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1.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10 Suppl 1: S9, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social capital, which describes the social ties enjoyed by groups and networks with common interests, is one of the most useful resources in society. These networks could be both formal and informal, with positive effects seen at both individual and community levels-especially during crisis management. In building urban resilience and to ensure access to support and services, social capital has been fundamental throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to explore different forms of social capital networks in the informal urban settlements (known as slums) of Dhaka, Bangladesh, and how these networks were helpful during the pandemic. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in three urban slums (Kallyanpur pora bosti, Dholpur, and Shyampur) in Dhaka city). In-depth phone interviews with residents (aged ≥18 years) of the slums were carried out by the research team, using a semi-structured questionnaire of 13 open-ended questions. Additional probing was done as necessary, depending on the clarity and specificity of the information provided by respondents. We used a snowballing sampling technique and verbal, informed consent was obtained before interviews. Thematic analysis was done. Ethical clearance was acquired from the institutional review board of BRAC James P Grant School of Public Health (2019-034-IR). FINDINGS: Between Oct 21, 2020, and Jan 12, 2021, 30 phone interviews were conducted with 22 women and 8 men. Thematic analysis showed that the most marginalised individuals in urban slums are highly dependent upon their social structures, in whom bonding social capital through informal networks is most evident. These networks are based on the trust and reliance built among people whilst living together in close proximity for a long time. Immediate family members and relatives were described as the primary point of contact for any support during emergencies. Respondents who had bridged social capital networks, and were now affiliated with different local community groups, had greater access to relief (such as food, face masks, and soap) and financial support than those who did not form social networks beyond the slums. Informal networks with landlords, local shopkeepers, pharmacies, and neighbours played a crucial role during the COVID-19 pandemic, by providing food or cash support or lending goods in credit. INTERPRETATION: Strengthening different forms of social capital is vital in building urban resilience and our findings highlight the importance of prevailing social capital networks and their roles during the COVID-19 pandemic. FUNDING: GCRF UKRI funded ARISE Consortium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Capital , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Health Place ; 74: 102772, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701406

ABSTRACT

During a pandemic, it is important to know whether social capital can mitigate the risk of mental disorders, given the restrictions on social interactions. However, evidence using longitudinal data is scarce. This study examined the association between pre-pandemic social capital and depressive symptoms during COVID-19 among older adults. We used longitudinal data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), including 8291 participants aged 65 or older who were physically and cognitively independent and not depressed at baseline. We conducted baseline and follow-up mail surveys in ten municipalities in Japan from November 2019 to January 2020 (pre-pandemic period) and from November 2020 to February 2021 (pandemic period), respectively. We measured depressive symptoms using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Social capital was measured with three validated subscales, namely, civic participation, social cohesion, and reciprocity. We performed a multilevel logistic regression analysis to examine the association. A total of 1089 (13.1%) participants newly developed depressive symptoms during the pandemic. The logistic regression showed that pre-pandemic individual-level social cohesion (odds ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 0.86) and reciprocity (0.89, 0.82 to 0.96) and community-level reciprocity (0.93, 0.88 to 0.98) were negatively associated with the odds of depressive symptoms. Even after adjusting for declines in social capital during the pandemic, the observed associations of pre-pandemic social capital remained. Fostering social cohesion and reciprocity may increase resilience to mental disorders during a pandemic of infectious disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Capital , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Social Participation
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690235

ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify the social and psychological burdens placed on educators during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan and to propose an optimal form of support. We investigated educators' perceptions of psychological and socioeconomic anxieties and burdens, sense of coherence, and social capital using a questionnaire survey of 1000 educators in January 2021. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to analyze the associations between the variables. Results: Approximately 80% of the respondents considered COVID-19 a formidable, life-threatening illness. Our results revealed that the higher the social capital, the greater the fear of COVID-19, and the higher the sense of coherence, the lower this fear. Conclusions: The anxiety burden of implementing infection prevention was higher than the anxiety burden associated with distance learning. The predictive factors for educators' perceptions of burden included sense of coherence, gender, and age. Our findings suggest the importance of having the government and educational institutions provide multidimensional assistance that matches educators' individual characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sense of Coherence , Social Capital , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12(1): 7-12, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children vaccination is a key intervention for their survival, especially among refugees. Yet, children vaccination registration is done manually in refugees camps and there is no possibility to send reminders to parents to come back on time. We aimed to boost the parental registration of children's vaccination records on a Children Immunization app (CIMA) while also availing the parents with useful parenting skills under COVID-19-related stress. METHODS: We incorporated United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Parenting Skills under COVID-19 information material, through CIMA in Arabic and English languages. We recruited 1100 children in February-March 2021, through a community health promotion dissemination approach. A team of two nurses from the local population and two volunteers (one trained nurse and one trained social worker), from the camp, was formed. They promoted the CIMA app at two clinics and through households visits in Zaatari refugee camp. Qualitative data on impressions and observations of the interactions with the Zaatari camp community were also collected. RESULTS: A total of 1100 children, up to 15 months of age, eligible for vaccination were enrolled in CIMA, whereby the staff explained the content of the app in terms of vaccination schedule, health promotion materials for vaccination and parenting skills to their caregivers. During the household visits, the volunteers identified a total of 70 children that have incomplete history of vaccination records (n = 42/70 girls, 60%). Also, opportunities and challenges for scaling the app were documented. CONCLUSION: The scaling of CIMA as an innovative means of dissemination of risk and health information in challenging context such as refugee camps was feasible. In the context of vaccination needs for children, in refugee settings, such a need is more eminent, particularly in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Refugees , Social Capital , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Vaccination
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260818, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social capital has been associated with health outcomes in communities and can explain variations in different geographic localities. Social capital has also been associated with behaviors that promote better health and reduce the impacts of diseases. During the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing, face masking, and vaccination have all been essential in controlling contagion. These behaviors have not been uniformly adopted by communities in the United States. Using different facets of social capital to explain the differences in public behaviors among communities during pandemics is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationship among public health behavior-vaccination, face masking, and physical distancing-during COVID-19 pandemic and social capital indices in counties in the United States. METHODS: We used publicly available vaccination data as of June 2021, face masking data in July 2020, and mobility data from mobile phones movements from the end of March 2020. Then, correlation analysis was conducted with county-level social capital index and its subindices (family unity, community health, institutional health, and collective efficacy) that were obtained from the Social Capital Project by the United States Senate. RESULTS: We found the social capital index and its subindices differentially correlate with different public health behaviors. Vaccination is associated with institutional health: positively with fully vaccinated population and negatively with vaccination hesitancy. Also, wearing masks negatively associates with community health, whereases reduced mobility associates with better community health. Further, residential mobility positively associates with family unity. By comparing correlation coefficients, we find that social capital and its subindices have largest effect sizes on vaccination and residential mobility. CONCLUSION: Our results show that different facets of social capital are significantly associated with adoption of protective behaviors, e.g., social distancing, face masking, and vaccination. As such, our results suggest that differential facets of social capital imply a Swiss cheese model of pandemic control planning where, e.g., institutional health and community health, provide partially overlapping behavioral benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Physical Distancing , Social Capital , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(6): 1451-1458, 2021 Nov.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1558965

ABSTRACT

The article considers essential theoretical methodological approaches of studying problematics of social capital presented in corresponding modern publications. The key results of conducted empirical studies were analyzed too. It is noted that in conditions of spread of COVID-19 pandemic, occurs increasing of risk of "social distancing" that affects intensification of psychological anxiety feeling and decreasing of level of interpersonal and institutional trust. The presented results testify that topic of social capital becomes one of the most important in the study of processes of pandemic course. The conducted studies permitted to identify relationships between various components of social capital and scale of pandemic spread, forms of population's counteraction to pandemic. The review of scientific publications on problematics of social capital and functioning of organizations in conditions of intensification of risks of pandemic spread and developing crisis processes in economics also permits to establish particular trends in respect of developing corresponding strategies of adaption to new reality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Capital , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551601

ABSTRACT

The rapidly evolving coronavirus pandemic has drastically altered the economic and social lives of people throughout the world. Our overall goal is to understand the mechanisms through which social capital shaped the community response to the pandemic on the island of Menorca, Spain, which was under a strict lockdown in 2020. Between April and June 2020, we performed qualitative interviews (n = 25) of permanent residents of the island. From the findings, it is evident that social capital is an important resource with the capacity to organize help and support. However, the dark sides of social capital, with lack of social cohesion and lack of trust, also emerged as an important negative issue. We identified sources of tension that were not resolved, as well as important sociodemographic differences that are primary drivers for health inequalities. The investment in social networks and social capital is a long-term need that should consider sociodemographic vulnerability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Capital , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Spain/epidemiology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512353

ABSTRACT

In the post-pandemic era, the need for resilient and flexible COVID-19 prevention strategies in rural areas has become increasingly prominent. Based on a sample of 2229 rural residents nationwide, the Structural Equation Model was adopted to analyze the influence of social capital and technological empowerment on pandemic resilience in rural areas. The proportion of diversity, adequacy, and effectiveness of pandemic prevention measures taken by communities was about 57%. Social capital (0.667) and technological empowerment (0.325) had a significant positive impact on rural resilience and pandemic prevention. Social capital plays a mediating role between technological empowerment and pandemic resilience in rural areas. The risk of disease in society stimulates the inherent social capital factors in villages, with the individual social network generating strong social support. Technological empowerment can not only provide new methods for the connection of social capital, but also bring new means for rural authorities to improve their governance capabilities. Social trust in social capital plays an important role in rural resilience and pandemic prevention. The indirect effect of technological empowerment through social capital on pandemic resilience is greater than its direct effect. Social capital construction is the key to rural resilience and pandemic prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Capital , China , Humans , Mental Health , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480769

ABSTRACT

Social distancing restrictions for COVID-19 epidemic prevention have substantially changed the field of youths' social activities. Many studies have focused on the impact of epidemic-preventative social distancing on individual physical and mental health. However, in the field of social distancing for epidemic prevention, what are the changes in youth anti-epidemic action and states caused by their interpersonal resources and interactions? Responding to this question by studying the impact of the elements of social capital in youths' anti-epidemic actions and anti-epidemic states could help identify an effective mechanism for balancing social distancing for effective epidemic prevention and sustainable social-participation development among youth. Bourdieu's field theory holds that the elements of social capital change with a change in the field. Therefore, we introduced the specific elements of social capital as independent variables and used a multinomal logistic model to analyze and predict the levels of youth anti-epidemic action through an empirical investigation of 1043 young people in Guangdong Province, China. The results show that, first, level of social distancing for epidemic prevention shows differences by occupation status and income level and correlates with social support. Second, social support and social norms play positive roles in promoting youth participation in anti-epidemic activities when social distance is certain. Third, social capital has a significant positive effect on youth social satisfaction and core relationships; however, social trust has a significant negative effect on youth physical and mental health. This study emphasized that social distancing for epidemic prevention is a special social situational state, which is a field where social capital has an impact on the differential changes in the public-participating actions and habitus of youth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Social Capital , Adolescent , China/epidemiology , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477946

ABSTRACT

Social contextual factors could determine mortality by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with social capital as a potential determinant. This study aimed to examine the association between prefecture-level social capital and COVID-19 deaths in Japan. Data on the cumulative number of COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 individuals between 1 October 2020 and 30 June 2021 in 47 prefectures were obtained from the government open-access database. Prefecture-level social capital was collected from a large-scale web-based nationwide survey conducted between August and September 2020. We included trust in neighbors, norm of reciprocity in the neighborhood, and trust in the national government as cognitive social capital, and neighborhood ties and social participation as structural social capital. The cumulative COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 individuals (1 October 2020 to 30 June 2021) ranged from 0.15 to 27.98 in 47 prefectures. A multiple regression analysis after adjusting for covariates showed that a greater norm of reciprocity and government trust were associated with fewer COVID-19 deaths during the first and second 3-month periods of observation. In the third 3-month period, the association between COVID-19 deaths and government trust became nonsignificant. Trust in neighbors, neighborhood ties, and social participation were not related to COVID-19 deaths during any time period. The disparity of COVID-19 deaths by prefecture in Japan can be explained by cognitive social capital. This study suggests that the association between social capital and COVID-19 deaths may vary according to the dimension of social capital and time period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Capital , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Trust
11.
J Community Psychol ; 50(3): 1521-1530, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460211

ABSTRACT

This investigation examines the interplay between individual-level social capital, psychological distress, and the effects of a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on a college campus. Data were collected from students at two colleges in early 2021. Hypotheses were formed based on prior research on social capital and the COVID pandemic. A structural equation model was constructed to allow the modeling of both latent and observed variables. The Kessler-6 measures were used to create a latent psychological distress variable, which was the dependent variable. Predictor variables include whether the student experienced the outbreak, the student's race and gender, and the level of reported individual social capital (having supportive and rewarding relationships). Our findings suggest that the most robust predictor of reduced psychological distress was individual social capital, which also served as an intermediary between the outbreak and distress. Social capital mediates psychological distress in an outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Social Capital , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Mediation Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/psychology
12.
J Health Econ ; 80: 102531, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450160

ABSTRACT

We investigate the effect of social capital on health outcomes during the Covid-19 pandemic in independent analyses for Austria, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland. Exploiting detailed geographical variation within countries, we show that a one-standard-deviation increase in social capital leads to between 14% and 34% fewer Covid-19 cases per capita accumulated from mid-March until end of June 2020, as well as between 6% and 35% fewer excess deaths per capita. Our results highlight the positive health returns of strengthening social capital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Capital , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430855

ABSTRACT

Practices oriented to digital technologies are being invented to change how people cope with crises. This study examines how Chinese netizens' networked practices (e.g., liking, sharing, or commenting) with COVID-19 related duanzi (short online satires) influenced their psychological well-being, external social support, and issue knowledge during the pandemic. The role of social capital in moderating these relations is explored. Findings from the survey demonstrate that the act of "liking" a COVID-19 duanzi on WeChat has become a routine practice for Chinese netizens to kill time during the quarantine. However, the more bonding social capital one already had, the less they depended on duanzi "liking" to kill their boredom. Those less supported outside the family household, or less knowledgeable about the virus were also more likely to share a COVID-19 duanzi. Bonding social capital promotes one's well-being, therefore, the positive psychological effect of duanzi sharing or commenting grows more pronounced for netizens with more bonding social capital. Bridging social capital brought external social support. Netizens with more bridging social capital obtained more external support and more COVID-19 knowledge from duanzi sharing. The theoretical and practical implications are elaborated in the conclusions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Capital , China , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 697068, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394840

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Social capital, the effective functioning of social groups through networks of relationships, can affect mental health and may be affected by COVID-19. We aimed to examine the changes in social capital before and after the COVID-19 lockdown among the Chinese youth. Methods: A national convenience sample of 10,540 high school, undergraduate, and graduate students, from the COVID-19 Impact on Lifestyle Change Survey (COINLICS), reported their demographic and social capital information before and after the COVID-19 lockdown. Social capital was retrospectively measured at four levels: individual (ISC), family (FSC), community (CSC), and society (SSC). The changes of social capital were also compared across three educational levels. Results: Overall, ISC and CSC scores generally decreased after lockdown (15.1 to 14.8 and 13.4 to 13.1, respectively), while FSC and SSC scores increased significantly (12.7 to 13.0 and 7.1 to 7.2, respectively). At the individual level, most participants showed a constant perceived social capital; more of the remaining participants showed decreased than increased ISC (30.5% vs. 17.0%) and CSC scores (28.4% vs. 19.1%), while more participants showed increased than decreased FSC (21.7% vs. 9.2%) and SSC scores (10.3% vs. 3.9%). Heterogeneities in social capital changes existed across educational levels. Conclusions: Our findings would provide health professionals and policy-makers solid evidence on the changes in social capital of youths after lockdowns, and therefore help the design of future interventions to rebuild or improve their social capital after epidemics/disasters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Capital , Adolescent , China , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Life Style , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Community Psychol ; 50(2): 1048-1059, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384189

ABSTRACT

This study proposes that, given the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, its sanitary restrictions, and the associated economic effects, citizens perceive higher uncertainty and tend to reduce their willingness to cooperate with others. Community social capital refers to a set of norms of reciprocity, trust, and civic engagement networks that promote trust, reciprocal help, and cooperation for mutual benefits. It is also suggested that it can help alleviate negative effects of the pandemic in communities, by reducing uncertainty and its harmful effects on cooperation. These hypotheses were tested in a sample of 565 inhabitants of Mexico, who answered an online survey with measurements of social capital, uncertainty, and willingness to cooperate in the face of the pandemic. The relationships between variables were analyzed in two structural equation models, which show adequate goodness of fit, where higher levels of uncertainty generated by the pandemic were associated with a greater disposition to noncooperation with others, while social capital moderated this relation decreasing negative effects of uncertainty on noncooperation. The value of social capital is discussed as a resource worth preserving and promoting in communities to strengthen them, so that they are better able to face health or economic contingencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Capital , Humans , Mexico , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Uncertainty
17.
Soc Sci Med ; 287: 114361, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386625

ABSTRACT

This paper explores the role of social capital in mitigating the mental health harms of social/mobility restrictions instigated in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. We test whether: (a) social capital continued to predict lower mental distress during the pandemic; and (b) whether social capital buffered (moderated) the harm of social/mobility restrictions on psychological distress. In addition, we test the level at which social capital mitigation effects operated, i.e., at the individual- and/or contextual-level. To do so, we apply multilevel models to three waves of the COVID-19 Household Impact Survey consisting of probability samples of U.S. adults (with the average interview completion rate of 93%). In a novel approach, we explore two modes of capturing contextual social capital: aggregated individual-level survey responses and independently measured social capital indices (SCIs). Findings show that at the individual level social capital was associated with lower psychological distress. It also buffered the harm of restrictions: increasing restrictions had a weaker effect on distress among individuals interacting with neighbors more frequently. Importantly, mitigating processes of contextual social capital appeared conditional on how it was measured. Using aggregated survey responses, contextual social capital had no direct effect on distress but exerted an additional buffering role: individuals in counties with higher average neighbor-interaction experienced a weaker impact of restrictions. Using the independent SCI measures, we found county social capital reduced distress. However, its negative effect on distress becomes increasingly weaker the more restrictions an individual reported: where individuals reported lower restrictions, higher county SCI reduced distress; however, where individuals reported higher restrictions, higher county SCI had no effect on distress. More restrictive environments thus cut individuals off from the benefits of higher county social capital as measured using the SCI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Social Capital , Adult , Humans , Multilevel Analysis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
20.
CMAJ ; 193(31): E1203-E1212, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated disparities in poverty and illness for people in vulnerable circumstances in ethnocultural communities. We sought to understand the evolving impacts of COVID-19 on ethnocultural communities to inform intersectoral advocacy and community action. METHODS: The Illuminate Project used participatory action research, with cultural health brokers as peer researchers, from Sept. 21 to Dec. 31, 2020, in Edmonton, Alberta. Twenty-one peer researchers collected narratives from members of ethnocultural communities and self-interpreted them as they entered the narratives into the SenseMaker platform, a mixed-method data collection tool. The entire research team analyzed real-time, aggregate, quantitative and qualitative data to identify emerging thematic domains, then visualized these domains with social network analysis. RESULTS: Brokers serving diverse communities collected 773 narratives. Identified domains illuminate the evolving and entangled impacts of COVID-19 including the following: COVID-19 prevention and management; care of acute, chronic and serious illnesses other than COVID-19; maternal care; mental health and triggers of past trauma; financial insecurity; impact on children and youth and seniors; and legal concerns. We identified that community social capital and cultural brokering are key assets that facilitate access to formal health and social system supports. INTERPRETATION: The Illuminate Project has illustrated the entangled, systemic issues that result in poor health among vulnerable members of ethnocultural communities, and the exacerbating effects of COVID-19, which also increased barriers to mitigation. Cultural brokering and community social capital are key supports for people during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings can inform policy to reduce harm and support community resiliency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Pandemics , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology , Alberta/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Consumer Health Information , Female , Financial Stress , Health Services Research , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Male , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Capital , Social Network Analysis , Social Support
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