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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1057, 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a formidable cause of waterpipe tobacco smoking among youth, however, it is understudied among African youth. Using PRIME behavioural theory, this study aimed to develop a model that examines the motivators of impulsivity to smoke waterpipe tobacco in linkage to the moderating role of social media normalisation of waterpipe tobacco, specifically among youth in Nigeria who smoke waterpipe tobacco. METHODS: Data were drawn from 695 respondents who smoke waterpipe tobacco across six Nigerian universities in the South-West zone using the chain-referral sampling procedure. Descriptive analyses of the obtained data were carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. The constructs in the developed model were validated through Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) in SmartPLS version 3. RESULTS: Among Nigerian youth who smoke waterpipe tobacco, intention (ß = 0.442, P < 0.001) was the strongest motivator of impulsivity to smoke waterpipe tobacco as compared to positive evaluations (ß = 0.302, P < 0.001). In addition, social media normalisation of waterpipe tobacco acted as a moderator that strengthened the relationship between intention and impulsivity (ß = 0.287, P < 0.01), as well as, between positive evaluations and impulsivity (ß = 0.186, P < 0.01) among youth. CONCLUSION: Intention greatly instigates Nigerian youth's impulsivity to smoke waterpipe tobacco, and social media normalisation of waterpipe tobacco also considerably increases their impulsivity to smoke waterpipe tobacco. Youth-focused educational waterpipe tobacco cessation-oriented programmes that utilise diverse constructive-based learning approaches like illustrative learning and counselling, can help to enlighten and encourage Nigerian youth on the importance of shunning the desirability to smoke waterpipe tobacco.


Subject(s)
Social Media , Tobacco, Waterpipe , Adolescent , Humans , Impulsive Behavior , Nigeria , Smoking/epidemiology
2.
J Addict Nurs ; 33(2): 119-120, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874032
3.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(4): 652-660, 2022 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a common, preventable, and treatable disease. Here, we conducted a systematic review of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and its risk factors in Nepal for the last two decades. METHODS: We systematically searched databases to find all relevant Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease research papers from 2000 to 2020. Two reviewers screened the literature using Covidence based on the study protocol. Data extraction was done using Microsoft Excel from selected studies. Final data analysis was done using CMA v.3. Our review protocol is available in PROSPERO (CRD42020215486) on 20 November 2020. RESULTS: The database search revealed 1416 studies of which 13 were included in quantitative analysis. The prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the adult population was 22·7% (CI, 12·5-37·7) of whom 54·9% were female (CI, 51·9-57·9). Nearly three-fourth of the participants (73·1%) of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients had informal education (CI, 58·6-84·0). The commonest primary occupation was agriculture and farming in 39·4% (CI, 31·3-48·2), followed by homemaker (36·8%). It was observed that 28·5% of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients were former smokers, 25·8% non-smokers, and 59·4% were current smokers. More than two-third (76·2%) of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients relied upon traditional firewood cooking, whereas only 14.6% was adopted fireless cooking. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Nepal was significantly high with more cases in females compared to males. Smoking and traditional firewood cooking were major risk factors among Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease cases in Nepal.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Nepal/epidemiology , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1046, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown period lasted from March to May 2020, resulted in a highly stressful situation yielding different negative health consequences, including the worsening of smoking habit. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional study on a convenient sample of 1013 Italian ever smokers aged 18 years or more was conducted. Data were derived from surveys compiled by three different groups of people: subjects belonging to Smoking Cessation Services, Healthcare Providers and Nursing Sciences' students. All institutions were from Northern Italy. The primary outcome self-reported worsening (relapse or increase) or improvement (quit or reduce) of smoking habit during lockdown period. Multiple unconditional (for worsening) and multinomial (for improving) logistic regressions were carried out. RESULTS: Among 962 participants, 56.0% were ex-smokers. Overall, 13.2% of ex-smokers before lockdown reported relapsing and 32.7% of current smokers increasing cigarette intake. Among current smokers before lockdown, 10.1% quit smoking and 13.5% decreased cigarette intake. Out of 7 selected stressors related to COVID-19, four were significantly related to relapse (OR for the highest vs. the lowest tertile ranging between 2.24 and 3.62): fear of being infected and getting sick; fear of dying due to the virus; anxiety in listening to news of the epidemic; sense of powerlessness in protecting oneself from contagion. In addition to these stressors, even the other 3 stressors were related with increasing cigarette intensity (OR ranging between 1.90 and 4.18): sense of powerlessness in protecting loved ones from contagion; fear of losing loved ones due to virus; fear of infecting other. CONCLUSION: The lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with both self-reported relapse or increase smoking habit and also quitting or reduction of it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smokers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Recurrence , Smoking/epidemiology
5.
Rev Mal Respir ; 39(5): 413-419, 2022 May.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860074

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the framework of a "tobacco-free hospital and campus" campaign, we conducted a study on the prevalence of smoking and vaping among a university hospital (CHRU) staff. The study took place in late 2020 (from 1 September to 15 December), and involved self-assessment of the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on smoking. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out using an online questionnaire, which was distributed by email and QR code posting and included socio-professional details as well as data on participants' smoking and vaping. RESULTS: There were 782 responses, representing a participation rate of 13.5%. The sample included 73.3% women and 22.7% men; 28.9% nurses, 24.9% medical staff, 3.6% nursing assistants and 42.6% other professional categories. The overall smoking rate was 13%. Sixty-two (7.9%) participants vaped; 37 (5%) vaped exclusively, 25 (3.2%) combined smoking and vaping. Men smoked more than women: 23.7% vs. 9.4% (P < 0.01). Medical staff smoked and vaped less than other categories; 6.2% vs 14.8% (P < 0.01) and 4.1% vs 9.1% respectively (P=0.02). Doctors were more often non-smokers: OR=2.71 (95% CI: 1.14-6.46). Among smokers, 25% said they had increased their cigarette consumption during the covid-19 pandemic, frequently as a means of combating stress or fatigue. CONCLUSION: This study showed a lower smoking rate than in the literature, possibly due to the high participation of physicians. Ours were the initial estimates of vaping among hospital staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Products , Vaping , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital , Smoking/epidemiology , Tobacco , Vaping/epidemiology
6.
Epidemiol Health ; 44: e2022043, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841572

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe trends in health behaviours between 2011 and 2020 and compare the changes in these behaviours between the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic and previous periods according to socio-demographic variables. METHODS: This study used data from the 2011 to 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Current cigarette smoking, high-risk drinking, and inadequate physical activity levels were used as health behaviour indicators. The age-standardized prevalence, differences in prevalence between the periods, and the annual percentage change (APC) were calculated. RESULTS: Current cigarette smoking showed a decreasing trend (APC, -2.6), high-risk drinking remained unchanged, and inadequate physical activity levels increased (APC, 3.5) during 2011-2020. There were significant differences in high-risk drinking (3.1%p; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3 to 5.9) and inadequate physical activity levels (4.3%p; 95% CI, 0.4 to 8.1) between 2019 and 2020 in men. Among men, increased high-risk drinking was found in those aged 40-49 years, non-single households, urban residents, and the middle and highest income groups between 2019 and 2020. The low educational group and manual workers among men aged 30-59 years also showed an increased proportion of high-risk drinking. Inadequate physical activity levels also increased among men between 2019 and 2020 in those aged 30-39 years, non-single households, urban residents, and the upper-middle-income group. CONCLUSIONS: In the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, Korean men's high-risk drinking and inadequate physical activity levels increased. In addition to social efforts to reduce the spread of infectious diseases, active measures to positively change health behaviour are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Humans , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Pandemics , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820266

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health threat. Smoking and smoking-related lung diseases are risk factors for severe COVID-19 infection. This study investigated whether low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) scan results affected the success of 1-year smoking cessation. The Gyeonggi Southern Smoking Support Center performed the residential smoking cessation program from January to December 2018. During the program, LDCT was performed on 292 participants; 6 months later, follow-up via telephone or visit was conducted. Among the 179 participants who succeeded in smoking cessation for 6 months, telephone follow-up was conducted to determine whether there was a 12-month continuous smoking cessation. In order to evaluate the association between LDCT results and 12-month continuous abstinence rate (CAR), logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The CARs at 6 and 12 months were 61.3% and 31.5%, respectively. Indeterminate or suspicious malignant lung nodules were associated with a higher 12-month CAR (OR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.15-7.98), whereas psychiatric history was associated with a lower 12-month CAR (OR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.03-0.15). These results suggest that abnormal lung screening results may encourage smokers to quit smoking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smoking Cessation , Humans , Pandemics , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking Cessation/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 638, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increased risk of loss to follow-up among TB smokers raises concern over the secondary spread within the community. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with loss to follow-up among TB patients who smoke. METHODS: All registered TB patients who smoke in the state of Selangor between 2013 and 2017 via the Malaysian Tuberculosis Information System (MyTB) database were included for analysis. TB patients who smoke were considered those who are "current smoker" during the notification, while loss to follow-up was defined as a TB patient who had interrupted treatment for 2 months or longer. There were 3 main variable domains included for analysis: sociodemographic profiles, disease profiles, and comorbidities. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of loss to follow-up among TB patients who smoke. RESULTS: A total of 14.1% (N = 813) of TB patients who smoke loss to follow-up. The determinants of loss to follow-up among TB smokers were working age population aged 32-41 and 42-53 years old (AOR 1.08; 95%CI 1.23,2.08) and (AOR 1.44; 95%CI 1.11,1.87) respectively, Malaysian nationality (AOR 2.34; 95%CI 1.66,3.30), patients staying in urban area (AOR 1.55; 95% CI 1.23,1.97), income level less than RM2160 (AOR 1.59; 95% CI 1.14,2.20), un-employed (AOR 1.30; 95%CI 1.09-1.55), have low education level i.e., secondary school education, primary school education and no formal education (AOR 1.60; 95%CI 1.22,2.10), (AOR 1.73; 95%CI 1.16,2.57) and (AOR 2.29; 95% CI 1.57,3.33) respectively, previously treated TB cases (AOR 2.19; 95% CI 1.71,2.81), active TB case detection methods (AOR 2.06; 95%CI 1.40,3.02), moderate lesion x-ray (AOR 1.60; 95%CI 1.13,2.27) and HIV positive (AOR 1.36; 95%CI 1.02,1.82). All the significant factors gave rise to the final model of determinants, with a predictability of 67.2% (95% CI 65.0,69.3). CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of loss to follow-up among TB patients who smoke highlight the importance of providing early risk detection that examines the three main domains of risk factors such as socioeconomic, disease profiles and comorbidities. Potential integrated intervention should aim to reduce the proportion of smoking among TB patients through the stop smoking programme together with directly observed therapy (DOT).


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Registries , Smoking/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776198

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has significant impacts on young smokers in their smoking behaviors. This qualitative study summarises the lived experience of young smokers during COVID-19. Moreover, through their lived experience, we aim to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic influence tobacco use behaviours in this population. A purposive sampling of 48 smokers aged between 17-25 years old is individually interviewed for 30 to 45 min. All interviews are transcribed in verbatim and analysed by two researchers separately using Colaizzi's method of descriptive phenomenology. The results reveal the following six important themes, which could explain the mixed pattern of smoking behaviour changes in young smokers: (1) perceptions of COVID-19 and its association with smoking, (2) more time at home, (3) taking masks off to smoke, (4) the effects of COVID-19 on smokers' financial status and academic performance, (5) reduced social gatherings, and (6) restricted access to tobacco products. To conclude, this pandemic and the anti-pandemic measures, i.e., mask mandates, stay-at-home and work-from-home orders, and class suspension, result in both new obstacles and new advantages for smoking cessation among young people. More studies should be performed to monitor any transition of tobacco products and the trajectory of use in this population during this pandemic, thus informing public health policy making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Smokers , Smoking/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 824587, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776022

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare and analyse the differences in smoking prevalence, and knowledge, attitudes, and factors associated with smoking between the rural and urban elderly population in China. In total, 6,966 participants aged 60 and above were included in this study, which assessed their smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions toward tobacco control. The Chi-square test and logistic regression model were used for statistical analysis, and the Fairlie model was used for decomposition analysis. The overall prevalence of smoking was 25.6%; the rate was much higher in men than in women (overall: OR = 26.234; urban: OR = 31.260; rural: OR = 23.889). The rate of correct responses to all questions on smoking problems was significantly higher among the urban elderly than the rural elderly. Further, 64.18% of the participants supported printing photos of the health hazards of smoking on the cover of cigarette packs, and the rural elderly were more supportive of this. Moreover, only 36.52% of the participants supported increasing taxation and retail price of cigarettes; the urban elderly showed more support for this. Rules about smoking at home also played an important role, especially for families where smoking was not allowed at home, but with exceptions to the rule; however, this factor was only meaningful in urban families (urban: OR = 0.117). Through the Fairlie decomposition analysis, gender (-1.62%), age (-2.03%), region (13.68%), knowing about e-cigarettes (5.17%), rules about smoking at home (3.95%), and smoking-related knowledge scores (42.85%) were found to be associated with rural-urban disparities. This study focused on the differences in smoking between urban and rural areas in China. Smoking among the urban elderly was significantly less prevalent compared with the rural population. Factors including education, region, and smoking-related knowledge need to be addressed to reduce the gap between urban and rural health hazards in China.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Smoking Prevention , Smoking , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Rural Population , Smoking/epidemiology , Urban Population
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765705

ABSTRACT

Sporadic evidence is available on the association of consuming multiple substances with the risk of hypertension among adults in India where there is a substantial rise in cases. This study assesses the mutually exclusive and mixed consumption patterns of alcohol, tobacco smoking and smokeless tobacco use and their association with hypertension among the adult population in India. Nationally representative samples of men and women drawn from the National Family and Health Survey (2015-2016) were analyzed. A clinical blood pressure measurement above 140 mmHg (systolic blood pressure) and 90 mmHg (diastolic blood pressure) was considered in the study as hypertension. Association between mutually exclusive categories of alcohol, tobacco smoking and smokeless tobacco and hypertension were examined using multivariate binary logistic regression models. Daily consumption of alcohol among male smokeless tobacco users had the highest likelihood to be hypertensive (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.99-2.71) compared to the no-substance-users. Women who smoked, and those who used any smokeless tobacco with a daily intake of alcohol had 71% (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.14-2.56) and 51% (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.25-1.82) higher probability of being hypertensive compared to the no-substance-users, respectively. In order to curb the burden of hypertension among the population, there is a need for an integrated and more focused intervention addressing the consumption behavior of alcohol and tobacco.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Tobacco, Smokeless , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethanol , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , India/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Smoking/epidemiology , Tobacco , Tobacco Smoking
12.
Int J Drug Policy ; 102: 103607, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Smoking cigarettes worsens COVID-19 outcomes, and news media and health agencies have been communicating about that. However, few studies have examined how these messages affect attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions of people who smoke. These are critical variables that can inform public health campaigns to motivate quitting smoking during the COVID-19 crisis. METHODS: In August 2020, we conducted an online experiment in the U.S. with 1,004 adults who smoke. Participants were randomized to one of four message conditions: COVID-19 risk, smoking risk, combined risk of smoking for COVID-19 severity, or a non-risk control. Outcomes were message reactions (emotions and reactance), attitudes and beliefs (severity, susceptibility, self-efficacy, response efficacy for smoking and COVID-19, and conspiracy beliefs), and behavioral intentions (smoking intentions, COVID-protective intentions, and information-seeking). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed that combined risk messages elicited higher perceived severity of smoking-related disease than control messages. Similarly, the combined risk condition resulted in greater intentions to quit smoking in the next month (vs. COVID-19 risk condition) and intentions to reduce smoking in the next 6 months (vs. smoking risk and control; ps < .05). Multivariate logistic regression found that exposure to the combined risk messages (vs. control as referent) was associated with higher odds of mask-wearing intentions in the next 2 weeks (AOR = 1.97). CONCLUSIONS: Health agencies can possibly use messages that communicate about the combined risk of smoking and COVID-19 as a novel strategy to motivate people who smoke to quit and take protective action for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smoking Cessation , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Intention , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking Cessation/methods
14.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 184-187, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719353

ABSTRACT

We conducted the first large-scale general population study on lifestyle risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, and excessive alcohol intake) for COVID-19 using prospective cohort data with national registry linkage to hospitalisation. Participants were 387,109 men and women (56.4 ± 8.8 yr; 55.1% women) residing in England from UK Biobank study. Physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake, were assessed by questionnaire at baseline (2006-2010). Body mass index, from measured height and weight, was used as an indicator of overall obesity. Outcome was cases of COVID-19 serious enough to warrant a hospital admission from 16-March-2020 to 26-April-2020. There were 760 COVID-19 cases. After adjustment for age, sex and mutually for each lifestyle factor, physical inactivity (Relative risk, 1.32, 95% confidence interval, 1.10, 1.58), smoking (1.42;1.12, 1.79) and obesity (2.05 ;1.68, 2.49) but not heavy alcohol consumption (1.12; 0.93, 1.35) were all related to COVID-19. We also found a dose-dependent increase in risk of COVID-19 with less favourable lifestyle scores, such that participants in the most adverse category had 4-fold higher risk (4.41; 2.52-7.71) compared to people with the most optimal lifestyle. C-reactive protein levels were associated with elevated risk of COVID-19 in a dose-dependent manner, and partly (10-16%) explained associations between adverse lifestyle and COVID-19. Based on UK risk factor prevalence estimates, unhealthy behaviours in combination accounted for up to 51% of the population attributable fraction of severe COVID-19. Our findings suggest that an unhealthy lifestyle synonymous with an elevated risk of non-communicable disease is also a risk factor for COVID-19 hospital admission, which might be partly explained by low grade inflammation. Adopting simple lifestyle changes could lower the risk of severe infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Body Mass Index , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Exercise/psychology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/psychology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715363

ABSTRACT

The societal disruptions resulting from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have caused changes in smoking and alcohol consumption. Using data from the Koreans' Happiness Survey, a nationally representative survey in South Korea, we (1) described population-level smoking and drinking behaviors; (2) assessed changes in smoking and drinking behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic; and (3) identified employment, economic, and sociodemographic factors associated with these changes using multinomial logistic regression. The overall amount of smoking and drinking decreased during the pandemic, but the changes were heterogeneous across subgroups. Male gender, receipt of the basic living allowance, self-employment, unemployment, and chronic disease status were associated with increased smoking, while higher household income, temporary worker status, living with someone (versus alone), and having fewer offline friends were associated with decreased smoking. Male gender, self-employment, living alone, having more offline friends, and chronic disease status were associated with increased drinking, while younger age, male gender, low and high household income (i.e., a U-shaped relationship), long-term rent with a deposit, temporary worker status, and chronic disease status were associated with decreased drinking. Our findings provide evidence on changes in smoking and drinking during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea and differential changes across subgroups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/epidemiology
16.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 44, 2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate how general family relations, reported changes in family interaction and involvement with peers during the Covid-19 pandemic, and following rules and recommendations during the pandemic relate to adolescent smoking, alcohol use, inebriation, and use of narcotics during Covid-19. METHODS: An online national survey of Swedish adolescents (n = 1818) aged 15-19 years was conducted in June 2020. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to predict adolescents' reported change in substance use during the pandemic. Person-oriented analyses, were used to identify clusters of participants characterized by similar patterns of substance use following ANOVA analysis with Scheffe post hoc tests testing differences between clusters in terms of family relations, reported changes in family interaction and involvement with peers during the Covid-19 pandemic, and following rules and recommendations during the pandemic. RESULTS: Higher general family conflict, increased involvement with peers, a strained relationship with parents, and less compliance with rules and restrictions during the pandemic predicted a reported increase in adolescent substance use during this period. The grouping of scores for adolescent smoking, alcohol use, inebriation, and use of narcotics resulted in a six-cluster solution. One cluster (n = 767) either did not use or had decreased use of substances during the Covid-19 pandemic. Five other clusters, thus risk clusters, had retained or increased use of substances during the pandemic. Poor general family relations, increased peer involvement, and difficulties to conform to the rules and restrictions during the covid-19 pandemic were characteristics of risk clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Most of adolescents in our study did not increase their substance use during the pandemic. However, adolescents with poor family relations who turn to peers during stressful times and who have difficulty following the government's rules and restrictions, are at risk of increased substance use during the pandemic. This is a potential threat both to adolescents themselves and others in their surroundings which is why at-risk adolescents and their families need more attention from public health and social services during this time of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Narcotics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Addiction ; 117(3): 772-783, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685179

ABSTRACT

AIM: To estimate changes in smoking, drinking and quitting behaviour from before to during the first COVID-19 lockdown in England, and whether changes differed by age, sex or social grade. DESIGN: Representative cross-sectional surveys of adults, collected monthly between August 2018 and July 2020. SETTING: England. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 36 980 adults (≥ 18 years). MEASUREMENTS: Independent variables were survey month (pre-lockdown: August-February versus lockdown months: April-July) and year (pandemic: 2019/20 versus comparator: 2018/19). Smoking outcomes were smoking prevalence, cessation, quit attempts, quit success and use of evidence-based or remote cessation support. Drinking outcomes were high-risk drinking prevalence, alcohol reduction attempts and use of evidence-based or remote support. Moderators were age, sex and occupational social grade (ABC1 = more advantaged/C2DE = less advantaged). FINDINGS: Relative to changes during the same time period in 2018/19, lockdown was associated with significant increases in smoking prevalence [+24.7% in 2019/20 versus 0.0% in 2018/19, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12-1.63] and quit attempts (+39.9 versus -22.2%, aOR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.76-3.50) among 18-34-year-olds, but not older groups. Increases in cessation (+156.4 versus -12.5%, aOR = 3.08, 95% CI = 1.86-5.09) and the success rate of quit attempts (+99.2 versus +0.8%, aOR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.31-3.98) were also observed, and did not differ significantly by age, sex or social grade. Lockdown was associated with a significant increase in high-risk drinking prevalence among all socio-demographic groups (+39.5 versus -7.8%, aOR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.64-1.98), with particularly high increases among women (aOR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.87-2.53) and social grades C2DE (aOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 2.00-2.74). Alcohol reduction attempts increased significantly among high-risk drinkers from social grades ABC1 (aOR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.78-3.00) but not C2DE (aOR = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.83-1.88). There were few significant changes in use of support for smoking cessation or alcohol reduction, although samples were small. CONCLUSIONS: In England, the first COVID-19 lockdown was associated with increased smoking prevalence among younger adults and increased high-risk drinking prevalence among all adults. Smoking cessation activity also increased: more younger smokers made quit attempts during lockdown and more smokers quit successfully. Socio-economic disparities in drinking behaviour were evident: high-risk drinking increased by more among women and those from less advantaged social grades (C2DE), but the rate of reduction attempts increased only among the more advantaged social grades (ABC1).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/epidemiology
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 189-196, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the association between smoking and the severity of COVID-19 infection during the initial wave of this pandemic in Malaysia. METHODS: This is a multi-center observational study using secondary hospital data collected retrospectively from February 1, 2020, until May 30, 2020. Clinical records of all real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 cases with smoking status, co-morbidities, clinical features, and disease management were retrieved. Severity was assessed by the presence of complications and outcomes of COVID-19 infection. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between COVID-19 disease severity and smoking status. RESULTS: A total of 5,889 COVID-19 cases were included in the analysis. Ever smokers had a higher risk of having COVID-19 complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-2.55), renal injury (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.10-2.14), and acute liver injury (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.01-1.74), compared with never smokers. However, in terms of disease outcomes, there were no differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Although no significant association was found in terms of disease outcomes, smoking is associated with a higher risk of having complications owing to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638680

ABSTRACT

Tobacco, alcohol and cannabis are commonly used among university students. However, student lives and their substance use have changed dramatically since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on (trends in) weekly smoking, weekly binge drinking and weekly cannabis use in Dutch university students and investigated associated student-, study- and COVID-19-related characteristics. Between April and June 2020, several Dutch higher educational institutes invited their students to participate in an online survey. Data of 9967 students (Mage = 22.0 (SD = 2.6); Nfemale = 7008 (70.3%)) were available for analyses. Overall, weekly smoking remained stable (±11.5%), weekly binge drinking decreased (from 27.8% to 13.9%) and weekly cannabis use increased (from 6.7% to 8.6%). Male gender, not living with parents, being a bachelor student, having less financial resources and less adherence to the COVID-19 measures were found to increase the risk of substance use (before/during the first COVID-19 lockdown). Additionally, male gender, not living with parents, being a bachelor student, not being born in the Netherlands and having a student loan contributed to the likelihood of increased substance use during COVID-19. Patterns of characteristics contributing to the likelihood of decreased weekly substance use during COVID-19 were less clear. The risk factors male gender, not living with parents and being a bachelor student do not only contribute to the likelihood of using substances but also contribute to the likelihood of increased use during a lockdown. Prevention and intervention programs should especially target these risk groups.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Cannabis , Adult , Alcohol Drinking , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/epidemiology , Students , Young Adult
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