 and death in COVID-19 patients. Tobacco smoking cessation is necessary to decrease COVID-19-related hospitalizations and deaths. In this commentary, I suggest that tobacco smoking cessation is also needed to reduce suicidal behavior during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Significant evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic leads to increased tobacco consumption as smokers use more tobacco to cope with pandemic-related stress, anxiety, depression and loneliness. Multiple studies have demonstrated that tobacco smoking is associated with suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, suicide death and a contributing factor in the pathophysiology of suicide. Smoking may increase the probability of development of post-COVID syndrome because it increases severity of COVID-19. Suicide risk may be increased in individuals with post-COVID syndrome. Smoking prevention and cessation should be a target of suicide prevention interventions during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic enhances the need to act to integrate tobacco smoking cessation in the health care as a standard of patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Suicidal Ideation , Tobacco Smoking
5.
J Surg Oncol ; 125(5): 813-823, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616029

ABSTRACT

We conducted this meta-analysis to address the outcomes in cancer patients after oncologic surgery during COVID-19 pandemic. The primary endpoint was the COVID-19-related mortality rate. Higher body mass index was significantly and negatively associated with higher all-cause mortality and in-hospital COVID-19 infection rates. Male sex, preoperative respiratory disease, and smoking history were positively and significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality rates. Furthermore, male sex was positively and significantly associated with the COVID-19 infection rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Medical Oncology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/mortality , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Smoking/adverse effects
6.
QJM ; 114(11): 765, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612660
7.
Chest ; 161(1): e5-e11, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595933

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old obese man (BMI 38.0) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic atrial fibrillation, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia stage II, stable for 8 years after chemotherapy, and a history of smoking presented to the ED with progressive dyspnea and fever due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. He was admitted to a general ward and treated with dexamethasone (6 mg IV once daily) and oxygen. On day 3 of hospital admission, he became progressively hypoxemic and was admitted to the ICU for invasive mechanical ventilation. Dexamethasone treatment was continued, and a single dose of tocilizumab (800 mg) was administered. On day 9 of ICU admission, voriconazole treatment was initiated after tracheal white plaques at bronchoscopy, suggestive of invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, were noticed. However, his medical situation dramatically deteriorated.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aged , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Bronchoscopy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Male , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Obesity/complications , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
8.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 14(1): 54, 2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the molecular basis of susceptibility factors to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a global health imperative. It is well-established that males are more likely to acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection and exhibit more severe outcomes. Similarly, exposure to air pollutants and pre-existing respiratory chronic conditions, such as asthma and chronic obstructive respiratory disease (COPD) confer an increased risk to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We investigated molecular patterns associated with risk factors in 398 candidate genes relevant to COVID-19 biology. To accomplish this, we downloaded DNA methylation and gene expression data sets from publicly available repositories (GEO and GTEx Portal) and utilized data from an empirical controlled human exposure study conducted by our team. RESULTS: First, we observed sex-biased DNA methylation patterns in autosomal immune genes, such as NLRP2, TLE1, GPX1, and ARRB2 (FDR < 0.05, magnitude of DNA methylation difference Δß > 0.05). Second, our analysis on the X-linked genes identified sex associated DNA methylation profiles in genes, such as ACE2, CA5B, and HS6ST2 (FDR < 0.05, Δß > 0.05). These associations were observed across multiple respiratory tissues (lung, nasal epithelia, airway epithelia, and bronchoalveolar lavage) and in whole blood. Some of these genes, such as NLRP2 and CA5B, also exhibited sex-biased gene expression patterns. In addition, we found differential DNA methylation patterns by COVID-19 status for genes, such as NLRP2 and ACE2 in an exploratory analysis of an empirical data set reporting on human COVID-9 infections. Third, we identified modest DNA methylation changes in CpGs associated with PRIM2 and TATDN1 (FDR < 0.1, Δß > 0.05) in response to particle-depleted diesel exhaust in bronchoalveolar lavage. Finally, we captured a DNA methylation signature associated with COPD diagnosis in a gene involved in nicotine dependence (COMT) (FDR < 0.1, Δß > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings on sex differences might be of clinical relevance given that they revealed molecular associations of sex-biased differences in COVID-19. Specifically, our results hinted at a potentially exaggerated immune response in males linked to autosomal genes, such as NLRP2. In contrast, our findings at X-linked loci such as ACE2 suggested a potentially distinct DNA methylation pattern in females that may interact with its mRNA expression and inactivation status. We also found tissue-specific DNA methylation differences in response to particulate exposure potentially capturing a nitrogen dioxide (NO2) effect-a contributor to COVID-19 susceptibility. While we identified a molecular signature associated with COPD, all COPD-affected individuals were smokers, which may either reflect an association with the disease, smoking, or may highlight a compounded effect of these two risk factors in COVID-19. Overall, our findings point towards a molecular basis of variation in susceptibility factors that may partly explain disparities in the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , DNA Methylation , Gene Expression , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Chromosomes, Human, X , Co-Repressor Proteins/genetics , Female , Genes, X-Linked , Glutathione Peroxidase/genetics , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Sulfotransferases/genetics , Young Adult , beta-Arrestin 2/genetics
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6822-6827, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544313

ABSTRACT

Information gathered so far from published studies attest the existence of a complex relationship between tobacco smoking and the severity of COVID-19. We investigated the association between smoking habits and the severity of COVID-19 in patients hospitalized in university-affiliated hospitals in Lyon, France. Baseline sociodemographic, clinical and biological characteristics of adult COVID-19 hospitalized patients presenting from the community were prospectively collected and analyzed. Tobacco exposure was documented at admission. Characteristics of patients hospitalized in medical wards to those admitted or transferred to intensive care units (ICUs) were compared using Mann-Whitney and Χ2 or Fisher's exact test. A composite endpoint including admission or transfer to ICU or death was created as a proxy for severe outcome. Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to identify variables independently associated with a severe outcome. Of the 645 patients with documented information on smoking habits, 62.6% were never-smokers, 32.1% ex-smokers, and 5.3% active smokers. Past tobacco use was independently associated with an increased risk of severe outcome (aOR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.12-2.63), whereas a nonsignificant protective trend was found for active smoking. The results suggest that past smoking is associated with enhanced risk of progressing toward severe COVID-19 disease in hospitalized patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Smoking/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , France , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Prospective Studies
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 731981, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528870

ABSTRACT

To date, most of the evidence suggests that smoking is negatively associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. However, evidence has several methodological limitations. Using an outpatient sample population, we analyzed the association of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and smoking considering comorbidities, socioeconomic and demographic factors. Baseline data were obtained from a cohort during the first wave of the pandemic in Geneva, Switzerland (March-April 2020). RT-PCR tests were carried out on individuals suspected of having SARS-CoV-2 according to the testing strategy at that time. Logistic regressions were performed to test the association of smoking and testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and further adjusted for comorbidities, socioeconomic and demographic factors. The sample included 5,169 participants; 60% were women and the mean age was 41 years. The unadjusted OR for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 was 0.46 (CI: 0.38-0.54). After adjustment for comorbidities, socioeconomic and demographic factors, smoking was still negatively associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (OR: 0.44; CI: 0.35-0.77). Women (OR: 0.79; CI: 0.69-0.91), higher postal income (OR: 0.97; CI: 0.95-0.99), having respiratory (OR: 0.68; CI: 0.55-0.84) and immunosuppressive disorders (OR: 0.63; CI: 0.44-0.88) also showed independent negative associations with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2. Smoking was negatively associated with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 independently of comorbidities, socioeconomic and demographic factors. Since having respiratory or immunosuppressive conditions and being females and healthcare workers were similarly negatively associated with SARS-CoV-2 positive testing, we hypothesize that risk factor-related protective or testing behaviors could have induced a negative association with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Female , Humans , Outpatients , Smoking/adverse effects , Switzerland/epidemiology
11.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504421

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Obstructive lung diseases (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) and smoking are associated with greater risk of respiratory infections and hospitalisations, but conflicting data exist regarding their association with severity of COVID-19, and few studies have evaluated whether these associations differ by age. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between asthma, COPD and smoking on the severity of COVID-19 among a cohort of hospitalised patients, and to test for effect modification by age. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of electronic health record data of patients admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital, assigning the maximal WHO Clinical Progression Scale score for each patient during the first 28 days following hospital admission. Using ordered logistic regression, we measured the association between maximal severity score and asthma, COPD and smoking and their interaction with age. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 1391 patients hospitalised with COVID-19, we found an increased risk of severe disease among patients with COPD and prior smoking, independent of age. We also found evidence of effect modification by age with asthma and current smoking; in particular, asthma was associated with decreased COVID-19 severity among older adults, and current smoking was associated with decreased severity among younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: This cohort study identifies age as a modifying factor for the association between asthma and smoking on severity of COVID-19. Our findings highlight the complexities of determining risk factors for COVID-19 severity, and suggest that the effect of risk factors may vary across the age spectrum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Aged , Cohort Studies , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects
12.
Respir Med ; 190: 106668, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487956

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is associated with development of significant comorbidities. Patients with underlying comorbidities have been found to have worse outcomes associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19). This study evaluated 30-day mortality in Covid-19 positive patients based on smoking status. METHODS: This retrospective study of veterans nationwide examined Covid-19 positive inpatients between March 2020 and January 2021. Bivariate analysis compared patients based on smoking history. Propensity score matching adjusted for age, gender, race, ethnicity, Charlson comorbidity index (0-5 and 6-19) and dexamethasone use was performed. A multivariable logistic regression with backwards elimination and Cox Proportional Hazards Ratio was utilized to determine odds of 30-day mortality. RESULTS: The study cohort consisted of 25,958 unique Covid-19 positive inpatients. There was a total of 2,995 current smokers, 12,169 former smokers, and 8,392 non-smokers. Death was experienced by 13.5% (n = 3503) of the cohort within 30 days. Former smokers (OR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.27) (HR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23) had higher risk of 30-day mortality compared with non-smokers. Former smokers had a higher risk of death compared to current smokers (HR 1.16 95% CI 1.02-1.33). The odds of death for current vs. non-smokers did not significantly differ. CONCLUSION: Compared to veteran non-smokers with Covid-19, former, but not current smokers with Covid-19 had a significantly higher risk of 30-day mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Smoking/adverse effects , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
13.
QJM ; 114(11): 767-769, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483516

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has severely affected the whole world. Considerable evidence suggests that tobacco smoking is associated with increased severity of COVID-19 and death in COVID-19 patients. Tobacco smoking cessation is necessary to decrease COVID-19-related hospitalizations and deaths. In this commentary, I suggest that tobacco smoking cessation is also needed to reduce suicidal behavior during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Significant evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic leads to increased tobacco consumption as smokers use more tobacco to cope with pandemic-related stress, anxiety, depression and loneliness. Multiple studies have demonstrated that tobacco smoking is associated with suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, suicide death and a contributing factor in the pathophysiology of suicide. Smoking may increase the probability of development of post-COVID syndrome because it increases severity of COVID-19. Suicide risk may be increased in individuals with post-COVID syndrome. Smoking prevention and cessation should be a target of suicide prevention interventions during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic enhances the need to act to integrate tobacco smoking cessation in the health care as a standard of patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Suicidal Ideation , Tobacco Smoking
14.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 24(5): 785-793, 2022 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483507

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The role of smoking in risk of death among patients with COVID-19 remains unclear. We examined the association between in-hospital mortality from COVID-19 and smoking status and other factors in the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA). METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective cohort study using the VHA COVID-19 shared data resources for February 1 to September 11, 2020. Veterans admitted to the hospital who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and hospitalized by VHA were grouped into Never (as reference, NS), Former (FS), and Current smokers (CS). The main outcome was in-hospital mortality. Control factors were the most important variables (among all available) determined through a cascade of machine learning. We reported adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) from logistic regression models, imputing missing smoking status in our primary analysis. RESULTS: Out of 8 667 996 VHA enrollees, 505 143 were tested for SARS-CoV-2 (NS = 191 143; FS = 240 336; CS = 117 706; Unknown = 45 533). The aOR of in-hospital mortality was 1.16 (95%CI 1.01, 1.32) for FS vs. NS and 0.97 (95%CI 0.78, 1.22; p > .05) for CS vs. NS with imputed smoking status. Among other factors, famotidine and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use before hospitalization were associated with lower risk while diabetes with complications, kidney disease, obesity, and advanced age were associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In patients admitted to the hospital with SARS-CoV-2 infection, our data demonstrate that FS are at higher risk of in-hospital mortality than NS. However, this pattern was not seen among CS highlighting the need for more granular analysis with high-quality smoking status data to further clarify our understanding of smoking risk and COVID-19-related mortality. Presence of comorbidities and advanced age were also associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality. IMPLICATIONS: Veterans who were former smokers were at higher risk of in-hospital mortality compared to never smokers. Current smokers and never smokers were at similar risk of in-hospital mortality. The use of famotidine and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) before hospitalization were associated with lower risk while uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, advanced age, kidney disease, and obesity were associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects
15.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E957-E965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the harms associated with tobacco use, continuing the provision of smoking cessation treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic is critical. The aim of this study was to examine pandemic-related changes in enrolment, total treatment use and participant characteristics in a large, publicly funded smoking cessation program in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of patients who enrolled in the program between Jan. 1, 2018, and Dec. 7, 2020. We used descriptive statistics to examine changes in treatment use. To test for differences in sociodemographic and health variables, we used segmented mixed-effects regression with a break point on Mar. 17, 2020, when Ontario declared a state of emergency. We tested 25 variables, using Holm's correction for multiplicity. RESULTS: We analyzed 60 373 enrolments. In the month after the break point, enrolments fell 69% and total visits fell 42% relative to previous years. After Mar. 17, 2020, those who enrolled were less likely to report employment in the previous week (absolute expected difference -12.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -15.0% to -9.8%); were more likely to be occasional (1.3%, 95% CI 0.6% to 1.9%) or noncurrent smokers (1.7%, 95% CI 0.8% to 2.6%); were less likely to have set a target quit date (-4.8%, 95% CI -7.0% to -2.6%); and were more likely to have a physical health (6.6%, 95% CI 4.0% to 9.2%), mental health (4.6%, 95% CI 1.9% to 7.2%) or substance use diagnosis (3.5%, 95% CI 1.3% to 5.6%). INTERPRETATION: Sharp decreases in new enrolments and subsequent visits to smoking cessation programs were seen when pandemic restrictions were implemented in Ontario, but the characteristics of the people who accessed the programs did not change markedly. Incorporating an equity perspective is essential when new models of care for smoking cessation are developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Smoking Prevention/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking Cessation/methods , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco Use/prevention & control
16.
Clin Respir J ; 16(1): 57-62, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of COVID-19 on smoking behavior is not fully known. Studies evaluating the link between smoking and COVID-19 have controversial results. This study aims to evaluate patients' smoking status with COVID-19 and the effect of COVID-19 on smoking behavior. METHODS: Data were collected from 150 COVID-19 patients with a positive polymerase chain reaction test for SARS-CoV-2 between 11 March 2020 and 15 May 2020 in Rize, Turkey. Patients were interviewed by phone calls 2 months after their recovery. After 9 months, a follow-up was performed for those who quit smoking. RESULTS: Of the participants, 19 (12.7%) were current smokers before the COVID-19 diagnosis, and 15 (78.9%) of them stated that they quit smoking after their diagnosis. After nine months of follow-up, 11 of those 15 participants (57.8%) sustained abstinence. CONCLUSION: Smoking cessation rates are high in people with COVID-19. Besides, the frequency of sustaining abstinence in the long term was also high in these individuals. The COVID-19 pandemic should be viewed as an open opportunity to strengthen and prioritize smoking cessation activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Tobacco
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1554, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Smoking impairs lung immune function and damages upper airways, increasing risks of contracting and severity of infectious diseases. This paper quantifies the association between smoking and COVID-19 disease progression. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase for studies published from January 1-May 25, 2020. We included studies reporting smoking behavior of COVID-19 patients and progression of disease, including death. We used random effects meta-analysis, meta-regression and locally weighted regression and smoothing to examine relationships in the data. RESULTS: We identified 46 peer-reviewed papers with a total of 22,939 COVID-19 patients, 5421 (23.6%) experienced disease progression and 2914 (12.7%) with a history of smoking (current and former smokers). Among those with a history of smoking, 33.5% experienced disease progression, compared with 21.9% of non-smokers. The meta-analysis confirmed an association between ever smoking and COVID-19 progression (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.33-1.89, p = 0.001). Ever smoking was associated with increased risk of death from COVID-19 (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.39, p = 0.003). We found no significant difference (p = 0.864) between the effects of ever smoking on COVID-19 disease progression between adjusted and unadjusted analyses, suggesting that smoking is an independent risk factor for COVID-19 disease progression. We also found the risk of having COVID-19 progression higher among younger adults (p = 0.001), with the effect most pronounced among younger adults under about 45 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is an independent risk for having progression of COVID-19, including mortality. The effects seem to be higher among young people. Smoking prevention and cessation should remain a priority for the public, physicians, and public health professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Tobacco Smoking , Young Adult
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19251, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442806

ABSTRACT

The prognosis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is variable and depends on several factors. Current data about the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and smoking on the clinical course of COVID-19 are still controversial. This study evaluated the prevalence and the prognosis of COPD patients and smokers in a cohort of 521 patients admitted to four intermediate Respiratory Intensive Care Units (Puglia, Italy) with respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia. The prevalence of COPD and current smokers was 14% and 13%, respectively. COPD patients had a higher 30-day all-cause mortality than non-COPD patients. Former smokers compared to never smokers and current smokers had higher 30-day all-cause mortality. COPD patients and former smokers had more comorbidities. This study described the prevalence and the outcomes of COPD patients and smokers in a homogenous cohort of COVID-19 patients. The study showed that the prevalence of COPD and current smokers was not high, suggesting that they were not at increased risk of getting the infection. However, when SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred, COPD patients and former smokers were those with the highest all-cause mortality, which seemed to be mainly related to the presence of comorbidities and not to COPD and smoking itself.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Smoking/adverse effects , Aged , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Risk Factors
19.
Thorax ; 77(1): 65-73, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has emerged regarding the relevance of smoking on risk of COVID-19 and its severity. METHODS: We undertook large-scale observational and Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses using UK Biobank. Most recent smoking status was determined from primary care records (70.8%) and UK Biobank questionnaire data (29.2%). COVID-19 outcomes were derived from Public Health England SARS-CoV-2 testing data, hospital admissions data, and death certificates (until 18 August 2020). Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between smoking status and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19-related hospitalisation, and COVID-19-related death. Inverse variance-weighted MR analyses using established genetic instruments for smoking initiation and smoking heaviness were undertaken (reported per SD increase). RESULTS: There were 421 469 eligible participants, 1649 confirmed infections, 968 COVID-19-related hospitalisations and 444 COVID-19-related deaths. Compared with never-smokers, current smokers had higher risks of hospitalisation (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.29) and mortality (smoking 1-9/day: OR 2.14, 95% CI 0.87 to 5.24; 10-19/day: OR 5.91, 95% CI 3.66 to 9.54; 20+/day: OR 6.11, 95% CI 3.59 to 10.42). In MR analyses of 281 105 White British participants, genetically predicted propensity to initiate smoking was associated with higher risks of infection (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.91) and hospitalisation (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.27). Genetically predicted higher number of cigarettes smoked per day was associated with higher risks of all outcomes (infection OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.20 to 5.24; hospitalisation OR 5.08, 95% CI 2.04 to 12.66; and death OR 10.02, 95% CI 2.53 to 39.72). INTERPRETATION: Congruent results from two analytical approaches support a causal effect of smoking on risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19 Testing , England , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(3): 471-480, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434399

ABSTRACT

Symptoms related with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) were previously shown to be linked with increased risk for the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We aim to interrogate the possibility of a shared genetic basis between GERD and COVID-19 outcomes. Using published GWAS data for GERD (78 707 cases; 288 734 controls) and COVID-19 susceptibility (up to 32 494 cases; 1.5 million controls), we examined the genetic relationship between GERD and three COVID-19 outcomes: risk of developing severe COVID-19, COVID-19 hospitalization and overall COVID-19 risk. We estimated the genetic correlation between GERD and COVID-19 outcomes followed by Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to assess genetic causality. Conditional analyses were conducted to examine whether known COVID-19 risk factors (obesity, smoking, type-II diabetes, coronary artery disease) can explain the relationship between GERD and COVID-19. We found small to moderate genetic correlations between GERD and COVID-19 outcomes (rg between 0.06 and 0.24). MR analyses revealed a OR of 1.15 (95% CI: 0.96-1.39) for severe COVID-19; 1.16 (1.01-1.34) for risk of COVID-19 hospitalization; 1.05 (0.97-1.13) for overall risk of COVID-19 per doubling of odds in developing GERD. The genetic correlation/associations between GERD and COVID-19 showed mild attenuation towards the null when obesity and smoking was adjusted for. Susceptibility for GERD and risk of COVID-19 hospitalization were genetically correlated, with MR findings supporting a potential causal role between the two. The genetic association between GERD and COVID-19 was partially attenuated when obesity is accounted for, consistent with obesity being a major risk factor for both diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Gastroesophageal Reflux/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Gastroesophageal Reflux/complications , Gastroesophageal Reflux/virology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Obesity/complications , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/virology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/adverse effects
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