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1.
Nutr Health ; 28(2): 177-188, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691119

ABSTRACT

Background: The lockdown imposed due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused several lifestyle changes. Aim: This scoping review aimed to report the present status of studies conducted on changes and factors related to food and drink consumption worldwide. Methods: Searches were performed in PubMed and EBSCO between August 6 and August 22, 2020 using the following criteria: (1) studies reporting changes in the current individual consumption of specific foods and snacks compared to that before the COVID-19 pandemic; (2) participants aged 18 years or older and without any diagnosable disease; and (3) articles that are peer-reviewed publications available in English. Studies were excluded if they involved an intervention related to diet or investigated the change in COVID-19 incidence. Results: Twelve articles were included in this review. The included studies revealed that there were various changes in food and drink consumption, such as the frequency and amount of consumption of snacks (n = 9), alcohol (n = 7), and vegetables and fruits (n = 5). These changes showed both increasing and decreasing trends. Of the 12 studies, 10 reported factors related to dietary changes, such as age, body mass index, psychological conditions, and residence; however, most of the results regarding these factors were inconsistent. Conclusions: Future studies should investigate long-term dietary changes and examine the factors that influence these changes to determine the pandemic's long-term impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Diet , Humans , Snacks
2.
Appetite ; 171: 105885, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) led many countries to implement lockdown measures, which resulted in changes in dietary behaviours that could persist over the long term and have associated health consequences. Psychological traits may impact these changes given their known association with dietary behaviours. We aimed to investigate in a population-based study, whether positive psychological traits were associated with changes of snacking behaviour and food consumption observed during the first COVID-19 lockdown period. DESIGN: In 2016, levels of optimism, resilience, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, mindfulness and mastery were assessed in 33,766 adults of the French NutriNet-Santé cohort. Snacking and food group consumption were assessed in April-May 2020. Association between psychological traits and changes (no change, increase, decrease) in snacking and food group consumption were assessed using logistic regressions. Multiple correspondence analysis followed by ascending hierarchical classification were used to derive clusters of dietary behaviours. Covariance analyses were used to compare mean scores of psychological traits between clusters. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, anxiety and depressive symptomatology. RESULTS: Participants with higher levels of optimism, resilience, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, mindfulness or mastery were less likely to change their snacking behaviour and food group consumption of various food groups. Individuals with lower levels were more likely to make changes, with either unhealthy (e.g., less fruits and vegetables, more processed meat) or healthy (e.g., more pasta/rice (whole-grain)) changes. Overall, individuals showed higher levels of positive psychological traits in the "no change" cluster, followed by the "healthy" and the "unhealthy" cluster (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with higher levels of optimism, resilience, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, mindfulness or mastery were less impacted by the lockdown in terms of dietary behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Diet , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks
3.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542684

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, social isolation, semi-lockdown, and "stay at home" orders were imposed upon the population in the interest of infection control. This dramatically changes the daily routine of children and adolescents, with a large impact on lifestyle and wellbeing. Children with obesity have been shown to be at a higher risk of negative lifestyle changes and weight gain during lockdown. Obesity and COVID-19 negatively affect children and adolescents' wellbeing, with adverse effects on psychophysical health, due in large part to food choices, snacking between meals, and comfort eating. Moreover, a markable decrease in physical activity levels and an increase in sedentary behavior is associated with weight gain, especially in children with excessive weight. In addition, obesity is the most common comorbidity in severe cases of COVID-19, suggesting that immune dysregulation, metabolic unbalance, inadequate nutritional status, and dysbiosis are key factors in the complex mechanistic and clinical interplay between obesity and COVID-19. This narrative review aims to describe the most up-to-date evidence on the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in children and adolescents, focusing on the role of excessive weight and weight gain in pediatrics. The COVID-19 pandemic has taught us that nutrition education interventions, access to healthy food, as well as family nutrition counselling should be covered by pediatric services to prevent obesity, which worsens disease outcomes related to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Snacks
4.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(1): 1-12, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare and evaluate the prevalence of food and beverage marketing on the livestreaming platforms Twitch, Facebook Gaming and YouTube Gaming, as well as examine growth of food and beverage marketing on these platforms over a 17-month period of data collection. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data were analysed across three livestreaming platforms and six food and beverage categories: alcohol, candy, energy drinks, snacks, sodas and restaurants. SETTING: Stream titles of livestreamed events as well as corresponding hours watched on Twitch, Facebook Gaming and YouTube Gaming. PARTICIPANTS: None. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the use of food and beverage brand mentions in stream titles across all three studied platforms (P < 0·05), as well as hours watched across platforms (P < 0·05). Energy drinks dominated food and beverage brand mentions across platforms, followed by restaurants, soda and snacks. All platforms demonstrated growth over the 17-month data collection period. Post-hoc analyses revealed that the COVID-19 pandemic impacted both immediate and sustained growth across all platforms, with the greatest impact observed on the Twitch platform. CONCLUSIONS: Food and beverage marketing as measured through stream titles is widely prevalent across the three most popular livestreaming platforms, particularly for energy drinks. Food marketing on these platforms experienced growth over the past 17 months which was accelerated substantially by the COVID-19 pandemic. Future work should assess the sustained impact this growth may have on marketing practices and eating behaviour.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Energy Drinks , Social Media , Video Games , Beverages , Candy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Marketing , Pandemics , Prevalence , Restaurants , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463669

ABSTRACT

We analyze the dynamic changes in individuals' lifestyle during the COVID-19 outbreak and recovery period through a survey of 1061 Chinese households. Specifically, we are interested in individuals' bodyweight, time allocation and food choices. We find that COVID-19 is associated with weight gain, less time spent on exercise and more time on entertainment. The proportion of online food purchase and snack purchases also shows an upward trend. This study provides useful implications on the impact of COVID-19 and its associated lockdowns on individuals' lifestyle and offers foresights for countries in different stages of the pandemic. It explains how encouraging exercise, managing new food purchase venues, and reducing the intake of unhealthy food such as snacks may also need to be considered in dealing with the aftermath of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Feeding Behavior , Food Preferences , Humans , Life Style , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks
6.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374473

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-related restrictions impacted weight and weight-related factors during the initial months of the pandemic. However, longitudinal analyses are scarce. An online, longitudinal study was conducted among self-selected UK adults (n = 1818), involving three surveys (May-June, August-September, November-December 2020), covering anthropometric, sociodemographic, COVID-19-related and behavioural measures. Data were analysed using generalised estimating equations. Self-reported average weight/body mass index (BMI) significantly increased between the May-June period and the August-September period (74.95 to 75.33 kg/26.22 kg/m2 to 26.36kg/m2, p < 0.001, respectively), and then significantly decreased to November-December (to 75.06 kg/26.27 kg/m2, p < 0.01), comparable to May-June levels (p = 0.274/0.204). However, there was great interindividual variation, 37.0%/26.7% increased (average 3.64 kg (95% confidence interval: 3.32, 3.97)/1.64 kg/m2 (1.49, 1.79)), and 34.5%/26.3% decreased (average 3.59 kg (3.34, 3.85)/1.53 kg/m2 (1.42, 1.63)) weight/BMI between May-June and November-December. Weight/BMI increase was significantly negatively associated with initial BMI, and positively associated with monthly high fat, salt and sugar (HFSS) snacks intake and alcohol consumption, and for BMI only, older age. Associations were time-varying; lower initial BMI, higher HFSS snacks intake and high-risk alcohol consumption were associated with maintaining weight/BMI increases between August-September and November-December. The average weight/BMI of UK adults fluctuated between May-June and November-December 2020. However, the substantial interindividual variation in weight/BMI trajectories indicates long-term health impacts from the pandemic, associated with food and alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Feeding Behavior , Overweight/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Biological Variation, Population , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Energy Intake , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Snacks , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Weight Gain , Weight Loss , Young Adult
7.
Child Obes ; 17(6): 371-378, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364718

ABSTRACT

Background: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, children and families have had to adapt their daily lives. The purpose of this study was to describe changes in the weight-related behaviors of children with obesity after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Semistructured interviews (n = 51) were conducted from April to June 2020 with parents of children with obesity. Families were participants in a randomized trial testing a clinic-community pediatric obesity treatment model. During interviews, families described their experience during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a particular emphasis on children's diet, physical activity, sleep, and screen time behaviors. Rapid qualitative analysis methods were used to identify themes around changes in children's weight-related behaviors. Results: The mean child age was 9.7 (±2.8) years and the majority of children were Black (46%) or Hispanic (39%) and from low-income families (62%). Most parent participants were mothers (88%). There were differences in the perceived physical activity level of children, with some parents attributing increases in activity or maintenance of activity level to increased outdoor time, whereas others reported a decline due to lack of outdoor time, school, and structured activities. Key dietary changes included increased snacking and more meals prepared and consumed at home. There was a shift in sleep schedules with children going to bed and waking up later and an increase in leisure-based screen time. Parents played a role in promoting activity and managing children's screen time. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has created unique lifestyle challenges and opportunities for lifestyle modification. Clinical Trials ID: NCT03339440.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Health Behavior , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Adolescent , Body Weight , Child , Child, Preschool , Diet , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Life Style , Male , Meals , North Carolina , Pandemics , Screen Time , Sleep , Snacks
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335161

ABSTRACT

Nutrition during childhood and adolescence is very important for growth and can have long-term health implications. The COVID-19 lockdown caused significant changes in everyday life, including in children and adolescents. This study evaluated the effects of the first COVID-19 lockdown on eating habits and body weight in children and adolescents. An online cross-sectional survey was carried out among the parents of children (5-9 years) and adolescents (10-14 years) living in Italy. The online self-administered questionnaire included demographic and anthropometric data (reported weight and height) weight and dietary habit changes during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy (March to June 2020). A total of 439 participants were included. We found a change in eating habits with an increase in consumption of sweet packaged snacks (34%) and processed meat (25%), as well as bread, pizza and bakery products (47%). We also found an increase in vegetable, fresh fruit and legume intake (19%), and a reduction in sweet beverage and candy intake. A total of 59.7% of the participants reported body weight gain, with adolescents gaining more than children (67% vs. 55%, p = 0.010, respectively). In children, body weight gain was associated with a change in body height and increased consumption of dairy products and sweet packaged snacks, while in adolescents it was associated with an increased intake of comfort foods and processed meat. Our data highlighted the need to carefully monitor eating behaviors to avoid the establishment of unhealthy eating habits and prevent obesity in children and adolescents during periods of self-isolation.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fruit , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Nutritional Status , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vegetables , Weight Gain
9.
Curr Obes Rep ; 10(3): 423-433, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305176

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with weight gain in certain individuals. This review highlights the risk factors for weight gain during COVID-19 self-quarantine in adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Among those who have gained weight during COVID-19 self-quarantine, self-reported body weight has increased between .5 and 1.8 kg (± 2.8 kg) after just 2 months of quarantine. Identified risk factors for weight gain during COVID-19 self-quarantine are the following: increased sedentary behaviors, decreased physical activity, increased snacking frequency (particularly after dinner), increased alcohol intake, decreased water intake, emotional eating, decreased sleep quality, and being overweight/obese. Having identified risk factors for weight gain during the COVID-19 pandemic, practitioners and researchers should devise plans to assist those who have gained weight to re-learn weight management/weight loss strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obesity , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , Social Isolation , Weight Gain , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Snacks
10.
J Aging Phys Act ; 30(1): 33-43, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280391

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of remotely delivered, home-based exercise programs on physical function and well-being in self-isolating older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. In a four-arm randomized controlled trial, 63 participants (aged 65 years and older) were allocated to one of three home-based daily (2 × 10-min) exercise interventions (exercise snacking, tai chi snacking, and combination) or control (UK National Health Service Web pages). Functional assessments were conducted via video call at baseline and 4-week follow-up. A web-based survey assessed the acceptability of each exercise program and secondary psychological/well-being outcomes. Ecological momentary assessment data, collected in Weeks 1 and 4, explored feeling states as antecedents and consequences of exercise. All intervention groups saw increased physical function at follow-up and displayed good adherence with exercise snacking considered the most acceptable program. Multilevel models revealed reciprocal associations between feelings of energy and exercise engagement. Further studies are needed with larger, more diverse demographic samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tai Ji , Aged , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks , State Medicine
11.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 53(8): 706-711, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275507

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine how changes in feeling bored and eating because of boredom during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic relate to intuitive eating, diet quality, and snacking. METHODS: A representative sample of 360 US adults completed an online survey including changes in feeling bored and eating because of boredom since the COVID-19 pandemic. An ANCOVA and multivariate analysis of covariance were used to examine relationships between intuitive eating, diet quality, and snacking in individuals who experienced: (1) increases in feeling bored and eating because of boredom, (2) eating because of boredom only, (3) increases in feeling bored only, and (4) no change/decreases in feeling bored and eating because of boredom. RESULTS: Individuals who increased feeling bored and eating because of boredom and increased eating because of boredom only snacked more and scored lower in intuitive eating. Diet quality did not differ across groups. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Although diet quality did not differ, eating because of boredom is potentially a negative impact on diet quality. Programs enhancing intuitive eating may be helpful.


Subject(s)
Boredom , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks , United States/epidemiology
12.
Appetite ; 166: 105317, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242873

ABSTRACT

This research aimed to replicate a previous UK-based finding that low craving control predicts increased intake of high energy density foods (HED) during the COVID-19 lockdown, and extend this finding to adults living in Victoria, Australia. The study also assessed whether acceptance coping moderates the relationship between craving control and increased HED food intake, and examined the associations between trait disinhibition, perceived stress and changes to HED food intake. An online survey completed by 124 adults living in Victoria, Australia (total eligible n = 147; 38.5 ± 12.9 years) during the COVID-19 lockdown showed that 49% of participants reported increased overall food intake, and 21-29% reported increased intake of HED sweet and savoury foods during the COVID-19 lockdown. Of the eating behaviour traits assessed, low craving control was the only significant predictor of increased HED sweet and savoury food intake (cognitive restraint, disinhibition and emotional eating were non-significant predictors). Perceived stress was associated with reported increases in overall savoury and sweet snack intake, but was not significantly associated with changes to specific HED food groups (sweet and savoury). In this sample, acceptance coping did not significantly moderate the relationship between craving control and increased HED food intake. Based on these replicated findings, further trials should now consider interventions targeting craving control to promote controlled food intake in individuals at-risk of weight gain during the current COVID-19 and future potential lockdowns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Craving , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Eating , Energy Intake , Feeding Behavior , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks , Victoria
13.
Appetite ; 163: 105233, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163362

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and public health measures to reduce its transmission have increased stress. Stress is associated with alterations in eating behavior which may be partly driven by effects on food-related motivation. To investigate effects of COVID-related stress on food motivation, we recruited adults (N = 429; 272 F, 157 M) to complete an online survey via Amazon MTurk in May 2020. Current COVID-related stress, retrospective pre-COVID stress, and motivation in relation to individualized preferred foods from five categories (sweet snacks, fruit, savory snacks, vegetables, and fast food) were assessed. Food motivation measures included willingness to wait, willingness to expend low effort [finger taps], willingness to expend high effort [jumping jacks], and willingness to pay for hypothetical delivery of the food item. Food motivation for each food type was assessed using a novel instrument designed for brief assessment of multiple aspects of food motivation across multiple food types. Participants were willing to pay the most for fast food followed by sweet snacks, and willing to wait longer for sweet snacks relative to other food types. While fast food and sweets also generated the most willingness to expend high and low effort, willingness to expend low effort for fruit was similar to that for fast food and sweets, and willingness to expend high effort for fruit was comparable to that for fast food. Participants were least willing to pay or expend low effort for vegetables. Higher COVID-related stress levels were associated with willingness to expend more effort and pay more for food items. These data collected during the pandemic demonstrate that highly processed and sweet foods have high motivating value across multiple measures of motivation, and COVID-related stress increases food motivation across food categories. Interventions to mitigate stress and target the link between stress and overeating may help to limit the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on obesity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Motivation , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks
14.
Appetite ; 161: 105132, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163361

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused France to impose a strict lockdown, affecting families' habits in many domains. This study evaluated possible changes in child eating behaviors, parental feeding practices, and parental motivations when buying food during the lockdown, compared to the period before the lockdown. Parents of 498 children aged 3-12 years (238 boys; M = 7.32; SD = 2.27) completed an online survey with items from validated questionnaires (e.g., CEDQ, CEBQ, HomeSTEAD). They reported on their (child's) current situation during the lockdown, and retrospectively on the period before the lockdown. Many parents reported changes in child eating behaviors, feeding practices, and food shopping motivations. When changes occurred, child appetite, food enjoyment, food responsiveness and emotional overeating significantly increased during the lockdown. Increased child boredom significantly predicted increased food responsiveness, emotional overeating and snack frequency in between meals. When parents changed their practices, they generally became more permissive: less rules, more soothing with food, more child autonomy. They bought pleasurable and sustainable foods more frequently, prepared more home-cooked meals and cooked more with the child. Level of education and increased stress level predicted changes in parental practices and motivations. This study provides insights in factors that can induce positive and negative changes in families' eating, feeding and cooking behaviors. This can stimulate future studies and interventions.


Subject(s)
Child Behavior , Consumer Behavior , Feeding Behavior , Pandemics , Parenting , Adult , Appetite , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Emotions , Female , France , Humans , Hyperphagia , Male , Meals , Middle Aged , Motivation , Parent-Child Relations , Snacks , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Appetite ; 161: 105130, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163359

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 triggered widespread disruption in the lives of university students across the United States. We conducted 9 online focus groups with 30 students from a large public university to understand the impact of COVID-19 on the food choices of those displaced from their typical residences due to the pandemic. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first qualitative research to examine the changes in food choice for US university students due to COVID-19 and offer insight into why these changes occurred. Students in this study reported significant, and often negative, changes in food choices during the pandemic compared to when on campus. Many students described changes in the foods they ate, the amount consumed, and increased snacking behaviors. We found food availability and household roles to be powerful factors influencing food choices. Most students had returned to family homes with many students taking a passive role in activities that shape food choices. Parents usually purchased groceries and prepared meals with students eating foods made available to them. Increased free time contributed to boredom and snacking for some students, while for a few students with increased skills and/or agency, additional free time was used to plan and prepare meals. About a third of the students attributed eating different foods at home to food availability issues related to the pandemic such as groceries being out of stock, purchasing non-perishable foods, or the inability to get to a store. This information may be helpful to researchers and health promotion professionals interested in the effects of COVID-19 on student nutrition and related food behaviors, including those interested in the relationship between context and food choice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Choice Behavior , Food Preferences , Pandemics , Students , Adolescent , Consumer Behavior , Family Characteristics , Female , Focus Groups , Humans , Male , Snacks , United States , Universities , Young Adult
16.
Appetite ; 161: 105119, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented disruptions to the lives of families. This study aimed to investigate the impact of pandemic-associated stress on food parenting practices including interactions surrounding snacks, and child diet. METHODS: Parents (N = 318) of 2-12-year old children completed a cross-sectional online survey assessing current COVID-19-specific stress, pre-COVID-19 stress, financial stress (e.g. food insecurity), food parenting practices, and child snack intake frequency. Structural Equation Modeling was used to model simultaneous paths of relationships and test direct and indirect effects. RESULTS: Stress, including financial hardship, was higher compared with before the crisis. The majority of children had regular mealtimes and irregular snack times. Higher COVID-19-specific stress was associated with more non-nutritive use of food and snacks (e.g. emotional and instrumental feeding), but also more structure and positive interactions (e.g. eating with or engaging with child around mealtimes). Higher COVID-19-specific stress was also associated with greater child intake frequency of sweet and savory snacks, with some evidence for mediation by snack parenting practices. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic may be linked to child snack intake with potential impacts on child obesity risk, and suggest several modifiable points of intervention within the family context.


Subject(s)
Feeding Behavior/psychology , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology , Parents/psychology , Snacks , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Meals , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Appetite ; 161: 105082, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163352

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus pandemic (Covid 19) resulted in national lockdowns where individuals were asked to isolate in their homes to stop the spread of the disease. Using a cross-sectional survey, the current paper aimed to examine self-reported changes in eating patterns and behaviour during the lockdown in the UK, and associations with BMI, demographic variables, eating styles, health anxiety, food insecurity and coping strategies. Participants (N = 620) were recruited online through social media advertising. The results showed that there were self-reported changes to food consumption during the lockdown across the sample. Increases in consumption of HED (high energy density) snack foods during the lockdown was associated with sex, pre-lockdown eating behaviour (emotional eating and uncontrolled eating), and Covid-specific health anxiety. Increases in positive eating practices such as eating more home prepared foods, and fruits and vegetables, were associated with adaptive coping strategies. Higher emotional eating (EE) during the lockdown was associated with a higher BMI, higher pre-lockdown EE and maladaptive coping strategies. Maladaptive coping strategies moderated the relationship between BMI and EE during the lockdown. In particular a higher BMI was associated with higher EE during the lockdown if an individual also had higher maladaptive coping strategies. These findings suggest that changes to eating behaviour may be part of a wider style of maladaptive or adaptive coping, particularly in those with a history of EE or uncontrolled eating. Preparing individuals to adopt more adaptive coping strategies during lockdown situations may be crucial to improving health during subsequent the lockdown events.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Self Report , Snacks , United Kingdom , Young Adult
18.
Appetite ; 158: 105017, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116217

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence indicates that for some people, the COVID-19 lockdowns are a time of high risk for increased food intake. A clearer understanding of which individuals are most at risk of over-eating during the lockdown period is needed to inform interventions that promote healthy diets and prevent weight gain during lockdowns. An online survey collected during the COVID-19 lockdown (total n = 875; analysed n = 588; 33.4 ± 12.6 years; 82% UK-based; mostly white, educated, and not home schooling) investigated reported changes to the amount consumed and changes to intake of high energy dense (HED) sweet and savoury foods. The study also assessed which eating behaviour traits predicted a reported increase of HED sweet and savoury foods and tested whether coping responses moderated this relationship. Results showed that 48% of participants reported increased food intake in response to the COVID-19 lockdown. There was large individual variability in reported changes and lower craving control was the strongest predictor of increased HED sweet and savoury food intake. Low cognitive restraint also predicted greater increases in HED sweet snacks and HED savoury meal foods. Food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, emotional undereating, emotional overeating and satiety responsiveness were not significant predictors of changes to HED sweet and savoury food intake. High scores on acceptance coping responses attenuated the conditional effects of craving control on HED sweet snack intake. Consistent with previous findings, the current research suggests that low craving control is a risk factor for increased snack food intake during lockdown and may therefore represent a target for intervention.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Craving , Energy Intake , Food Preferences/psychology , Pandemics , Social Isolation , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Eating/psychology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Satiety Response , Snacks , Taste , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
Endocr J ; 68(2): 201-210, 2021 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110113

ABSTRACT

To investigate the acute effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the lifestyle and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellites. This cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study induced 203 patients who completed a questionnaire regarding stress levels and lifestyles. Data regarding stress levels, sleep time, exercise, and total diet, snack, and prepared food intake were obtained from the questionnaires. The changes in the body weight or HbA1c levels were determined by comparing the values at the time the questionnaire was administered to those noted 3 months ago. Increased levels of stress and decreased exercise levels were reported in approximately 40% and >50%. During the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a negative correlation between stress and exercise (r = -0.285, p < 0.001) and a positive correlation between stress and prepared food intake (r = 0.193, p = 0.009). Decreased exercise levels (r = -0.33, p < 0.001) and increased snack consumption (r = 0.24, p = 0.002) were associated with increased body weight. Furthermore, increased total diet intake (r = 0.16, p = 0.031) was associated with increased HbA1c levels. These relationships remained significant for patients aged <65 years and patients who did not engage in regular exercise. Many patients experienced stress and lifestyle changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and these changes were associated with increased body weight and HbA1c levels.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diet , Exercise , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Sleep , Stress, Psychological , Aged , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Fast Foods , Female , Glycemic Control , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks
20.
Nutr Hosp ; 37(6): 1190-1196, 2020 Dec 16.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097553

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Introduction: during the COVID-19 crisis food habits have changed among the population as food consumption is now carried out totally at home, and visits to groceries or food centers have decreased considerably. Likewise, other habits, such as physical activity or sleeping hours have also been modified. Objectives: the objective of this work was to evaluate the changes occurred in eating and lifestyle habits among the adult Galician population during the confinement period ordered in Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: a survey was conducted using Microsoft Forms, and spread among the population using an instant messaging service for mobiles through the internet. Results: a total of 1350 Galician adults completed the questionnaire; mean of age was 63.2 ± 8.1 years, 30 % were men, and 70 % were women. The obtained data show a trend towards consumption of healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables, and a decrease in less healthy ones such as processed foods. In total, 46 % of the population reported they were eating more than before the confinement, with an increase in snacking between meals (54 %) and in anxiety about food due to situations of stress or nervousness bieng reported by 40 % of respondents. This has resulted in an increase in body weight, reported by 44 % of participants, with the average gain being 2.8 ± 1.5 kg. Conclusions: during confinement, the eating and lifestyle habits of the Galician population have been modified. The weight gain observed in a population that already had a high level of overweight and obesity at confinement onset aggravates the present situation and may have a negative impact on the development of chronic, non-communicable.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Introducción: en plena crisis por la COVID-19, el consumo alimentario ha pasado a llevarse a cabo en su totalidad en el hogar y las visitas a los centros de distribución de alimentos se han visto reducidas. Asimismo, otros hábitos, como la práctica de ejercicio físico o las horas de sueño, se han visto también modificadas. Objetivos: el objetivo de este trabajo ha sido evaluar los cambios producidos en los hábitos alimentarios y en el estilo de vida de la población gallega durante el período de confinamiento por la COVID-19. Métodos: se elaboró una encuesta en Microsoft Forms para adultos residentes en Galicia y se distribuyó, de manera aleatoria, a través de un servicio de mensajería instantánea para móviles a través de Internet. Resultados: el número de participantes fue de 1350 personas, mayores de edad, siendo el promedio de edad de 63,2 ± 8,1 años y estando la muestra compuesta por un 30 % de hombres y un 70 % de mujeres. Los datos muestran una tendencia hacia el consumo de alimentos saludables, como frutas y verduras, y un descenso de otros menos saludables, como son los alimentos procesados. Un 46 % de la población indicó estar comiendo más que antes del confinamiento, aumentando el picoteo entre horas (54 %) y la ansiedad por la comida, debido a situaciones de estrés o nervios, en un 40 % de los encuestados. Esto se ha traducido en un incremento del peso corporal, indicado por un 44 % de la muestra, siendo la media de kilos ganada de 2,8 ± 1,5. Conclusiones: durante el confinamiento, los hábitos alimentarios y el estilo de vida de la población gallega se han visto modificados. El incremento de peso experimentado en una población que ya partía de un elevado porcentaje de sobrepeso y obesidad al inicio del confinamiento podría tener un impacto negativo en el desarrollo de patologías crónicas no transmisibles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Feeding Behavior , Pandemics , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Aged , Eating , Exercise , Female , Fruit , Health Behavior , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Sleep , Snacks , Spain , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vegetables , Young Adult
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