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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(11): 5629-5638, 2021 Nov.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242695

ABSTRACT

This paper makes a critical assessment of epidemiology with the COVID-19 pandemic as a social event. It examines the philosophical reflection in which Agamben defines as contemporary those able to stand back to see the dark side of their own era. In the light of decolonial criticism, the concept of "epidemiological transition," with its theory of transcendence of "social determinants of health" and binarism of epidemiological variables as supports of the biomedical and quantitative structuring of the epidemiology of risk factors is queried. The scientific ambition to dominate nature and the engendering of a linear and evolutionary historical time, beginning in western modernity, contextualizes the epistemicides of popular wisdom and the coloniality of epidemiological knowledge. The theoretical constitution of decolonial thought is historically analyzed, highlighting its greater critical potential to reveal the structural colonization of epidemiological knowledge. The post-pandemic future is considered and Prigogine's idea of bifurcation - as elaborated by Sousa Santos - and Paulo Freire's untested feasibility are related with the concept of time as the creation and expectation of social transformation.


O ensaio epistemológico relaciona criticamente a epidemiologia com a pandemia de COVID-19 enquanto evento social. Explora-se a reflexão filosófica em que Agamben define contemporâneo como quem é capaz de se afastar e enxergar o lado escuro do seu tempo. À luz da crítica decolonial, questionam-se a ideia de "transição epidemiológica", com sua transcendência na teoria dos "determinantes sociais de saúde", e a disposição binarista das varáveis epidemiológicas, como suportes da estruturação quantitativa e biomédica da epidemiologia dos fatores de risco. A pretensão científica de domínio da natureza e o engendramento de um tempo histórico linear e evolutivo, que inicia com a modernidade ocidental, contextualizam os epistemicídios dos saberes populares e a colonização do saber epidemiológico. Historiciza-se a constituição do pensamento crítico decolonial e pontua-se seu potencial para a revelação do caráter estrutural da colonização do saber epidemiológico. Considera-se o futuro pós-pandemia e relacionam-se as ideias de bifurcação, originada de Ilya Prigogine e elaborada por Boaventura de Sousa Santos, e inédito viável, de Paulo Freire com a concepção do tempo como criação e a expectativa de transformação social.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Colonialism , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Conditions
2.
BMJ ; 381: 1242, 2023 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232671

Subject(s)
Social Conditions , Humans , Yemen
3.
Drug Discov Ther ; 17(2): 124-133, 2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315430

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the factors influencing subjective health views based on the living conditions and concerns of university students during the coronavirus infection 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. From March to April 2021, a questionnaire survey was administered to 8,547 Japanese university students, and logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors related to subjective health views. The results showed that satisfaction with quality of sleep (OR = 2.651, 95% Cl 2.370-2.966,p < 0.001), satisfaction with university life (OR = 2.486, 95%Cl 2.215-2.789, p < 0.001), satisfaction with diet (OR = 1.849, 95% CI: 1.496-2.285, p < 0.001), regular exercise (OR = 1.759, 95% CI: 1.594-1.941, p < 0.001), consciousness of nutritional balance (OR = 1.276, 95% CI: 1.147-1.420,p < 0.001), eating breakfast every day (OR = 1.247, 95% CI: 1.121-1.387, p < 0.001), and consuming soft drinks at least once a week (OR = 0.865, 95% CI: 0.755-0.966, p = 0.010) were positive factors for subjective views of health. On the other hand, anxiety about whether the necessary credits can be obtained (OR = 0.885, 95% CI: 0.799-0.980, p = 0.019), infection from minimal outings (OR = 0.881, 95% CI: 0.794-0.976, p = 0.016) building and maintaining friendships on campus (OR = 0.867, 95% CI: 0.767-0.980, p = 0.023), and being able to continue working (OR = 0.713, 95% CI: 0.640-0.795, p < 0.001) were identified as negative factors. To ensure a healthy university life during the COVID-19 pandemic or future pandemic, supports tailored to students' living conditions and measures to address their anxieties are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Pandemics , Social Conditions , Universities , Students
4.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1136744, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313730

ABSTRACT

Background: Adolescents, especially the socioeconomically disadvantaged, are facing devastating psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic during their critical developmental period. This study aims to (i) examine the socioeconomic patterning of the worsening of psychosocial wellbeing, (ii) delineate the underlying mediating factors (i.e., overall worry about COVID-19, family's financial difficulty, learning problems, and loneliness), and (iii) explore the moderating effect of resilience in the inter-relationship among adolescents under COVID-19. Methods: Based on maximum variation sampling of 12 secondary schools of diverse socioeconomic background in Hong Kong, 1018 students aged 14-16 years were recruited and completed the online survey between September and October 2021. Multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM) by resilience levels was employed to delineate the pathways between socioeconomic position and the worsening of psychosocial wellbeing. Results: SEM analysis showed a significant total effect of socioeconomic ladder with the worsening of psychosocial wellbeing during the pandemic in the overall sample (ß = -0.149 [95% CI = -0.217 - -0.081], p < 0.001), which operated indirectly through learning problems and loneliness (both p < 0.001 for their indirect effects). Consistent pattern with stronger effect size was observed in the lower resilience group; nonetheless, the associations were substantially mitigated in the higher resilience group. Conclusion: In addition to facilitating self-directed learning and easing loneliness during the pandemic, evidence-based strategies to build up resilience among adolescents are critical to buffer against the adverse socioeconomic and psychosocial impacts of the pandemic or other potential catastrophic events in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Pandemics , Social Conditions , Latent Class Analysis
6.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(4): 631-646, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2299107

ABSTRACT

Tras el advenimiento de un nuevo patógeno denominado Sars-CoV-2, los esfuerzos iniciales centraron su atención en la contención del virus a fin de disminuir su transmisibilidad, contrarrestando los efectos patológicos, disminuyendo el impacto psicosocial. Al ser un peligro emergente de alcance global, que afectó todos los estratos y entornos de la sociedad, pueden existir determinantes polidimensionales emergentes, en lo social y laboral, que aún pueden ser desconocidas, las cuales pueden repercutir en la esperanza de vida de una población. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática y posterior caracterización de las polidimensiones sociales y laborales que emergieron de forma directa o indirecta a consecuencia del Sars-CoV-2, y a la declaración de pandemia Covid-19, la cual impuso el aislamiento generalizado de la población mundial, como primera barrera de contención para evitar el contagio masivo, e indujo profundas transformaciones en todos los ámbitos y determinantes de la salud del ser humano. La dimensión social, conformada por los factores modo de vida, circunstancias materiales y relaciones humanas, presentó múltiples desafíos y cambios para adaptarse a las nuevas circunstancias de la vida en pandemia. De igual manera, la dimensión laboral, ampliamente afectada por la desestabilización de los mercados y la crisis económica circundante, tuvo que modificar sensiblemente cada uno de sus factores constituyente para sobrellevar el efecto del confinamiento generalizado, afectando la productividad de las organizaciones, los riesgos de transmisibilidad del virus, las alteraciones en los social, familiar, personal y de salud y las múltiples interacciones con sus factores determinantes(AU)


After the advent of a new pathogen called Sars-CoV-2, the initial efforts focused on containing the virus in order to reduce its transmissibility, counteracting the pathological effects, and reducing the psychosocial impact. Being an emerging danger of global scope, which affected all strata and environments of society, there may be emerging multidimensional determinants, in the social and labor spheres, which may still be unknown, and may affect the life expectancy of a population.A systematic search and subsequent characterization of the social and labor polydimensions that emerged directly or indirectly as a result of Sars-CoV-2, and the declaration of the Covid-19 pandemic, which imposed the generalized isolation of the world population, was carried out as the first containment barrier to prevent massive contagion, and induced profound transformations in all areas and determinants of human health. The social dimension, made up of lifestyle factors, material circumstances, and human relationships, presented multiple challenges and changes to adapt to the new circumstances of life in a pandemic. Similarly, the labor dimension, widely affected by the destabilization of the markets and the surrounding economic crisis, had to significantly modify each of its constituent factors to withstand the effect of generalized confinement, affecting the productivity of organizations, the risks of transmissibility of the virus, alterations in social, family, personal and health conditions and the multiple interactions with its determining factors(AU)


Subject(s)
Psychosocial Impact , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Conditions , Health , Risk , Environment
7.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e067124, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293527

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In low-income settings with limited access to diagnosis, COVID-19 information is scarce. In September 2020, after the first COVID-19 wave, Mali reported 3086 confirmed cases and 130 deaths. Most reports originated from Bamako, with 1532 cases and 81 deaths (2.42 million inhabitants). This observed prevalence of 0.06% appeared very low. Our objective was to estimate SARS-CoV-2 infection among inhabitants of Bamako, after the first epidemic wave. We assessed demographic, social and living conditions, health behaviours and knowledges associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. SETTINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional multistage household survey during September 2020, in three neighbourhoods of the commune VI (Bamako), where 30% of the cases were reported. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 1526 inhabitants in 3 areas, that is, 306 households, and 1327 serological results (≥1 years), 220 household questionnaires and collected answers for 962 participants (≥12 years). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured serological status, detecting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies in blood sampled. We documented housing conditions and individual health behaviours through questionnaires among participants. We estimated the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections and deaths in the population of Bamako using the age and sex distributions. RESULTS: The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was 16.4% (95% CI 15.1% to 19.1%) after adjusting on the population structure. This suggested that ~400 000 cases and ~2000 deaths could have occurred of which only 0.4% of cases and 5% of deaths were officially reported. Questionnaires analyses suggested strong agreement with washing hands but lower acceptability of movement restrictions (lockdown/curfew), and mask wearing. CONCLUSIONS: The first wave of SARS-CoV-2 spread broadly in Bamako. Expected fatalities remained limited largely due to the population age structure and the low prevalence of comorbidities. Improving diagnostic capacities to encourage testing and preventive behaviours, and avoiding the spread of false information remain key pillars, regardless of the developed or developing setting. ETHICS: This study was registered in the registry of the ethics committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Odonto-Stomatology and the Faculty of Pharmacy, Bamako, Mali, under the number: 2020/162/CA/FMOS/FAPH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mali/epidemiology , Social Conditions , Communicable Disease Control , Antibodies, Viral
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(41): e2213525119, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287541

ABSTRACT

Behavioral responses influence the trajectories of epidemics. During the COVID-19 pandemic, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) reduced pathogen transmission and mortality worldwide. However, despite the global pandemic threat, there was substantial cross-country variation in the adoption of protective behaviors that is not explained by disease prevalence alone. In particular, many countries show a pattern of slow initial mask adoption followed by sharp transitions to high acceptance rates. These patterns are characteristic of behaviors that depend on social norms or peer influence. We develop a game-theoretic model of mask wearing where the utility of wearing a mask depends on the perceived risk of infection, social norms, and mandates from formal institutions. In this model, increasing pathogen transmission or policy stringency can trigger social tipping points in collective mask wearing. We show that complex social dynamics can emerge from simple individual interactions and that sociocultural variables and local policies are important for recovering cross-country variation in the speed and breadth of mask adoption. These results have implications for public health policy and data collection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Policy , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Conditions
10.
Am J Public Health ; 113(2): 132, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285016
11.
Lancet ; 401(10375): 421, 2023 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2247269

Subject(s)
Social Conditions , Humans , China
12.
J Cancer Policy ; 36: 100412, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244507

ABSTRACT

AIM: Healthcare workers (HCWs) have reported negative social experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, this data is largely from medical personnel. We examined living conditions, social determinants, and experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic among all cadres of employees who had recovered from COVID-19 at a tertiary referral cancer hospital in India. METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods study combining a questionnaire-based survey followed by semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions, among hospital staff who recovered from COVID-19 between April and November 2020. We initially administered a 79-point survey to all participants; based on their responses, we used purposive sampling to identify 60 interview participants. The primary aim of the study was to examine the impact of socio-economic factors on experiences and potential stigma faced by staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: We surveyed 376 participants including doctors (10 %), nurses (20 %), support staff (29 %), administrators (18 %) and scientists/technicians (22 %). Of these, 126 (34 %) participants reported negative social experiences. Stigmatisation was lower among doctors compared to other professions, decreased in the second half of the study period, and was more among those living in less affluent surroundings. Interviews revealed 3 types of negative social experiences: neighbourhood tensions around restrictions of mobility, social distancing, and harassment. CONCLUSIONS: The first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in India led to considerable negative social experiences among hospital employees, especially those lower in the socio-economic hierarchy, which was fuelled by restrictions imposed by the government and pressure on local neighbourhoods. POLICY SUMMARY: It is important to not just document and count stigma experiences during global pandemics, but also to examine sociologically the conditions under which and the processes through which stigma happens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Conditions , Social Determinants of Health , Referral and Consultation , Neoplasms/epidemiology
13.
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e066810, 2023 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193798

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study set out to investigate the risk of household food insecurity in Nigeria during the novel COVID-19 pandemic using a harmonised dataset of Nigeria's prepandemic face-to-face survey and two waves of the COVID-19 National Longitudinal Phone Survey (NLPS). SETTING: Nigeria. PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 1674 households is used in the analysis. DESIGN: A longitudinal study. RESULTS: Our longitudinal study reveals a significant increase in the prevalence of food insecurity in Nigeria during the COVID-19 crisis. For a sample of 1674 households used in the analysis, nearly 32% were moderately food insecure in the baseline survey (ie, the prepandemic period), compared with 74% and 72% that faced the same degree of food insecurity in the two waves of the COVID-19 phone survey. In like manner, not up to 4% of the households faced severe food insecurity in the prepandemic period, compared with 43% and 22% that experienced the same level of food insecurity during the period of the pandemic. Based on the available information in the dataset, we construct a composite non-monetary measure (or index) of household well-being and employ the binary logistic model to investigate the objects under study. The empirical results show that the well-being index has a strong negative association with household food insecurity. Further investigation reveals that the risk of being food insecure increases for households in relatively poor living conditions compared with those in the middle category and conversely declines for households in much better living conditions. CONCLUSION: This study informs an understanding of the prevalence and risk of household food insecurity in Nigeria during the novel COVID-19 pandemic and provides insights that can guide policy actions in responding to the current wave of food crises in Nigeria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Longitudinal Studies , Family Characteristics , Social Conditions , Nigeria/epidemiology , Food Supply , Food Insecurity
14.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 81(1): 2076383, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151734

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to describe the study design, data collection procedure and participation of the population-based study "Sámi Health on Equal Terms" (SámiHET) conducted among the Sámi in Sweden in 2021. A Sámi sample was constructed, drawing from three pre-existing-registers: the Sámi electoral roll, the reindeer mark register and the "Labour statistics based on administrative sources" register to identify reindeer herding businesses. All identified persons aged 18-84 were invited to participate during February-May 2021. Among the 9,249 invitations, 3,779 answered the survey (participation rate of 40.9%). More women than men participated, and the age group 45-64 was the most common in both sexes. Around 10% of participants were in the youngest group. A majority of participants were residents of Norrbotten (48%), while almost one fourth were living outside Sápmi (22%). SámiHET has been demonstrated to be a feasible and cost-effective way of investigating health and living conditions among the Sámi in Sweden, providing information easy to compare with Swedish data. The knowledge to be produced may be used to inform policy to guide and improve Sámi health, thus contributing to realising the equal health rights of the Indigenous Sámi in Sweden.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility , Social Conditions , Female , Human Rights , Humans , Male , Norway , Research Design , Sweden/epidemiology
15.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(4): 631-646, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2146870

ABSTRACT

Tras el advenimiento de un nuevo patógeno denominado Sars-CoV-2, los esfuerzos iniciales centraron su atención en la contención del virus a fin de disminuir su transmisibilidad, contrarrestando los efectos patológicos, disminuyendo el impacto psicosocial. Al ser un peligro emergente de alcance global, que afectó todos los estratos y entornos de la sociedad, pueden existir determinantes polidimensionales emergentes, en lo social y laboral, que aún pueden ser desconocidas, las cuales pueden repercutir en la esperanza de vida de una población. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática y posterior caracterización de las polidimensiones sociales y laborales que emergieron de forma directa o indirecta a consecuencia del Sars-CoV-2, y a la declaración de pandemia Covid-19, la cual impuso el aislamiento generalizado de la población mundial, como primera barrera de contención para evitar el contagio masivo, e indujo profundas transformaciones en todos los ámbitos y determinantes de la salud del ser humano. La dimensión social, conformada por los factores modo de vida, circunstancias materiales y relaciones humanas, presentó múltiples desafíos y cambios para adaptarse a las nuevas circunstancias de la vida en pandemia. De igual manera, la dimensión laboral, ampliamente afectada por la desestabilización de los mercados y la crisis económica circundante, tuvo que modificar sensiblemente cada uno de sus factores constituyente para sobrellevar el efecto del confinamiento generalizado, afectando la productividad de las organizaciones, los riesgos de transmisibilidad del virus, las alteraciones en los social, familiar, personal y de salud y las múltiples interacciones con sus factores determinantes(AU)


After the advent of a new pathogen called Sars-CoV-2, the initial efforts focused on containing the virus in order to reduce its transmissibility, counteracting the pathological effects, and reducing the psychosocial impact. Being an emerging danger of global scope, which affected all strata and environments of society, there may be emerging multidimensional determinants, in the social and labor spheres, which may still be unknown, and may affect the life expectancy of a population.A systematic search and subsequent characterization of the social and labor polydimensions that emerged directly or indirectly as a result of Sars-CoV-2, and the declaration of the Covid-19 pandemic, which imposed the generalized isolation of the world population, was carried out as the first containment barrier to prevent massive contagion, and induced profound transformations in all areas and determinants of human health. The social dimension, made up of lifestyle factors, material circumstances, and human relationships, presented multiple challenges and changes to adapt to the new circumstances of life in a pandemic. Similarly, the labor dimension, widely affected by the destabilization of the markets and the surrounding economic crisis, had to significantly modify each of its constituent factors to withstand the effect of generalized confinement, affecting the productivity of organizations, the risks of transmissibility of the virus, alterations in social, family, personal and health conditions and the multiple interactions with its determining factors(AU)


Subject(s)
Psychosocial Impact , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Conditions , Health , Risk , Environment
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090134

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the French government implemented nation-wide measures to reduce social contact and slow the progression of the emerging coronavirus responsible for COVID-19, the most significant being a complete home lockdown that lasted 8 weeks. Reunion Island is a French overseas department marked by large social inequalities. We draw the hypothesis that distancing and lockdown measures may have contributed to an increase in the social inequalities in health (SIH) on Reunion Island. The aim of our study was to describe the SIH during lockdown in the Reunionese population. We implemented a cross-sectional telephone survey conducted between 13 May and 22 July 2020, using a retrospective data collection on the lockdown period. A total of 892 adult participants (≥18 years) were recruited in the 114 large Reunionese neighborhoods using the quota method within the national "White Pages" telephone directory. Degraded psychological states, an increase in addictive behaviors, difficulties in accessing food, a decrease in physical activity, delayed medical appointments, violence against women, and health problems in children were driven by the socio-economic characteristics of the population, most often to the disadvantage of social groups exposed to poor living conditions. These results suggest that the COVID-19 lockdown contributed to an increase in SIH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Reunion/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Social Conditions
17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 94, 2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A significant decline in malaria burden was documented in previously high burden African countries. Even though the global decline in malaria burden is significant, about 95% of it was typically found in 29 African countries and the decline was affected by COVID-19 in 2020. The considerable reduction in malaria incidence was noted due to effective prevention and treatment efforts, and rapid changes in living conditions. The relationship between the occurrence of asymptomatic malaria infection and household living conditions is well unstudied. This study aimed to determine the association between household living conditions and the occurrence of asymptomatic malaria in the lowlands of Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2021 in twelve villages of Gambella, Southern Nation Nationalities and People Region and Afar in Ethiopia. A total of 1366 households were randomly selected, interviewed, and tested for malaria by rapid diagnostic test and blood film microscopic examination. Multiple logistic regression model was used to determine the independent association between living conditions and asymptomatic malaria infection. RESULTS: The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection among individuals living in dwellings built with traditional floor/wall/roof ranges from 8.1% to 8.4% while it ranges from 2.0% to 4.6% among those living in modern floor/wall/roof houses. Dwellings built with traditional wall materials (P = 0.050), spending nights with cattle in the same house (P < 0.001), and availability of kitchen in the main house with no partition (P = 0.004) were significantly associated with asymptomatic malaria infection. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic malaria infection was 4.3 times higher among occupants residing in dwellings built with traditional wall materials; 5.6 times higher among households spending nights with cattle in the same house, and 2.3 times higher among households with kitchen in the main house with no partition. Therefore, policies and strategies on malaria elimination need to address or target improvements of the above listed living conditions for the community. A multi sectoral action is required to use these social determinants as a vector control strategic addition; and malaria elimination programs are expected to coordinate the implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , Animals , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Cattle , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Prevalence , Social Conditions
18.
Am J Public Health ; 112(10): 1465-1470, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974455

ABSTRACT

Intermittently, the concept of herd immunity has been a potent, if sometimes ambiguous and controversial, means of framing the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic and envisaging its end. Realizing the full meaning of human herd immunity requires further attention to its connections after World War I with British social theory. Distracted by "obvious" yet unsubstantiated correspondences with veterinary research, historians of the concept have not engaged with the more proximate influence of discussions of social psychology and group dynamics on postwar epidemiology. Understanding the openness of early 20th century epidemiology to social thought deepens our appreciation of the significance of herd or population immunity, as well as suggests new avenues for exchange between public health and contemporary social sciences. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(10):1465-1470. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306931).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Pandemics/prevention & control , Psychology, Social , Social Conditions , Social Sciences
19.
Am J Public Health ; 112(10): 1436-1445, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974454

ABSTRACT

In response to rapidly changing societal conditions stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, we summarize data sources with potential to produce timely and spatially granular measures of physical, economic, and social conditions relevant to public health surveillance, and we briefly describe emerging analytic methods to improve small-area estimation. To inform this article, we reviewed published systematic review articles set in the United States from 2015 to 2020 and conducted unstructured interviews with senior content experts in public heath practice, academia, and industry. We identified a modest number of data sources with high potential for generating timely and spatially granular measures of physical, economic, and social determinants of health. We also summarized modeling and machine-learning techniques useful to support development of time-sensitive surveillance measures that may be critical for responding to future major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(10):1436-1445. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306917).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Forecasting , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , Public Health Surveillance , Social Conditions , Systematic Reviews as Topic , United States/epidemiology
20.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e183, 2021 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947139

ABSTRACT

The feasibility of non-pharmacological public health interventions (NPIs) such as physical distancing or isolation at home to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission in low-resource countries is unknown. Household survey data from 54 African countries were used to investigate the feasibility of SARS-CoV-2 NPIs in low-resource settings. Across the 54 countries, approximately 718 million people lived in households with ⩾6 individuals at home (median percentage of at-risk households 56% (95% confidence interval (CI), 51% to 60%)). Approximately 283 million people lived in households where ⩾3 people slept in a single room (median percentage of at-risk households 15% (95% CI, 13% to 19%)). An estimated 890 million Africans lack on-site water (71% (95% CI, 62% to 80%)), while 700 million people lacked in-home soap/washing facilities (56% (95% CI, 42% to 73%)). The median percentage of people without a refrigerator in the home was 79% (95% CI, 67% to 88%), while 45% (95% CI, 39% to 52%) shared toilet facilities with other households. Individuals in low-resource settings have substantial obstacles to implementing NPIs for mitigating SARS-CoV-2 transmission. These populations urgently need to be prioritised for coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination to prevent disease and to contain the global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Housing , Humans , Sanitation , Social Conditions
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