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2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776213

ABSTRACT

The main objective of the present study was to compare high-intensity actions in a week of three matches before and after the COVID-19 lockdown. The observational methodology was used. This study analysed 551 professional soccer players from 22 different Spanish teams (LaLiga Smartbank 2019-2020) by a multi-camera tracking system and associated software (Mediacoach®, Spain). Variables of distances per minute and totals, travelled at High Intensity (HIR), Very High Intensity (VHIR), Sprint (HSR), player's maximum speed, average speed, and the number of efforts in VHIR and HSR were analysed in the first and second half of the games, the full match, as well as in relation to the playing position. Players who participated in the same number of matches pre- and post-COVID-19 showed an increase in the total minutes played, p < 0.05, and small decreases in game actions, p < 0.05, with an effect size between 0.21 and 0.45, while players who participated in different number of matches pre- and post-COVID-19 showed a performance decrease, p < 0.05, with a size effect between 0.13 and 0.51; this was evident, particularly, for midfielders, p < 0.05, with a size effect between 0.39 and 0.75. The results seem to show that the playing intensity after COVID-19 confinement did not lead to large performance losses, except for midfielders who were the most involved players and showed a higher decrease in performance. The main findings of this study could provide insight to football coaches for rotations in starting line-ups and game substitutions, so as not to affect the intensity levels of the competitions.


Subject(s)
Athletic Performance , COVID-19 , Running , Soccer , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans
3.
Sports Med ; 52(3): 655-668, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Higher neck strength has been postulated to reduce head impact magnitude during purposeful heading in football. OBJECTIVES: This pilot trial explored the effect of a neck exercise programme on (1) neck strength and (2) head impact magnitude during heading in male and female adolescent football players. METHODS: Boys and girls (aged 12-17 years) were randomised by team to the intervention (5 weeks of supervised neuromuscular neck exercises integrated into part 2 of the FIFA 11 + , completed three times per week) or the control group (usual part 2 of the FIFA 11 + , no neck exercises). Outcomes included isometric neck strength and head impact magnitude (peak linear acceleration and peak angular velocity) during standardised heading from a throw-in (at baseline and 6 weeks) plus completion of an evaluation survey by intervention players and coaches. RESULTS: In total, 52 players (n = 31 intervention; n = 21 control) completed the study. Mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences in neck strength variables (p < 0.001), peak linear acceleration (p = 0.04) and peak angular velocity (p = 0.04) between the intervention and control groups over time. Intervention players demonstrated increases in mean composite neck strength (53.8% intervention vs 15.6% control) as well as decreases in mean peak linear head acceleration during heading (- 11.8% vs - 5.0%) from baseline to follow-up. Reduction in peak angular velocity was more pronounced in girls (- 27.7%) than boys (- 11.5%) in the intervention group. The addition of neck exercises into part 2 of the FIFA 11 + was feasible and accepted by players and coaches. CONCLUSION: On average, players who completed neck exercises demonstrated an increase in isometric neck strength and a decrease in head impact magnitude during heading. These exercises were easily incorporated into usual training. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (no: ACTRN12619001375145).


Subject(s)
Exercise Therapy , Soccer , Adolescent , Australia , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Neck , Pilot Projects
4.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 62(3): 356-360, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence that COVID-19 lockdown had on the epidemiology of soccer musculoskeletal injuries during 2019/2020 Italian First Football League Serie A in professional football players. METHODS: In this retrospective study we analyzed records from media-based platform (Trasfermarkt, https://www.transfermarkt.com), describing the epidemiology of muscle injuries before and after the first COVID-19 lockdown phases in Italian professional football players. We also classified the severity of the injury as the number of missing days from participation. RESULTS: We assessed a lower prevalence of post-lockdown injuries, albeit showing a similar injury rate at 1000 game-hours (prelockdown: 16.9 [13.0-20.7], post-lockdown: 15.5 [9.9-21.1]; RR=0.92 [0.46-1.8]). All risk ratios for injury rate were not significantly different (P>0.05) between pre- and post-lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of muscle injuries has not significantly changed after the first COVID-19 lockdown in Italian professional soccer players. Recognizing injury rates might be crucial for physician to evaluate adequate preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Athletic Injuries , COVID-19 , Football , Soccer , Athletic Injuries/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Muscles , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643610

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to examine how physical performance has changed after 15 weeks (109 days) long-term absence of organized training in youth soccer players imposed by the stay at home orders. A total of sixty-eight young male soccer players from different age categories (U15, U16, U17 and U19) voluntarily participated in the prospective cohort study. Body fat percentage (BF%), counter-movement jump (CMJ), 30 m sprint, change-of-direction (COD) and yo-yo intermittent recovery test level-1 (YYIRTL-1) were evaluated twice (before and after the detraining period). Subsequently, 2 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA was used to investigate group and time differences in repeated measurements. A significance level of p < 0.05 was implemented. CV and SWC values were calculated to test the reliability of the tests performed at different times. Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS statistics software (v.25, IBM, New York, NY, USA). Significant increments in BF%, 30 m sprint, and COD (left and right), and also significant decrements in CMJ and YYIRTL-1, were found after the detraining period. A long-term detraining period due to the stay at home orders has a detrimental effect on body composition, neuromuscular performances, and aerobic capacity in youth soccer players.


Subject(s)
Athletic Performance , COVID-19 , Soccer , Adolescent , Body Composition , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596973

ABSTRACT

Research on personality in sport is very popular as it allows prediction of the behavior of players in the starting situation. Hence, verifications of players due to their sports level may turn out to be crucial. Due to the dynamic development of American football in Poland, we undertook research to verify the relationship between the sports level and the personality of these players. The Big Five personality study that we carried out involved players aged from 20 to 29-the representatives of American football clubs in Poland (N = 140) from three league games levels: LFA 1 (n = 75), LFA 2 (n = 40), and LFA 9 (n = 25). The NEO-FFI personality questionnaire was used as a research tool. The players from the top-level games were characterized by their openness to experience, the level of which decreases along with the decrease in the players' sports levels. The differences in openness to experience were revealed, first of all, in divergent thinking and creativity. It was ascertained that openness to experience is a characteristic personality trait for American football players in Poland. Therefore, systematic conduct of personality tests among American football players in Poland, in the process of selecting candidates for the highest levels of football competition, would be recommended. This might significantly affect the development of the sports level of this discipline in Poland. The obtained results of research on personality may, moreover, prove to be useful in selecting players and improving the predictions of important sports behaviors in American football in Poland.


Subject(s)
Football , Soccer , Humans , Personality , Personality Disorders , Poland
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580767

ABSTRACT

The present study examined the effects of the lockdown period on basic anthropometric measures, countermovement jumping performance, skeletal muscle contractile properties derived from tensiomyography (TMG), injury incidence, and self-assessed general well-being in elite soccer players. A total of 266 players were assessed before (PRE) and 32 players were reassessed 11 days after (POST) the COVID-19 period. Significant changes in the TMG parameters were observed POST compared to PRE: contraction time (Tc) increased from 6% to 50% in vastus lateralis [VL] (p = 0.009) and biceps femoris [BF] (p < 0.001), respectively; whereas radial displacement (Dm) increased for 19% in BF (p = 0.036) and 17% in VL (p < 0.001), respectively. Jumping performance remained unchanged from PRE to POST In addition, athletes rated the lockdown period as a positive event and felt psychologically better during the lockdown, primarily because they spent more time with family members and friends. Although there were no differences in any of the variables describing lower limb muscle power following the two-month lockdown, the altered contractile properties of the assessed muscles suggest suboptimal conditioning of the football players.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Explosive Agents , Soccer , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Lower Extremity , Muscle Strength , Muscle, Skeletal , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(1)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580505

ABSTRACT

This study proposes the instrumental analysis of the physiological and biomechanical adaptation of football players to a fatigue protocol during the month immediately after the COVID-19 lockdown, to get insights into fitness recovery. Eight male semi-professional football players took part in the study and filled a questionnaire about their activity during the lockdown. At the resumption of activities, the mean heart rate and covered distances during fatiguing exercises, the normalized variations of mean and maximum exerted power in the Wingate test and the Bosco test outcomes (i.e., maximum height, mean exerted power, relative strength index, leg stiffness, contact time, and flight time) were measured for one month. Questionnaires confirmed a light-intensity self-administered physical activity. A significant effect of fatigue (Wilcoxon signed-rank test p < 0.05) on measured variables was confirmed for the four weeks. The analysis of the normalized variations of the aforementioned parameters allowed the distinguishing of two behaviors: downfall in the first two weeks, and recovery in the last two weeks. Instrumental results suggest a physiological and ballistic (i.e., Bosco test outcomes) recovery after four weeks. As concerns the explosive skills, the observational data are insufficient to show complete recovery.


Subject(s)
Athletic Performance , COVID-19 , Football , Soccer , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24416, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585784

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID -19 pandemic, many contact sport teams are facing major challenges to safely continue training and competition. We present the design and implementation of a structured monitoring concept for the Austrian national football league. 146 professional players from five clubs of the professional Austrian football league were monitored for a period of 12 weeks. Subjective health parameters, PCR- test results and data obtained from a geo-tracking app were collected. Simulations modelling the consequences of a COVID-19 case with increasing reproduction number were computed. No COVID -19 infection occurred during the observation period in the players. Infections in the nearer surroundings lead to increased perceived risk of infection. Geo tracking was particularly hindered due to technical problems and reluctance of users. Simulation models suggested a hypothetical shut-down of all training and competition activities. A structured monitoring concept can help to continue contact sports safely in times of a pandemic. Cooperation of all involved is essential. Trial registration: ID: DRKS00022166 15/6/2020 https://www.who.int/ictrp/search/en/ .


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Computer Simulation , Algorithms , Austria , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Soccer
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534048

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze anthropometric and body composition effects in professional soccer women players across the early and mid-competitive 2019/20 season. Seventeen players (age, height, body mass, and body mass index of 22.7 ± 6.3 years, 167.5 ± 5.6 cm, 60.7 ± 6.6 kg and 21.6 ± 0.2 kg/m2) from a Portuguese BPI League team participated in this study. The participants completed ≥80% of 57 training sessions and 13 matches. They were assessed at three points (before the start of the season (A1), after two months (A2), and after four months (A3)) using the following variables: body fat mass (BFM), soft lean mass (SLM), fat-free mass (FFM), intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW), and phase angle (PhA, 50 Khz), through InBody S10. Nutritional intake was determined through a questionnaire. Repeated measures ANCOVA and effect sizes (ES) were used with p < 0.05. The main results occurred between A1 and A2 for BFM (-21.7%, ES = 1.58), SLM (3.7%, ES = 1.24), FFM (4%, ES = 1.34), ICW (4.2%, ES = 1.41), TBW (3.7%, ES = 1.04). Furthermore, there were significant results between A1 and A3 for FFM (4.8%, ES = 1.51), ICW (5%, ES = 1.68), and PhA (10.4%, ES = 6.64). The results showed that the water parameters improved over time, which led to healthy hydration statuses. The training load structure provided sufficient stimulus for appropriate physical fitness development, without causing negative disturbances in the water compartments.


Subject(s)
Soccer , Adolescent , Adult , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Body Water , Female , Humans , Seasons , Young Adult
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524013

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic interrupted professional football in the 2019/2020 season, and football experts anticipate that the consequences of lockdown measures will negatively affect the physical performance of players once competition restarts. This study aimed to evaluate position-specific match running performance (MRP) to determine the effect of COVID-19 lockdowns on the physical performance of professional football players. Players' MRPs (n = 124) were observed in matches before and after the COVID-19 lockdown in the 2019/2020 season of the highest level of national competition in Croatia and were classified according to player position: central defenders (CD; n = 42), fullbacks (FB; n = 20), midfielders (MF; n = 46), and forwards (FW; n = 16). The MRPs were measured using Global Positioning System, and included the total distance covered, low-intensity running (≤14.3 km/h), running (14.4-19.7 km/h), high-intensity running (≥19.8 km/h), total accelerations (>0.5 m/s2), high-intensity accelerations (>3 m/s2), total decelerations (less than -0.5 m/s2), and high-intensity decelerations (less than -3 m/s2). The results indicated that, in matches after the COVID-19 lockdown, (i) CDs and FBs featured lower running and high-intensity running (t-value: from 2.05 to 3.51; all p < 0.05; moderate to large effect sizes), (ii) MFs covered a greater distance in low-intensity running and achieved a lower number of total accelerations, and total and high-intensity decelerations (t-value: from -3.54 to 2.46; all p < 0.05, moderate to large effect sizes), and (iii) FWs featured lower high-intensity running (t-value = 2.66, p = 0.02, large effect size). These findings demonstrate that the physical performances of football players from the Croatian first division significantly decreased in matches after the COVID-19 lockdown. A combination of inadequate adaptation to football-specific match demands and a crowded schedule after the competition was restarted most likely resulted in such an effect.


Subject(s)
Athletic Performance , COVID-19 , Football , Running , Soccer , Communicable Disease Control , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Sports Med ; 51(12): 2647-2654, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Management of concussion remains a serious issue for professional sports, particularly with the growing knowledge on the consequences of repetitive concussion. One primary concern is the subjective assessment of recovery that dictates the time until a concussed athlete is returned-to-competition. In response to this concern, the Australian Football League (AFL) changed its policy in 2020 such that medical clearance for return-to-competition was extended from 1 day, to a minimum of 5 days, prior to the next scheduled match. OBJECTIVE: We sought to explore the impact of the AFL policy change by asking whether time to return-to-competition after concussion was increased in the 2020 season relative to previous years. METHODS: Retrospective data on injury and return-to-competition were sourced from publicly available tables published by the AFL. Our primary exploration compared the number of matches missed and the number of days missed in concussed players across 2017-2020 inclusive, with secondary exploration analysing the proportion of players returning to play 12 days or longer. RESULTS: Analysis of data from 166 concussed players revealed no increase in the number of matches missed in 2020 relative to previous years as would have been expected from an extended recovery protocol. Comparing 2020 relative to 2017-2019, we found that there was an overall moderate reduction in median time to return-to-competition (RTC) in 2020 (10 vs 13 days, respectively d = - 0.345) and a significant reduction in players taking more than 12 days to RTC (p = 0.046). CONCLUSION: This exploratory study demonstrates that clubs may not have followed policy change around concussion management designed to increase time to RTC. Ongoing auditing is required to ensure player clearance meets policy goals, highlighting the need for objective measures for RTC after concussion.


Subject(s)
Athletic Injuries , Brain Concussion , Football , Soccer , Australia , Brain Concussion/therapy , Football/injuries , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Soccer/injuries
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512313

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in sport has been the subject of numerous studies over the past two years. However, knowledge about the direct impact of COVID-19 infection on the performance of athletes is limited, and the importance of studies on this topic is crucial during the current pandemic era. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in the match running performance (MRP) of professional soccer players that occurred as a result of COVID-19 infection after fulfilling all of the prerequisites for a safe return to play (RTP). The participants were 47 professional soccer players from a team which competed in first Croatian division (21.6 years old on average) during the 2020/21 season. The total sample was divided into two subgroups based on the results of a PCR test for COVID-19, where 31 players tested positive (infected) and 16 tested negative. We observed the PCR test results (positive vs. negative PCR), the number of days needed to return to the team, number of days needed to RTP after quarantine and isolation, and MRP (10 variables measured by a global positioning system). The number of days where the infected players were not included in the team ranged from 7 to 51 (Median: 12). Significant pre- to post-COVID differences in MRP for infected players were only found for high-intensity accelerations and high-intensity decelerations (t-test = 2.11 and 2.13, respectively; p < 0.05, moderate effect size differences), with poorer performance in the post-COVID period. Since a decrease of the MRP as a result of COVID-19 infection was only noted in two variables, we can highlight appropriateness of the applied RTP. However, further adaptations and improvements of the RTP are needed with regard to high-intensity activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Soccer , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Return to Sport , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
J Sport Rehabil ; 30(8): 1224-1229, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506162

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The high rates of adductor injuries and reinjuries in soccer have suggested that the current rehabilitation programs may be insufficient; therefore, there is a need to create prevention and reconditioning programs to prepare athletes for the specific demands of the sport. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to validate a rehab and reconditioning program (RRP) for adductor injuries through a panel of experts and determine the effectiveness of this program through its application in professional soccer. DESIGN: A 20-item RRP was developed, which was validated by a panel of experts anonymously and then applied to 12 injured male professional soccer players. SETTING: Soccer pitch and indoor gym. PARTICIPANTS: Eight rehabilitation fitness coaches (age = 33.25 [2.49] y) and 8 academic researchers (age = 38.50 [3.74] y) with PhDs in sports science and/or physiotherapy. The RRP was applied to 12 male professional players (age = 23.75 [4.97] y; height = 180.56 [8.41] cm; mass = 76.89 [3.43] kg) of the Spanish First and Second Division (La Liga). INTERVENTIONS: The experts validated an indoor and on-field reconditioning program, which was based on strengthening the injured muscle and retraining conditional capacities with the aim of reducing the risk of reinjury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Aiken V for each item of the program and number of days taken by the players to return to full team training. RESULTS: The experts evaluated all items of the program very highly as seen from Aiken V values between 0.77 and 0.94 (range: 0.61-0.98) for all drills, and the return to training was in 13.08 (±1.42) days. CONCLUSION: This RRP following an injury to the adductor longus was validated by injury experts, and initial results suggested that it could permit a faster return to team training.


Subject(s)
Athletic Injuries , Soccer , Sprains and Strains , Adult , Athletic Injuries/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Young Adult
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21558, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500508

ABSTRACT

The fans' importance in sports is acknowledged by the term 'the 12th man', a figurative extra player for the home team. Sport teams are indeed more successful when they play in front of their fans than when they play away. The supposed mechanism behind this phenomenon, termed Home Advantage (HA), is that fans' support spurs home players to better performance and biases referees, which in turn determines the outcome. The inference about the importance of fans' support is, however, indirect as there is normally a 12th man of this kind, even if it is an opponent's. The current pandemic, which forced sporting activities to take place behind closed doors, provides the necessary control condition. Here we employ a novel conceptual HA model on a sample of over 4000 soccer matches from 12 European leagues, some played in front of spectators and some in empty stadia, to demonstrate that fans are indeed responsible for the HA. However, the absence of fans reduces the HA by a third, as the home team's performance suffers and the officials' bias disappears. The current pandemic reveals that the figurative 12th man is no mere fan hyperbole, but is in fact the most important player in the home team.


Subject(s)
Athletes , Athletic Performance , COVID-19/epidemiology , Competitive Behavior , Soccer , Social Environment , Sports , Bayes Theorem , Decision Making , Europe , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prejudice , Social Behavior
18.
Br J Sports Med ; 56(3): 158-164, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476416

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of transmission among potentially infectious SARS-CoV-2-positive football players while participating in training or matches at amateur, youth and professional levels. METHODS: Between August 2020 and March 2021, football players who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and participated in matches or training during the period of potential contagiousness were identified through media search (professional level) and a nationwide registry in Germany (amateur and youth level) to determine symptoms, source of infection and hygiene measures adopted. The definition of potentially infectious players was based on the time of a positive PCR testing and symptom onset. Transmission-relevant contacts on the pitch were evaluated through doubly reviewed video analysis. RESULTS: Out of 1247 identified football matches and training sessions (1071 amateur and youth level, 176 professional level), 104 cases (38 training sessions, 66 matches) with 165 potentially infectious players were detected. Follow-up PCR testing at the professional level (44 cases) revealed no transmission. At the amateur and youth level, the combination of partial PCR testing (31 of 60 cases) and symptom monitoring within 14 days post-exposure (46 of 60 cases) identified 2 of 60 matches in which follow-up infections occurred that were attributed to non-football activities. This is consistent with the video analysis of 21 matches demonstrating frontal contacts were <1 per player-hour (88%, 30 of 34 players), each lasting no longer than 3 s. CONCLUSION: On-field transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 in football is very low. Sources of infections in football players are most likely not related to activities on the pitch.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Football , Soccer , Adolescent , Athletes , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Sci Med Footb ; 5(sup1): 44-52, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470088

ABSTRACT

AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic forced the 2019-20 Italian Serie A competition to stop and players went into lockdown. During lockdown, players only trained at home, likely having a detrimental effect on players' physical fitness and capacity. This study investigated the effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on professional soccer players' match physical activities. METHODS: Match activities of 265 male professional soccer players were assessed in two periods prior to (PRE1 and PRE2) and one period following the lockdown (POST) using a video tracking system. Linear mixed models were used to examine differences between-periods in total (TD), very high-speed (VHS), sprint (SPR), high-acceleration (ACC) and high-deceleration (DEC) distances, considering full match data and data from six 15-min intervals. RESULTS: TD and VHS during POST were lower than the two other competitive periods (p < 0.001, d small-moderate). SPR did not show differences between periods (p > 0.636). ACC and DEC during POST were lower than PRE2 (p < 0.015, d small). Declines in most 15-min intervals after lockdown were observed in TD and VHS. CONCLUSIONS: There were small differences in the temporal distribution of SPR, ACC and DEC at POST. After the COVID-19 lockdown, soccer players' higher-intensity running activities were similar to those of games played before the lockdown, but TD and VHS decreased, both considering the entire match and 15-min intervals. The temporal distribution of running activities was mostly stable throughout the season.


Subject(s)
Athletic Performance , COVID-19 , Soccer , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463629

ABSTRACT

Potential risks for public health incidents, outbreaks, and casualties are inferred at association football events, especially if event organizers have not taken appropriate preventative measures. This review explores the potential risks imposed by mass gathering (MG) football events, with particular emphasis on tools and methodologies to manage the risks of football MG events. Effective planning and implementation of MGs along with the mitigation of risks related to people's health require special attention to all potential threats, especially in frequent and recurring MG events such as football leagues. The well-being of all participants can be compromised by ignoring a single risk. Healthcare systems should cooperate with all stakeholders and organizations who are involved in MG management and response. Provision of services during MG or a disaster must be performed by trained personnel or entities that have full access to available resources in accessible publicly known locations at the MG event site. Several MG assessment tools were developed worldwide; however, to adapt to the Saudi context, SALEM tool was developed to provide a guide for MG planning and assessment. SALEM assesses the risks of MG events with scores that help to categorize the risk of MG events by offering recommendations for required resources.


Subject(s)
Football , Soccer , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Public Health
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