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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266050, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765541

ABSTRACT

Uncertainty has been shown to reduce the willingness to cooperate in various social dilemmas and negatively affect prosocial behavior. However, some studies showed that uncertainty does not always decrease prosocial behavior, depending on the type of uncertainty. More specifically, recent research has shown that prosocial behavior tends to increase under impact uncertainty-uncertainty about the consequences for others if they become infected. In addition, researchers have argued that intuition favors prosocial behavior while deliberation leads to selfish behavior. Our study explored how intuitive (time pressure) or deliberate mental processing, under outcome, or impact uncertainty affect prosocial behavior in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our sample consists of 496 participants, and we used a 4 (COVID-19 scenario: Control vs. Impact Uncertainty vs. Worst-Case vs. Indirect Transmission) by 2 (decision time: time delay vs. time pressure) between-subjects design. Results suggest that participants are more inclined to stay at home (prosocial intention) when forced to make their decisions intuitively rather than deliberately. Additionally, we found that uncertainty does not always decrease prosocial behavior. It seems that uncertainty does not affect the prosocial intention in a scenario with a real infectious disease. These findings suggest that the distinction between outcome and impact uncertainty may be due to the realism of experimental stimuli interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Altruism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Intuition , Pandemics , Social Behavior , Uncertainty
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22027, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758313

ABSTRACT

Rising temperature levels during spring and summer are often argued to enable lifting of strict containment measures even in the absence of herd immunity. Despite broad scholarly interest in the relationship between weather and coronavirus spread, previous studies come to very mixed results. To contribute to this puzzle, the paper examines the impact of weather on the COVID-19 pandemic using a unique granular dataset of over 1.2 million daily observations covering over 3700 counties in nine countries for all seasons of 2020. Our results show that temperature and wind speed have a robust negative effect on virus spread after controlling for a range of potential confounding factors. These effects, however, are substantially larger during mealtimes, as well as in periods of high mobility and low containment, suggesting an important role for social behaviour.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Humidity , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons , Social Behavior , Temperature , Weather , Wind
3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264940, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736513

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The significant adverse social and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has cast broader light on the importance of addressing social determinants of health (SDOH). Medicaid Managed Care Organizations (MMCOs) have increasingly taken on a leadership role in integrating medical and social services for Medicaid members. However, the experiences of MMCOs in addressing member social needs during the pandemic has not yet been examined. AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe MMCOs' experiences with addressing the social needs of Medicaid members during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study was a qualitative study using data from 28 semi-structured interviews with representatives from 14 MMCOs, including state-specific markets of eight national and regional managed care organizations. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four themes emerged: the impact of the pandemic, SDOH response efforts, an expanding definition of SDOH, and managed care beyond COVID-19. Specifically, participants discussed the impact of the pandemic on enrollees, communities, and healthcare delivery, and detailed their evolving efforts to address member nonmedical needs during the pandemic. They reported an increased demand for social services coupled with a significant retraction of community social service resources. To address these emerging social service gaps, participants described mounting a prompt and adaptable response that was facilitated by strong existing relationships with community partners. CONCLUSION: Among MMCOs, the COVID-19 pandemic has emphasized the importance of addressing member social needs, and the need for broader consideration of what constitutes SDOH from a healthcare delivery standpoint.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Medicaid/trends , Social Determinants of Health/trends , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Managed Care Programs/statistics & numerical data , Managed Care Programs/trends , Medicaid/economics , Medicaid/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Behavior , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Work , Stakeholder Participation , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3483, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730311

ABSTRACT

Human social behavior plays a crucial role in how pathogens like SARS-CoV-2 or fake news spread in a population. Social interactions determine the contact network among individuals, while spreading, requiring individual-to-individual transmission, takes place on top of the network. Studying the topological aspects of a contact network, therefore, not only has the potential of leading to valuable insights into how the behavior of individuals impacts spreading phenomena, but it may also open up possibilities for devising effective behavioral interventions. Because of the temporal nature of interactions-since the topology of the network, containing who is in contact with whom, when, for how long, and in which precise sequence, varies (rapidly) in time-analyzing them requires developing network methods and metrics that respect temporal variability, in contrast to those developed for static (i.e., time-invariant) networks. Here, by means of event mapping, we propose a method to quantify how quickly agents mingle by transforming temporal network data of agent contacts. We define a novel measure called contact sequence centrality, which quantifies the impact of an individual on the contact sequences, reflecting the individual's behavioral potential for spreading. Comparing contact sequence centrality across agents allows for ranking the impact of agents and identifying potential 'behavioral super-spreaders'. The method is applied to social interaction data collected at an art fair in Amsterdam. We relate the measure to the existing network metrics, both temporal and static, and find that (mostly at longer time scales) traditional metrics lose their resemblance to contact sequence centrality. Our work highlights the importance of accounting for the sequential nature of contacts when analyzing social interactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/methods , Social Behavior , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Stress ; 25(1): 134-144, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1728770

ABSTRACT

The importance of social interactions has been reported in a variety of animal species. In human and rodent models, social isolation is known to alter social behaviors and change anxiety or depression levels. During the coronavirus pandemic, although people could communicate with each other through other sensory cues, social touch was mostly prohibited under different levels of physical distancing policies. These social restrictions inspired us to explore the necessity of physical contact, which has rarely been investigated in previous studies on mouse social interactions. We first conducted a long-term observation to show that pair-housed mice in a standard laboratory cage spent nearly half the day in direct physical contact with each other. Furthermore, we designed a split-housing condition to demonstrate that even with free access to visual, auditory, and olfactory social signals, the lack of social touch significantly increased anxiety-like behaviors and changed social behaviors. There were correspondingly higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in the hippocampus in mice with no access to physical contact. Our study demonstrated the necessity of social touch for the maintenance of mental health in mice and could have important implications for human social interactions.


Subject(s)
Housing, Animal , Touch , Animals , Anxiety/psychology , Behavior, Animal , Male , Mice , Social Behavior , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological
7.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264444, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724851

ABSTRACT

Do organizational leaders' tweets influence their employees' anxiety? And if so, have employees become more susceptible to their leader's social media communications during the COVID-19 pandemic? Based on emotional contagion and using machine learning algorithms to track anxiety and personality traits of 197 leaders and 958 followers across 79 organizations over 316 days, we find that during the pandemic leaders' tweets do influence follower state anxiety. In addition, followers of trait anxious leaders seem somewhat protected by sudden spikes in leader state anxiety, while followers of less trait anxious leaders are most affected by increased leader state anxiety. Multi-day lagged regressions showcase that this effect is stronger post-onset of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic crisis context.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Leadership , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Behavior , Social Media , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Social Interaction
8.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 4-5, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719331

ABSTRACT

The worldwide outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) raises concerns of widespread panic and anxiety in individuals subjected to the real or perceived threat of the virus. Compared to general populations, patients who are institutionalized in a closed unit are also very vulnerable to COVID-19 infection and complications. This crisis touched on difficult issues of not only psychiatric care and ethics, but also psychological impacts to psychiatric care givers. In this Viewpoint, we address both physical and biopsychosocial aspects of this infection, as well as the psychoneuroimmunity of preventive strategies of healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, balanced nutrition, quality sleep and a strong connection with people. Social distancing and wearing masks might help us from pathogen exposure, yet such these measures also prevent us from expressing compassion and friendliness. Therefore, all forms of psychological support should be routinely implemented not only to consider psychological resilience but also to enhance psychoneuroimmunity against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychoneuroimmunology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet, Healthy , Exercise , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Masks , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Resilience, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Social Behavior , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
9.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263537, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Using test, trace and isolate systems can help reduce the spread of COVID-19. Parents have the additional responsibility of using these systems for themselves and acting on behalf of their children to help control COVID-19. We explored factors associated with the use of England's NHS Test and Trace service among parents of school-aged children. METHODS: One-to-one telephone interviews with parents (n = 18) of school-aged (4 to 18 years) children living in England between 30 November to 11 December 2020. Data were explored using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three themes and eight sub-themes emerged. In terms of recognising symptoms of COVID-19, parents needed prompting before recalling the main symptoms described by the NHS. Parents suggested several factors relating to the nature of the symptom(s) and contextual information that might lead to or prevent them from seeking a test. Although parents supported symptomatic testing and described trusting official sources of information (e.g., Government and NHS websites). However, some concerns were raised regarding the accuracy of test results, safety at testing centres and logistics of testing but none of the concerns appeared to prevent engagement with testing. Parents perceived adherence to testing and self-isolation as pro-social behaviour, although family resources and circumstances impacted their ability to adhere fully. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified several barriers to parents using NHS Test and Trace as needed. Information about the eligibility of testing (main symptoms of COVID-19 and the age of eligibility) needs to be more precise and resources provided to enable families to adhere to self-isolation if the efficiency of test, trace and isolate systems is to be optimised.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Parents/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , England , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Behavior , Young Adult
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1932, 2022 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671619

ABSTRACT

College students commonly experience psychological distress when faced with intensified academic demands and changes in the social environment. Examining the nature and dynamics of students' affective and behavioral experiences can help us better characterize the correlates of psychological distress. Here, we leveraged wearables and smartphones to study 49 first-year college students continuously throughout the academic year. Affect and sleep, academic, and social behavior showed substantial changes from school semesters to school breaks and from weekdays to weekends. Three student clusters were identified with behavioral and affective dissociations and varying levels of distress throughout the year. While academics were a common stressor for all, the cluster with highest distress stood out by frequent report of social stress. Moreover, the frequency of reporting social, but not academic, stress predicted subsequent clinical symptoms. Two years later, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the first-year cluster with highest distress again stood out by frequent social stress and elevated clinical symptoms. Focus on sustained interpersonal stress, relative to academic stress, might be especially helpful to identify students at heightened risk for psychopathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Sleep , Social Behavior , Stress, Psychological , Students/psychology , Academic Performance , Actigraphy , Adolescent , Affect , Cluster Analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1603, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661978

ABSTRACT

In a world being hit by waves of COVID-19, vaccination is a light on the horizon. However, the roll-out of vaccination strategies and their influence on the pandemic are still open questions. In order to compare the effect of various strategies proposed by the World Health Organization and other authorities, a previously developed SEIRS stochastic model of geographical spreading of the virus is extended by adding a compartment for vaccinated people. The parameters of the model were fitted to describe the pandemic evolution in Argentina, Mexico and Spain to analyze the effect of the proposed vaccination strategies. The mobility parameters allow to simulate different social behaviors (e.g. lock-down interventions). Schemes in which vaccines are applied homogeneously in all the country, or limited to the most densely-populated areas, are simulated and compared. The second strategy is found to be more effective. Moreover, under the current global shortage of vaccines, it should be remarked that immunization is enhanced when mobility is reduced. Additionally, repetition of vaccination campaigns should be timed considering the immunity lapse of the vaccinated (and recovered) people. Finally, the model is extended to include the effect of isolation of detected positive cases, shown to be important to reduce infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility , Immunization Programs/methods , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mexico , Social Behavior , Spain , Stochastic Processes , Travel
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 814, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648835

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led children to experience school closures. Although increasing evidence suggests that such intense social quarantine influences children's social relationships with others, longitudinal studies are limited. Using longitudinal data collected during (T1) and after (T2) intensive school closure and home confinement, this study investigated the impacts of social quarantine on children's social relationships. Japanese parents of children aged 0-9 years (n = 425) completed an online questionnaire that examined children's socio-emotional behavior and perceived proximity to parents or others. The results demonstrated that social quarantine was not significantly related to children's socio-emotional behavior across all age groups. However, changes in children's perceived proximity varied depending on certain age-related factors: elementary schoolers' perceived closeness to parents significantly decreased after the reopening of schools, whereas that to others, such as peers, increased. Such effects were not observed in infants and preschoolers. The follow-up survey 9-month after the reopening of schools (T3; n = 130) did not detect significant differences in both children's socio-emotional behavior and perceived proximity from that after the intense quarantine. These findings suggest that school closure and home confinement may have influenced children's social development differently across their age, and its effects were larger in perceived closeness rather than social behavior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Social Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male
13.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(2): 217-228, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641965

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically restricted adolescents' lives. We used nationwide Norwegian survey data from 2014-2021 (N = 227,258; ages 13-18) to examine psychosocial outcomes in adolescents before and during the pandemic. Multilevel models revealed higher depressive symptoms and less optimistic future life expectations during the pandemic, even when accounting for the measures' time trends. Moreover, alcohol and cannabis use decreased, and screen time increased. However, the effect sizes of all observed changes during the pandemic were small. Overall, conduct problems and satisfaction with social relationships remained stable. Girls, younger adolescents and adolescents from low socio-economic backgrounds showed more adverse changes during the pandemic. Estimated changes in psychosocial outcomes varied little with municipality infection rates and restrictions. These findings can inform means and interventions to reduce negative psychological outcomes associated with the pandemic and identify groups that need particular attention during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Mental Health , Psychology , Screen Time , Social Behavior , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Needs Assessment , Norway/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261321, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639116

ABSTRACT

By September 2020, COVID-19 had claimed the lives of almost 1 million people worldwide, including more than 400,000 in the U.S. and Europe [1] To slow the spread of the virus, health officials advised social distancing, regular handwashing, and wearing a face covering [2]. We hypothesized that public adherence to the health guidance would be influenced by prevailing social norms, and the prevalence of these behaviors among others. We focused on mask-wearing behavior during fall 2020, and coded livestream public webcam footage of 1,200 individuals across seven cities. Results showed that only 50% of participants were correctly wearing a mask in public, and that this percentage varied as a function of the mask-wearing behavior of close and distant others in the immediate physical vicinity. How social normative information might be used to increase mask-wearing behavior is discussed. "Cloth face coverings are one of the most powerful weapons we have to slow and stop the spread of the virus-particularly when used universally within a community setting" CDC Director Dr. Robert Redfield in July 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Social Behavior , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
15.
Gesundheitswesen ; 84(1): 16-18, 2022 01.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639057
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636015

ABSTRACT

This study focuses on caregivers who work in residential facilities (RFs) for the elderly, and specifically on their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) in relation to their interaction respectively with the overall context (workplace attachment dimension), the spatial-physical environment (perceived environmental comfort), and the social environment (relationship with patients). A sample of health care workers (medical or health care specialists, nurses, and office employees, n = 129) compiled a self-report paper-pencil questionnaire, which included scales measuring the study variables. The research hypotheses included secure workplace attachment style as independent variable, OCBs as the dependent variable, and perceived comfort and relations with patients as moderators. Results showed that both secure workplace attachment and perceived comfort promote OCBs, but the latter counts especially as a compensation of an insecure workplace attachment. As expected, difficult relationships with patients hinder the relationship between secure workplace attachment style and OCBs. In sum, our study highlights the importance of the joint consideration of the psychological, social, and environmental dimensions for fostering positive behaviors in caregivers employed in elderly care settings.


Subject(s)
Workplace , Aged , Humans , Organizational Culture , Social Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace/psychology
17.
Hepatol Commun ; 6(5): 1045-1055, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605813

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted health-related behaviors that influence fatty liver disease (FLD) management. We evaluated the impact of the pandemic on FLD management and satisfaction with care delivery in this population. In the San Francisco safety-net hepatology clinics, we evaluated health-related behaviors and factors associated with self-reported weight gain during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as satisfaction with telemedicine in adults with FLD by using multivariable modeling. From June 1, 2020, to May 5, 2021, 111 participants were enrolled. Median age was 52 years, 30% were men, 63% were Hispanic, 21% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 9% were White. Eating habits were unchanged or healthier for 80%, physical activity decreased in 51%, 34% reported weight gain, and 5% reported increased alcohol intake. Forty-five percent had severe depressive symptoms, 38% in those without diagnosed depression and 60% of individuals with heavy alcohol use. On multivariable analysis, decreased physical activity (odds ratio [OR], 4.8) and heavy alcohol use (OR, 3.4) were associated with weight gain (all P < 0.05). Among those with telemedicine visits (n = 66), 62% reported being very satisfied. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with a 0.8-unit decrease in the telemedicine satisfaction score (P = 0.048) when adjusting for sex, age, and pandemic duration. Conclusion: During the pandemic, decreased physical activity and heavy alcohol use were most influential on self-reported weight gain in FLD. Maintenance of healthy eating and increased physical activity, alcohol cessation counseling, and mental health services are critical in preventing poor FLD-associated outcomes during the pandemic recovery. Dissatisfaction with telemedicine should be explored further to ensure equitable care, especially among the vulnerable Hispanic population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatty Liver , Telemedicine , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fatty Liver/epidemiology , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Behavior , Vulnerable Populations , Weight Gain
18.
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24452, 2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585771

ABSTRACT

Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs), aimed at reducing the diffusion of the COVID-19 pandemic, have dramatically influenced our everyday behaviour. In this work, we study how individuals adapted their daily movements and person-to-person contact patterns over time in response to the NPIs. We leverage longitudinal GPS mobility data of hundreds of thousands of anonymous individuals to empirically show and quantify the dramatic disruption in people's mobility habits and social behaviour. We find that local interventions did not just impact the number of visits to different venues but also how people experience them. Individuals spend less time in venues, preferring simpler and more predictable routines, also reducing person-to-person contacts. Moreover, we find that the individual patterns of visits are influenced by the strength of the NPIs policies, the local severity of the pandemic and a risk adaptation factor, which increases the people's mobility regardless of the stringency of interventions. Finally, despite the gradual recovery in visit patterns, we find that individuals continue to keep person-to-person contacts low. This apparent conflict hints that the evolution of policy adherence should be carefully addressed by policymakers, epidemiologists and mobility experts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Social Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Health Behavior , Humans , Movement , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
Trop Med Int Health ; 27(2): 165-173, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583250

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To understand COVID-19 worries and how they influence COVID-19 mitigation behaviours, especially in communities prior to case surges, in Nepal. METHODS: Data related to COVID-19 impacts on life disruptions were collected from households in the Chitwan Valley Family Study, a 25-year community panel study, during February-April 2021. COVID-19 worry was measured by the extent of respondent concern for themselves or household members getting COVID-19 in the prior 2 weeks. 11 items examined COVID-19 mitigation behaviours. Logistic regression models assessed associations between socio-demographic characteristics and COVID-19 worry and then the influence of worry on any mitigation behaviour and behaviour type adjusting for age, education, sex, ethnicity and COVID-19 exposure, accounting for neighbourhood clustering. RESULTS: Of 2,678 households with a responding adult, ages 18-88, 394 (14.7%) reported moderate-to-extreme COVID-19 worry and 1,214 (45.3%) engaged in three or more mitigation behaviours. Prevalence of mitigation behaviours was higher among those with COVID-19 worry (e.g. avoided crowds: 62.7% versus 40.5% in those with minimal worry). Respondents self-reporting COVID-19 had higher odds of worry (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13, 6.57). Odds of any mitigation behaviour were higher among those with COVID-19 worry compared to those with minimal worry (aOR: 6.19, 95% CI = 1.88, 20.35). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 mitigation behaviours were more common in people with COVID-19 worry. To address current and potential future waves of the pandemic, public health efforts should include informational campaigns about mitigation behaviours particularly for those unconcerned with COVID-19 risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Social Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Nepal/epidemiology , Prevalence , Young Adult
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