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1.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276553, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089435

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: So far, shreds of evidence have shown that COVID-19 related hospitalization, serious outcomes, and mortality were high among individuals with chronic medical conditions. However, strict compliance with basic public health measures such as hand washing with soap, social distancing, and wearing masks has been recommended and proven effective in preventing transmission of the infection. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the level of compliance with COVID-19 preventive measures and identify its predictors among patients with common chronic diseases in public hospitals of Southern Ethiopia by applying the proportional odds model. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was employed in public hospitals of Southern Ethiopia between February and March 2021. Using a systematic random sampling technique, 419 patients with common chronic diseases were recruited. Data were collected using an Open Data Kit and then submitted to the online server. The proportional odds model was employed, and the level of significance was declared at a p-value of less than 0.05. RESULTS: This study revealed that 55.2% (95%CI: 50.4%-59.9%) of the study participants had low compliance levels with COVID-19 preventive measures. The final proportional odds model identified that perceived susceptibility (AOR: 0.91, 95%CI: 0.84, 0.97), cues to action (AOR: 0.89, 95%CI: 0.85, 0.94), having access to drinking water piped into the dwelling (AOR: 0.52, 95%CI: 0.32, 0.84), having no access to any internet (AOR: 0.62, 95%CI: 0.42, 0.92), having no functional refrigerator (AOR: 2.17, 95%CI: 1.26, 3.74), and having poor knowledge (AOR: 1.42, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.98) were the independent predictors of low compliance level with COVID-19 preventive measures. CONCLUSION: In the study area, more than half of the participants had low compliance levels with COVID-19 preventive measures. Thus, the identified factors should be considered when designing, planning, and implementing new interventional strategies, so as to improve the participants' compliance level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drinking Water , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Soaps , Chronic Disease
2.
Indian J Dent Res ; 33(2): 130-134, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080639

ABSTRACT

Aim: : To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices among sanitation workers regarding SARS-CoV-2 prevention during hospital waste management. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 426 sanitation workers using an interviewer-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of the study participants. The unpaired t-test and Spearman's correlation were used to find the mean difference and correlation among different study variables. Statistical significance was set at 5% (confidence interval 95%). Results: The mean knowledge score of the participants was found to be 7.15 ± 2.02. About 93.7% of the participants had good knowledge about COVID-19. About 64.3% of the participants strongly agreed that COVID-19 is a life-threatening disease. Regarding practices, a majority reported (69.7%) that they washed hands frequently using water and soap. A significant positive correlation was found between knowledge, attitude, practices and education, indicating a favourable work environment in hospital settings. Conclusion: More than half of the sanitation workers and housekeeping staff had adequate knowledge of COVID-19, and their attitudes were found to be favourable. They also had satisfactory practices, which may be a result of the prompt training and sensitization of sanitation workers by the authorities. Clinical Relevance: Sanitation workers come under the essential services category and their knowledge, attitude and practices needed to be assessed and updated in the concerned area for their protection and better management of biomedical waste, especially in the current pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Humans , Sanitation , Soaps , Surveys and Questionnaires , Water
3.
J Water Health ; 20(10): 1534-1542, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2070843

ABSTRACT

Proper handwashing is one of the effective ways to prevent many communicable diseases, including COVID-19. We explored the handwashing practices in a rural Indian population before the probable third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A data collection schedule was administered to eligible adult members of a rural community, selected by multi-stage sampling, to assess their pattern and practice of handwashing. All 176 respondents washed their hands after defecation, 82.4 and 80.7% washed hands after urination and before taking food, respectively, while 68.2% of respondents washed hands after coming back from outdoors. Among those who handwashed, 82.9% used soap water after defecation; 46.2, 45.8 and 50.8% washed hands with soap water after urination, before taking food and after visiting outdoors, respectively. Only a quarter (24.4%) of all the participants used soap water for handwashing consistently after defecation, after urination, before taking food and after coming home. The more educated, those coming from higher socioeconomic stratum and working from home, were more likely to report proper handwashing practice. Handwashing, as recommended by health agencies, for restraining COVID-19 infection, was not noticed in the majority of the participants. Better awareness of handwashing is recommended to help restrain COVID-19 in the Indian population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Disinfection , Adult , Humans , Soaps , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Water
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 43: 10, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067225

ABSTRACT

Despite implementing measures to prevent introduction of COVID-19 in prisons, a COVID-19 outbreak occurred at Moroto Prison, northern Uganda in September 2020. We investigated factors associated with the introduction and spread of COVID-19 in the prison. A case was PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in a prisoner/staff at Moroto Prison during August-September 2020. We reviewed prison medical records to identify case-patients and interviewed prison and hospital staff to understand possible infection mechanisms for the index case-patient and opportunities for spread. In a retrospective cohort study, we interviewed all prisoners and available staff to identify risk factors. Data were analyzed using log-binomial regression. On September 1, 2020, a recently-hospitalized prisoner with unrecognized SARS-CoV-2 infection was admitted to Moroto Prison quarantine. He had become infected while sharing a hospital ward with a subsequently-diagnosed COVID-19 patient. A sample taken from the hospitalized prisoner on August 20 tested positive on September 3. Mass reactive testing at the prison on September 6, 14, and 15 revealed infection among 202/692 prisoners and 8/90 staff (overall attack rate=27%). One prison staff and one prisoner who cared for the sick prisoner while at the hospital re-entered the main prison without quarantining. Both tested positive on September 6. Food and cleaning service providers also regularly transited between quarantine and unrestricted prison areas. Using facemasks >50% of the time (adjusted risk ratio [aRR]=0.26; 95%CI: 0.13-0.54), or in combination with handwashing after touching surfaces (aRR=0.25; 95%CI: 0.14-0.46) were protective. Prisoners recently transferred from other facilities to Moroto Prison had an increased risk of infection (aRR=1.50; 95%CI: 1.02-2.22). COVID-19 was likely introduced into Moroto Prison quarantine by a prisoner with hospital-acquired infection and delayed test results, and/or by caretakers who were not quarantined after hospital exposures. The outbreak may have amplified via shared food/cleaning service providers who transited between quarantined and non-quarantined prisoners. Facemasks and handwashing were protective. Reduced test turnaround time for the hospitalized prisoner could have averted this outbreak. Testing incoming prisoners for SARS-CoV-2 before quarantine, providing unrestricted soap/water for handwashing, and universal facemask use in prisons could mitigate risk of future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisons , Male , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Soaps , Uganda/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks
5.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 126, 2022 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been rapidly spreading across the globe since the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the disease outbreak as a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. Hand hygiene, via either regular handwashing with soap and water or using hand sanitizers, is among the various measures that need to be followed to control the outbreak of the disease. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) are the "gold standard" for hand disinfection because of their broad antimicrobial spectrum of activity, easy availability, better safety profile, and general acceptability to users. This study aimed at evaluating the physicochemical quality and antimicrobial efficacy of the locally manufactured ABHS marketed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was used to collect ABHS from Addis Ababa marketplaces. A total of 25 sample products were randomly selected from different categories of hand sanitizer manufacturers. The physicochemical evaluation of the products was carried out as per the United States Pharmacopoeia and WHO standards. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp clinical isolates were used for the antimicrobial efficacy test. RESULTS: The Fourier Transform Infrared result confirmed that all the test products met the identification test for ethanol. The majority (68%) of ABHS complied with the test for ethanol content (75-85% v/v). However, only 3 products fulfilled the hydrogen peroxide content (0.112-0.137% v/v). LPC307 showed the maximum zone of inhibition of 12 mm against Escherichia coli whereas MPC204 exhibited only 3 mm. LPC101 was found to be more sensitive to Shigella and Klebsiella Spp with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 20% and 10%, respectively. The sample product LPC101 showed a minimum bactericidal concentration of 20% against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella spp. CONCLUSION: One-third of the tested ABHS did not comply with the WHO ethanol content limit and the majority of the products failed to meet the label claim for hydrogen peroxide content. Besides, nearly all products proved that they have activity against all the tested pathogenic microorganisms at a minimum concentration from 10 to 80%; though, they did not show 99.9% bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities as claimed. The study findings suggested regular monitoring of the quality of marketed ABHS considering the current wide use of these products.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Sanitizers , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Escherichia coli , Ethanol , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Soaps , Water
6.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 3103241, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042894

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Handwashing with soap is the simplest, most affordable, and cost-effective preventative intervention for reducing the burden of communicable diseases, including the COVID-19. This study was aimed at investigating elementary schoolchildren's handwashing practice at two critical moments, namely, before eating and after using the toilet and its associated factors. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at ten public secondary schools in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, between February and March 2019. Data were collected from all fifth-grade children's parents at the selected schools by using a self-reported questionnaire. Descriptive and multiple regression analyses were conducted using STATA/MP version 13.0. Results: A total of 1507 parents/guardians of 5th-grade school children participated. Reported schoolchildren's handwashing practice for both critical moments was 50.1%. It was significantly associated with female gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.56 (95%CI = 0.45, 0.70)), number of siblings (AOR = 0.72 (95%CI = 0.61, 0.80)), and availability of handwashing amenity at school (AOR = 1.1595%CI = 0.86, 1.42)). Only 34% of children wash their hands with soap at school, and the most common reasons for skipping handwashing were an absence of soap (23.9%), lack of sink (14.5%), and the use of hand sanitizer (19.7%). Conclusions: The school children's handwashing practice at two critical moments is considerably low. The main disabling factors of regular handwashing at school included insufficient handwashing facility and soap. Therefore, promoting HW facilities and innovative and participatory education for elementary schoolchildren should be prioritized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Sanitizers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Mongolia , Schools , Soaps
7.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(10): 1110-1117, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) Healthcare Safety Unit (HCSU) conducts remote infection control assessments (tele-ICARs) in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) to evaluate COVID-19 infection prevention and control (IPC) knowledge and practices using a standardized assessment tool. Tele-ICARs are used to gauge different IPC measures specific to SARS-CoV-2 and are either proactive--conducted prior to identified cases--or responsive to an outbreak, which is defined as a new SARS-CoV-2 infection in any staff or any facility-onset infection in a resident. State and local partners use findings from the assessments to aid LTCFs by providing targeted and timely resources and support to mitigate identified gaps. METHODS: Data from tele-ICARs conducted between March 1 and October 30, 2020 were analyzed to assess major gaps across LTCF types. A major gap was defined as 10% or more of facilities not satisfying a specific IPC measure, excluding missing data. Gaps were also assessed by tele-ICAR type: proactive or responsive. Fisher's exact tests and univariate logistic regression were used to characterize significant associations between major IPC gaps and LTCF or tele-ICAR type. RESULTS: DSHS conducted tele-ICARs in 438 LTCFs in Texas during 8 months; 191 were nursing homes/skilled nursing facilities (NH/SNFs), 206 were assisted living facilities (ALFs) and 41 were other settings. Of the assessments, 264 were proactive and 174 responsive. Major gaps identified were: (1) 22% did not have a preference for alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) over soap and water; (2) 18.1% were not aware of the contact time for disinfectants in use; (3) 17.9% had not stopped resident communal dining; (4) 16.8% did not audit hand hygiene and PPE compliance; and (5) 11.8% had not stopped inter-facility group activities and extra-facility field trips. When restricting analyses to proactive tele-ICARs, one additional gap was identified: 11.1% of facilities lacked a dedicated space to care for or cohort residents with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Significantly more ALFs than NH/SNFs had not suspended resident communal dining (P < .001) nor identified a dedicated space to cohort residents with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (P < .001). Significantly more LTCFs that received a responsive ICAR compared to a proactive ICAR reported a preference for ABHS over soap and water (P = .008) and reported suspending communal dining (P < .001) and group activities (P < .001). Also, significantly more LTCFs that received a responsive ICAR compared to a proactive ICAR had identified a dedicated space to cohort residents with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 (P = .009). CONCLUSIONS: Increased facility education and awareness of federal and state guidelines for group activities and communal dining is warranted in Texas, emphasizing the importance of social distancing for preventing the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in LTCFs, particularly ALFs. CDC recommendations for ABHS versus hand washing should be emphasized, as well as the importance of monitoring and auditing HCP hand hygiene and PPE compliance. Facilities may benefit from additional education and resources about disinfection, to ensure proper selection of disinfectants and understanding of the contact time required for efficacy. Analysis by tele-ICAR type suggests facilities may benefit from identifying space for dedicated COVID-19 units in advance of an outbreak in their facility. Conducting tele-ICARs in LTCFs enables public health agencies to provide direct and individualized feedback to facilities and identify state-wide opportunities for effective interventions in response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Hand Sanitizers , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control , Iron-Dextran Complex , Long-Term Care , Nursing Homes , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Soaps , Texas/epidemiology , Water
8.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023942

ABSTRACT

Liquid soaps are the basic cosmetics used to clean the skin of the hands. Frequent hand washing prevents viral contamination but may damage the skin's hydro-lipid layer, leading to various types of irritation. Therefore, four liquid soap formulas were developed with three amphoteric surfactants: Cocamidopropyl Betaine (LS II), CocamidopropylHydroxysultaine (LS III), and newly synthesized Evening PrimroseaamidopropylSulfobetaine (LS IV). We evaluated the skin irritating potential (zein number, bovine albumin test) and cytotoxicity (AlamarBlue™, Cell viability, and Cell cycle assays) on HaCaT cell line. We observed lower values of the zein number and bovine albumin tests after adding soaps with surfactants (the highest differences in LS IV) compared to the base soap (LS I). However, LS I and LS II did not differ in cytotoxic assays. Therefore, adding LS III and LS IV seems potentially more dangerous to the cells. However, it should be noted that cells were continuously exposed to liquid soaps for more than 24 h, so its cytotoxic effects after dermal use in humans may be unnoticeable. Concluding, results suggest that the newly synthesized LS IV should improve the safety of liquid hand washing soaps.


Subject(s)
Soaps , Zein , Animals , Cattle , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Serum Albumin, Bovine , Soaps/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1690, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hygiene behaviors in public toilets are important to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases, especially during the pandemic. All through the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, governments in many countries published guidance on personal hygiene for the general population to prevent disease transmission. This study aimed to investigate improvements in residents' hygiene awareness and behaviors in public toilets before and during the pandemic. METHODS: We recruited 316 residents between November and December 2018 before the pandemic, and 314 residents between December 2020 and January 2021 during the pandemic in the same study sites in Hangzhou, a well-developed city in China. Residents' hygiene behaviors in public toilets, hygiene awareness, risk perception, and sociodemographic factors were collected. Bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regressions were used to test the differences between the two rounds. We conducted an observational study to record the provision of hygiene amenities at toilets during the pandemic. RESULTS: After controlling for sociodemographic factors (gender, marital status, age, education level, and monthly household income), compared with respondents recruited before the pandemic, respondents recruited during the pandemic were more likely to perceive the risks of infection when using public toilets (aOR = 1.77, 95%CI [1.20, 2.60]), and were more likely to be aware of the risks of touching contaminated toilet facilities (aOR = 1.72, 95%CI [1.17, 2.54]) and the risks of not using soap to wash one's hands after using the toilet (aOR = 1.93, 95%CI [1.38, 2.72]). They were more likely to always clean their toilet seat with alcohol (aOR = 1.88, 95%CI [1.01, 3.51]), wash hands with soap (aOR = 1.52, 95%CI [1.09, 2.10]) and dry their hands with a dryer (aOR = 1.78, 95%CI [1.16, 2.71]), but they were less likely to always wash their hands after using the toilets (aOR = 0.57, 95%CI [0.32, 1.00]). Among 70 public toilets observed, 9 provided alcohol for toilet seat disinfection, 52 provided soap, 33 provided paper towels, and 41 had working hand dryers. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the overall improvement, residents' hygiene behaviors in public toilets and the supply of hygiene amenities were still suboptimal during the pandemic. Further hygiene education and an adequate supply of hygiene amenities in public toilets are needed to promote residents' hygiene behaviors.


Subject(s)
Bathroom Equipment , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Hygiene , Pandemics/prevention & control , Soaps
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994051

ABSTRACT

Hand sanitizers are used as an alternative to hand washing to reduce the number of viable microorganisms when soap and water are not readily available. This study aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial effectiveness of commercially available hand sanitizers and those commonly used in healthcare and community settings. A mapping exercise was done to select and procure different hand sanitizers (n = 18) from retailers. Five microorganisms implicated in hospital-acquired infections were selected and tested against each hand sanitizer: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-one volunteers were recruited to do a handprint before and after applying the hand sanitizer. Only four out of eighteen hand sanitizers (22%) were effective against all tested bacterial species, and an equal number (22%) were completely ineffective. Seven hand sanitizers with a label claim of 99.99% were only effective against E. coli. Only five hand sanitizers (27%) effectively reduced bacteria on participants' hands. This study showed that only a fifth of hand sanitizers were effective against selected microorganisms. The findings raise a concern about the effectiveness of hand sanitizers and their role in infection, prevention, and control if not well regulated.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants , Hand Sanitizers , Bacteria , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Hand , Hand Disinfection , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , Humans , Soaps , South Africa
11.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 49: 102418, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are frequent in pilgrims at the Grand Magal of Touba (GMT). METHODS: Pilgrims were prospectively investigated in 2017-2021 for demographics, chronic conditions, preventive measures, respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, and pathogen carriage using PCR assays. RESULTS: 535 pilgrims were included. 54.8% and 13.3% reported respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, respectively. 18.4% acquired respiratory viruses, notably rhinovirus (10.1%) and coronaviruses (5.6%) and 39.9% bacteria, notably Haemophilus influenzae (18.9%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (14.1%). The acquisition of gastrointestinal pathogens was lower, with enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (18.9%) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (10.5%) being the most frequent. A decrease was observed in the acquisition rates of pathogens in 2020-2021 GMT. Female pilgrims were more at risk of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms. Respiratory symptoms were associated with virus acquisition (aRR: 2.20, 95%CI [1.38-3.50]) and S. pneumoniae acquisition (aRR: 2.76, 95%CI = [1.64-4.62]). Using hand soap was associated with a decrease in the acquisition of rhinovirus (aRR: 0.42, 95%CI [0.22-0.80]) and coronavirus (aRR: 0.42, 95%CI [0.22-0.81]). Using face masks was associated with a decrease in reporting of respiratory symptoms (aRR: 0.54, 95% [0.35-0.86]). CONCLUSION: Hand washing with soap and wearing face masks should be recommended to GMT pilgrims.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Bacteria , Female , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Islam , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Risk Factors , Saudi Arabia , Soaps , Travel , Viruses/genetics
12.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269225, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917013

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is still causing morbidity and mortality all over the world. Preventive measures such as wearing a facemask, social distancing and hand hygiene continue to be the only options available in countries such as Ethiopia where vaccines are not yet widely available. Hand hygiene is one of the easiest and cheapest preventive measures, and one that is especially important for barbers and beauty salon workers who are widely exposed to the virus due to their contact with many customers. Therefore, measuring the proportion of good hand hygiene practices and associated factors among barbers and beauty salon workers may provide essential guidance in the development of effective interventions to improve COVID-19 prevention measures. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 410 barbers and beauty salon workers in Dessie City and Kombolcha Town from January 5 to February 10, 2021. The study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire and an observational checklist were used to collect the data. The collected data were entered into EpiData version 4.6 and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0. Logistic regression analysis using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models was employed. From the bivariate analysis, variables with p <0.25 were retained into multivariable logistic regression analysis. Finally, from the multivariable analysis, variables that had a p-value < 0.05 were declared as factors significantly associated with good hand hygiene practices. Of the total 410 barbers and beauty salon workers, 52.9% [95% CI: 48.3-57.6] had good hand hygiene practices whereas 47.1% [95% CI: 42.4-51.7] had poor hand hygiene practices. From the total respondents, more than half 250 (61%) were male and 160 (39%) were female, with a mean age of 27.42 ±7.37 years. Out of 410 barbers and beauty salon workers, 73.7% had good knowledge about COVID-19 and 59.5% had a positive attitude towards taking precautions against COVID-19. Female sex (AOR = 2.17, 95% CI:1.29-3.65), educational level of college or above (AOR = 5.53, 95% CI:2.85-10.71), positive attitude towards taking precautions against COVID-19 (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI:1.46-4.17), belief in the effectiveness of hand hygiene practices (AOR = 3.78, 95% CI:2.18-6.55) and presence of a hand-washing facility with soap and water (AOR = 5.55, 95% CI:3.28-9.40) were factors significantly associated with good hand hygiene practices among barbers and beauty salon workers. The proportion of good hand hygiene practice was not sufficient to combat the virus. Good hand hygiene practice was higher among those with higher educational level, positive attitude towards taking precautions against COVID-19, belief in the effectiveness of hand hygiene practices, presence of a hand-washing facility with soap and water and those of female sex. Thus, improving hand hygiene practices through continued training, especially for those with a lower educational level and for male workers, is recommended. Moreover, government and non-government organizations should work together to provide alcohol-based hand sanitizer at a low cost to those barbershops and beauty salons if there is no access to water and soap.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Soaps , Water , Young Adult
13.
Sante Publique ; 32(5): 549-561, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903541

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Faced with the increase in confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Senegal, particularly in the region of Dakar, epicenter of the disease, it is necessary to study the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the populations of the West and South districts on COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional and analytical study was conducted from May 9 to 30, 2020. A four-stage cluster survey was carried out at the level of the West and South districts. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were carried out using R 3.4.4 software. RESULTS: In total, 400 people were surveyed. The mean age of those surveyed was 40.2 ± 14.7 years and extremes of 18 and 82 years. The male sex predominated in 66.5% of cases. People had good knowledge of the signs, transmission risks and prevention measures respectively in 4.7%; 3% and 47.8%. In total, 74% of the people surveyed respected the concept of "stay at home". Wearing a mask and systematic hand washing with soap and water were noted among the people surveyed in 53.6% and 34.8% of cases, respectively. People who had good knowledge of preventive measures against COVID-19 wore the mask more (ORaj = 2.1 [1.2-3.5]) and washed their hands more with soap and water (ORaj = 1.9 [1.1-3.4]). CONCLUSION: For an effective fight against this epidemic, it is important to strengthen risk communication with full community participation. This strategy must be coupled with actions aimed at making prevention means available to the benefit of the entire population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Senegal/epidemiology , Soaps , Surveys and Questionnaires , Water
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760585

ABSTRACT

This study aims to estimate the prevalence and correlation of household levels of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), including the identification of areas where WASH facilities are unimproved in Nepal. The study population was 11,040 household heads, using the data collected in the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016. Logistic regression analysis was performed and crude odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a 0.05 significance level are presented. Getis-Ord Gi* statistics were used to identify the hot and cold spot areas of unimproved WASH. GPS locations of WASH points were used for spatial analysis. Approximately 95% of households had an improved water source, 84% had improved sanitation facilities, 81% had a fixed place for handwashing, and 47% had soap and water. Education, wealth, and ecology were significantly associated with WASH. The people from the hills were less likely to have an improved water source (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16-0.64) than those from the plain. Households with a poor wealth index had 78% lower odds of having an improved water source compared to households with a rich wealth index. Respondents from Madhes Province had lower odds (OR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.08-0.28) and Gandaki Pradesh had the highest odds (OR = 2.92; 95% CI: 1.52-5.61) of having improved sanitation facilities compared to Province 1. Respondents aged 35-44 years had higher odds (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.04-1.29) of having soap and water available compared to those aged 45 years and older. Education and geographical disparities were the factors associated with having reduced access to WASH. These findings suggest the need to focus on advocacy, services, and policy approaches.


Subject(s)
Sanitation , Water , Humans , Hygiene , Nepal , Prevalence , Soaps , Water Supply
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(32): 48736-48747, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707126

ABSTRACT

In order to reduce the transmission of pathogens, and COVID-19, WHO and NHS England recommend hand washing (HW) and/or the use of hand sanitizer (HS). The planetary health consequences of these different methods of hand hygiene have not been quantified. A comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to compare the environmental impact of the UK population practising increased levels of hand hygiene during the COVID-19 pandemic for 1 year. Washing hands with soap and water was compared to using hand sanitizer (both ethanol and isopropanol based sanitizers were studied). The isopropanol-based HS had the lowest environmental impact in 14 out of the 16 impact categories used in this study. For climate change, hand hygiene using isopropanol HS produced the equivalent of 1060 million kg CO2, compared to 1460 million for ethanol HS, 2300 million for bar soap HW, and 4240 million for liquid soap HW. For both the ethanol and isopropanol HS, the active ingredient was the greatest overall contributing factor to the environmental impact (83.24% and 68.68% respectively). For HW with liquid soap and bar soap, there were additional contributing factors other than the soap itself: for example tap water use (28.12% and 48.68% respectively) and the laundering of a hand towel to dry the hands (10.17% and 17.92% respectively). All forms of hand hygiene have an environmental cost, and this needs to be weighed up against the health benefits of preventing disease transmission. When comparing hand sanitizers to handwashing with soap and water, this study found that using isopropanol based hand sanitizer is better for planetary health. However, no method of hand hygiene was ideal; isopropanol had a greater fossil fuel resource use than ethanol based hand sanitizer. More research is needed to find hand hygiene sources which do not diminish planetary health, and environmental impact is a consideration for public health campaigns around hand hygiene.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Hand Sanitizers , 2-Propanol , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethanol , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Soaps , Water
16.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0109121, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591660

ABSTRACT

Chemical methods of virus inactivation are used routinely to prevent viral transmission in both a personal hygiene capacity but also in at-risk environments like hospitals. Several virucidal products exist, including hand soaps, gels, and surface disinfectants. Resin acids, which can be derived from tall oil, produced from trees, have been shown to exhibit antibacterial activity. However, whether these products or their derivatives have virucidal activity is unknown. Here, we assessed the capacity of rosin soap to inactivate a panel of pathogenic mammalian viruses in vitro. We show that rosin soap can inactivate human enveloped viruses: influenza A virus (IAV), respiratory syncytial virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For IAV, rosin soap could provide a 100,000-fold reduction in infectivity. However, rosin soap failed to affect the nonenveloped encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). The inhibitory effect of rosin soap against IAV infectivity was dependent on its concentration but not on the incubation time or temperature. In all, we demonstrate a novel chemical inactivation method against enveloped viruses, which could be of use for preventing virus infections in certain settings. IMPORTANCE Viruses remain a significant cause of human disease and death, most notably illustrated through the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Control of virus infection continues to pose a significant global health challenge to the human population. Viruses can spread through multiple routes, including via environmental and surface contamination, where viruses can remain infectious for days. Methods for inactivating viruses on such surfaces may help mitigate infection. Here, we present evidence identifying a novel virucidal product, rosin soap, which is produced from tall oil from coniferous trees. Rosin soap was able to rapidly and potently inactivate influenza virus and other enveloped viruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Resins, Plant/pharmacology , Soaps/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Influenza A virus/growth & development , Plant Oils/analysis , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Resins, Plant/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Soaps/analysis , Virus Inactivation/drug effects
17.
Contact Dermatitis ; 86(4): 276-285, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583613

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has increased the frequency of handwashing. There is scarce evidence regarding the impact of different hand hygiene procedures on skin barrier function in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact on skin barrier function of different hand hygiene measures in healthcare workers in daily practice. METHODS: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted. Participants were randomized to sanitize their hands with water and soap, alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs), or disinfectant wipes during their 8-hour working shift. Epidermal barrier functional parameters, such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and the microbial load were assessed before and immediately after the working day. Tolerance and acceptability of each product were recorded after work. RESULTS: Sixty-two participants were included and 20, 21, and 21 were randomized to use water and soap, ABHS, and disinfectant wipes, respectively. After the 8-hour shift, TEWL increase was higher with disinfectant wipes than with soaps or ABHS (+5.45 vs +3.87 vs -1.46 g h-1  m-2 , respectively; P = .023). Bacteria and fungi colony-forming unit (CFU) count reductions were lower for the water and soap group than for ABHS and disinfectant wipes. Disinfectant wipes were considered more difficult to use (P = .013) compared with water and soap and ABHS. CONCLUSION: Daily hand hygiene with ABHS showed the lowest rates of skin barrier disruption and the highest reduction of CFU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact , Hand Hygiene , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethanol , Hand/microbiology , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Soaps
18.
J Appl Toxicol ; 42(6): 930-941, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473856

ABSTRACT

Water-only or water and soap are widely recommended as preferred solutions for dermal decontamination. However, limited efficacy data exist. We summarized experimental studies evaluating in vitro efficacy of water-only or soap and water in decontaminating chemical warfare agents (CWA) or their simulants from human skin models. Embase, Covidence®, MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for articles using water-only or soap and water decontamination methods for removal of CWA/CWA simulants in in vitro human skin models. Data extraction was completed from seven studies, yielding seven contaminants. Water-only decontamination led to partial decontamination in all skin samples (100%, n = 81/81). Soap and water decontamination led to partial decontamination in all skin samples (100%, n = 143/143). Four studies found decontamination to either paradoxically enhance absorption of contaminants or their penetration rates, known as the "wash-in" effect. Despite recommendations, water-only or water and soap decontamination were found to yield partial decontamination of CWA or their simulants in all human in vitro studies. Thus, more effective decontaminating agents are needed. Some studies demonstrated increased or faster penetration of chemicals following decontamination, which could prove deadly for agents such as VX, although these findings require in vivo validation. Heterogeneity in experimental setups limits interstudy comparison, and it remains unclear when water-only or water and soap are ideal decontaminants, which requires more studies. Pending manuscripts will summarize in vivo human and animal efficacy data. International harmonized efficacy protocol should enable more efficient public health decisions for evidence-based public health decisions.


Subject(s)
Chemical Warfare Agents , Animals , Chemical Warfare Agents/toxicity , Decontamination/methods , Humans , Skin , Skin Absorption , Soaps , Water/metabolism
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1857, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1465324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Handwashing with soap is a cost-effective, efficient health behavior to prevent various diseases. Despite its immense health benefits, the lowest prevalence of handwashing is found in low-income countries. Here, its practice is not only determined by individual behavior, but also heavily shaped by deprivations in the social and structural ecology. Moreover, handwashing barriers are not equally experienced as overlapping social identities (e.g., age and gender) intersect and create inequities between members of different social groups. To embrace the complexities of handwashing beyond individual-level behavior and singular social identities, a combined socioecological and intersectional perspective is employed. This multi-level approach with regards to intersecting privileges and disadvantages serves as a basis to promote this highly important health behavior. METHODS: This study used a qualitative, theory-based approach and combined data from two samples: experts in health promotion (n = 22) and local citizens stratified by gender and rural/urban location (n = 56). Data was collected in face-to-face interviews in Sierra Leone between November 2018 and January 2019 and analyzed using thematic analysis and typology of the qualitative data. RESULTS: The conceptualization of multi-level determinants of handwashing within a socioecological model showed the high relevance of inhibiting social and structural factors for handwashing practice. By establishing seven distinguishing social identity dimensions, data demonstrates that individuals within the same social setting yet with distinct social identities experience strikingly differing degrees of power and privileges to enact handwashing. While a local leader is influential and may also change structural-level determinants, a young, rural wife experiences multiple social and structural constraints to perform handwashing with soap, even if she has high handwashing intentions. CONCLUSION: This study provides a holistic analytical framework for the identification of determinants on multiple levels and accumulating intersections of socially produced inequalities for handwashing and is applicable to other health topics. As the exploration of handwashing was approached from a solution-focused instead of a problem-focused perspective, the analysis can guide multi-level intervention approaches (e.g., using low-cost, participatory activities at the community level to make use of the available social capital).


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection , Soaps , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Poverty , Sierra Leone
20.
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev ; 24(7): 325-336, 2021 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455046

ABSTRACT

Water-only or soap and water solutions are considered a gold standard for skin decontamination. However, there is lack of conclusive data regarding their efficacy. The aim of this study was to summarize in vivo animal model data on skin decontamination using water-only, and/or soap and water. Covidence, Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched to identify relevant articles using water-only or soap and water decontamination methods in in vivo animals. Data extraction was completed from studies, representing three animal models, and 11 contaminants. Results demonstrated water-only decontamination solutions led to complete decontamination in 3.1% (n = 16/524) protocols, incomplete decontamination in 90.6% (n = 475/524) of protocols, and mortality in 6.3% (n = 33/524) of protocols. Soap and water decontamination solutions resulted in complete decontamination in 6.9% (n = 8/116) protocols, incomplete decontamination in 92.2% (n = 107/116) of protocols, and mortality in 6.9% (n = 8/116) of protocols. Although water only, or soap and water is considered a gold standard for skin decontamination, most papers investigated found that water only, and soap and water provided incomplete decontamination. Due to the insufficient data, and limitations that hinder the applicability of available data, evidence indicates that more contemporary studies investigating skin decontamination are needed, and compared to other model species, including humans, when practical.


Subject(s)
Decontamination/methods , Skin/metabolism , Soaps/chemistry , Animals , Humans , Models, Animal , Skin/chemistry , Species Specificity , Water/chemistry
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